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A Sample Mobile App Development Business Plan Template. Are you about starting an app development company? If YES, here is a complete sample mobile app development business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Issues! Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting an essay of a good supervisor, app development business. We also took it further by analyzing and persuasive drafting a sample app development marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for app development companies. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Gcse! Why Start an App Development Business? Starting a mobile app development business is one of the social best things that could possibly happen to art higher essay you.

This is because of the very rich experience which you can garner in persuasive essay, the quest of starting your business. Much more than that is the level of wealth that you are able to destruction essays attain when you start such a business. There are several apps that can be developed that is able to make life much easier for essay social issues, people. It is therefore advised that you do all necessary findings before you start your business so that you are really informed about what you will be faced with. After that is done, then you will need to gcse english media essays have a business blue print that you will work with. Some of the information that will be contained in this plan includes the following; your marketing plan, your financial projections, how you plan to source for social, funds, your business structure amongst other things. Drawing up a business plan, might sometimes look too technical.

One of the reasons why this is might be because you will need to essay qualities good supervisor have a wealth of information about where you want your business to be. It is for this reason that there are plenty of business plan writers that are able to help you write your plan successfully. It is pertinent that you note that writing a business plan could be really pricey. Issues! This is because of the expertise that is needed to pour into the project. Qualities! If you are however not willing to part with some money as it concerns this, then you may want to source for a business plan template to use. It is for this reason that a sample template has been put together for you; A Sample Mobile App Development Business Plan Template. Persuasive Essay Social Issues! App Development Industry Overview. The advent of mobile apps has indeed contributed immensely to the revenue generation in the ICT world. Beyond every reasonable doubt, you cant find any person that owns a smart phone who has never used a mobile application nor has mobile apps in his or her phones. Art Higher Essay! As long as people make use of Smartphones, Tablets and Pads, the social issues sale of mobile apps will continue to grow and english the industry will continue to essay social issues expand.

Basically, mobile application development is a term that is used to define the act or process by which application software is designed and developed to perform specific functions in handheld devices, such as smart phones / mobile phones, personal digital assistants, or enterprise digital assistants et al. Art Higher! It is a fact that there abound loads of persuasive young people who are actively involved in the mobile apps development industry, simply because the cost of developing an app varies. The truth is that, just as the cost of mobile apps development varies greatly, so also the profits that you are likely going to art higher essay generate from the success of essay a mobile app can be mega. Latex Bibliography! In this industry, the social success of essay qualities your business depends on the genre of mobile apps that you are developing. If you have interest in social issues, the mobile apps development industry, you will realize that those who are into the development of good college games are those who are leading the chart in terms of essay issues revenue generation. Other factors that will aid the success of a mobile app is the position of the thesis bibliography at each apps in the chart the end of the first day of sales and how good the user reviews are if you have loads of 5 star reviews, you are likely going to generate loads of sales because people would automatically trust your app. Statistics has it that the mobile app development industry has been experiencing steady growth, both in terms of revenue generation and of course in job creation as well.

For instance a report that was released in 2013 estimated that there are about 529,000 direct App Economy jobs within the European Union 28 members, and 60% of essay social it are mobile app developers. Statistics also has it that the revenue generated at the Apple App Store to Google Play is put at a ratio of 8 to ways an essay introduction 1.No doubt, at a rate of essay issues 30 million a day, downloading apps is a popular hobby among consumers. Apple App Store does pay more for top developers who build their apps to be sold and not to be downloaded for free. Despite the fact that the Windows 8 Store is still small in terms of its revenue generation when compared to essay supervisor Apple App Store and Google Play Store, it allows apps to run simultaneously on a PC, tablet and Smartphone hence increasing the numbers of mediums more mediums, more downloads. The process of mobile apps development is simple and straightforward. Persuasive Social Issues! Mobile applications are first tested within the development environment first by making use of emulators and before subjecting it to field testing. Emulators basically provide an good supervisor, inexpensive way to test applications on mobile phones to which developers may not have physical access.

Lastly, if you are looking towards starting a mobile apps development company as an entrepreneur, then you should be aware that there are only three mobile app stores to sell your app. The mobile app stores are Google Play, Apple App Store and Windows Store. Mobile App Development Business Plan Executive Summary. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co. is an international mobile apps development and software programming company that is based in Los Angeles California, United States. We are a software development company that is set to compete in the highly competitive ICT industry.

Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co. will be involved in the development of mobile apps especially games applications and other financial, medical, geographical and entertainment related mobile applications. Our business goal is to become one of the leading mobile apps development company in essay social, the United States and we will make sure that every mobile apps that leaves our lab can favorable compete with the best in thesis chapter, their category. Our workers are going to be selected from a pool of talented mobile apps developers in and around Silicon Valley and persuasive essay social issues Los Angeles California and also from any part of the world as the business grows. We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce especially mobile apps developers / designers through the required trainings that will position them to meet the essays expectation of the company and to compete with leading mobile apps developers / designers in the United States and throughout the globe. We have put plans in place to build a state of the art mobile apps development studio in Los Angeles, California, which is persuasive social issues why we have entered agreement with some key players in Silicon Valley to refer some of the best hands to us from time; mobile apps developers that can easily fit into our overall business goals and essay objective. Persuasive Essay Social! Our studio will be well equipped and we will ensure that we follow the trend in the industry. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co. will design and english media develop mobile apps that will be comfortable with all the handheld devices such as smart phones / mobile phones, personal digital assistants, or enterprise digital assistants et al. We will ensure that all our mobile apps are can easily be downloaded from the three mobile app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store and Windows Store).

Aside from developing mobile software apps for the general public, we will also help our clients develop unique mobile apps for their businesses as request. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co, our clients best interest come first, and everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hire consultants who are well experienced in essay social issues, a wide variety of business consulting and trainings et al. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our clients needs precisely and destruction completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to essay earning a living, and living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients.

Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co is founded by Bob Lockley and his friend and business partner Ted Benny. They are both products of Silicon Valley and thesis at each MIIT. The organization will be managed by both of them. There are quality products and services that we plan to have. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co was established with the aim of persuasive issues producing highly entertaining and useful mobile apps that can be used on all handheld devices. Mobile apps that can be easily downloaded from the three mobile app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store and Windows Store). Great Ways To Start! We want to compete favorably with the social leading mobile apps developers, which is why we have but in of nature, place a competent quality assurance team that will ensure that all our mobile apps meet and even surpass our customers expectations. We will work hard to ensure that Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co is not just accepted nationally in the United States of persuasive essay America, but also in of nature, other parts of the world. Our products are listed below;

Games Mobile Apps Finance Related Mobile Apps Entertainment Mobile Apps Geographical Related Mobile Apps Customized Mobile Apps as Requested by persuasive essay our Clients. Our vision is to establish a mobile apps development company whose products and brand will not only be accepted in the United States of America, but also in of nature essays, other parts of the world. Social Issues! Our mission is to qualities provide professional and trusted mobile apps that assist businesses, individuals and non-profit organizations in operating sustainably. We want to build a mobile app development company that can favorably compete with other leading brands in persuasive essay issues, the ICT industry. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co, is an ICT company that intend starting small, but hope to grow big in order to compete favorably with leading mobile apps developers in the ICT industry both in good essay college, the United States and on a global stage. We are aware of the significance of building a solid business structure that can support the social issues picture of the kind of business we want to own.

This is why we are committed to only hire the best hands that we can attract. At Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and art higher customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for persuasive social issues, a period of great ways an essay introduction five years or more as agreed by the board of social issues trustees of the company. In view of the above, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the english following positions; Chief Executive Officer General Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Executive Accountant Mobile Apps Developers / Programmers / Software Designers Quality Control Specialist Client Service Executive. Roles and persuasive issues Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and essay opinions; providing educational opportunities. Persuasive! Responsible for providing direction for art higher, the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and essay issues implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the of a good company Evaluates the success of the organization. Develops strategic plan by studying technological and essay issues financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by establishing plans, budgets, and results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections.

Coordinates efforts by establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff. Art Higher Essay! Builds company image by collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and employees; enforcing ethical business practices. Responsible for fixing prices and issues signing business deals Responsible for latex at each, recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Maintains quality service by establishing and essay enforcing organization standards. Maintains professional and ways to start technical knowledge by attending educational workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in professional societies. Contributes to team effort by accomplishing related results as needed. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the factory Responsible for supervising all the employees Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Human Resources and issues Admin Manager. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Defining job positions for ways an essay, recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversees the smooth running of the daily office and factory activities. Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer purchases Identifies development opportunities; follows up on social issues development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and admissions essay college financing of projects; assures the social issues completion of gcse development projects.

Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with organizations policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customers needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Creates new markets cum businesses for the organization Empower and persuasive social motivates the bibliography sales team to meet and surpass agreed targets. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and persuasive essay accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and latex at each chapter business conditions. Social Issues! Responsible for financial forecasting and good essay risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and persuasive financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for Pick a Brain Finishing School Serves as internal auditor for ways to start introduction, Pick a Brain Finishing School. Programmers and persuasive Software Designers. Responsible for designing and developing mobile apps to meet the latest trend Stays abreast with the dynamics of the ICT industry with key interest in mobile apps and ways to start an essay introduction other related software applications Researches and advices the organization on style, genre and other trendy info as it relates to mobile apps. Ensures that all our mobile apps meet the required quality before they are released in persuasive social, the market (mobile apps stores) Make certain that production and development department perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and facilitate communications between management and latex thesis chapter mobile apps development departments. Devises ways of improving the persuasive issues mobile apps design and development process to ensure higher-quality and users friendly mobile apps are developed Ensure that the mobile apps design and development department run smoothly and essay generate a consistently suitable output for their employers Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices Handles any other responsibility as assigned by the general manager.

Client Service Executive. Persuasive Issues! Welcomes students and visitors by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Qualities Of A Good Supervisor! Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with students on the phone, uses every opportunity to build clients interest in the companys products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the school coordinator in social, an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the schools products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and bibliography at each chapter helpful information is supplied to persuasive issues students when they make enquiries. Mobile App Development Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co engaged the services of good admissions college a core professional in the area of business consulting and structuring to persuasive essay social issues assist our organization in building a well structured ICT business that can favorably compete in the highly competitive ICT industry in the United States and the world at large. Part of what the team of business consultant did was to destruction of nature work with the management of our organization in conducting a SWOT analysis for Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co. Here is persuasive social a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. At Each Chapter! We have a team of young techies that are creative and persuasive social highly proficient in mobile apps design and gcse english media development, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in ICT straight from Silicon Valley. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected mobile apps developers and issues programmers our products are going be unique and write good admissions college diverse. As a new mobile apps development company in Los Angeles California, it might take some time for our organization to break into the market and persuasive issues gain acceptance especially from top profile clients in the already saturated ICT industry; that is perhaps our major weakness. Essay Of A Good! No doubt, the opportunities in the ICT industry is massive considering the number of individuals and corporate organizations who would want to acquire new mobile apps in their handheld devices.

As a mobile apps design and development company, we are ready to social issues take advantage of write admissions college any opportunity that is available in the ICT industry. Essay Social! Every business faces a threat or challenge at any part of the life cycle of the business. These threats can be external or internal. Essay Qualities Good Supervisor! This shows the importance of persuasive essay social a business plan, because most threats or challenges are to be anticipated and essay college plans put in place to issues cushion what effect they might bring to the business. Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as a mobile apps development company that is based in the United States of America are unfavorable government policies that might affect business such as ours, the arrival of a competitor that is specialized in gcse english media essays, same mobile apps genre as our company and essay global economic downturn which usually affects spending / purchasing power. There is hardly anything we can do as regards these threats other than to be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good. Mobile App Development Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. One of the major trends in the mobile apps development industry is that any entrepreneur who is looking towards developing mobile apps must ensure that their mobile apps is compatible with different operating software and also that their mobile apps can be easily downloaded from the three mobile app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store and Windows Store).

One thing is destruction certain, if a mobile app development company can successfully get their apps in all three mobile apps store, they know that they are in the pathway to success. This is so because the ratings they get from users in one mobile apps store can positively influence other apps stores and that will lead to more downloads and of course more income for them. The success of essay social a mobile app development company is their ability to be creative and flexible. Mobile apps developers take note of factors like screen sizes, hardware specifications and latex thesis bibliography at each configurations when designing and developing mobile apps. Social! It is important to state that here are only three stores to sell your app and great ways to start an essay they are Google Play Store, Apple App Store or Windows Store. Persuasive Issues! So you must ensure you design you mobile apps to english suit the platforms of your choice. Persuasive Essay Issues! No doubt the mobile apps development line of business has the widest range of customers; everybody that owns any handheld devices, such as smart phones / mobile phones, personal digital assistants, or enterprise digital assistants et al are potential customers for your mobile apps.

In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to people that cut across different classes in the society; we will develop mobile apps that can be easily downloaded from the three mobile app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store and Windows Store) and essay supervisor used by persuasive all handheld device. We have conducted our market research and ways survey and we will ensure that all our mobile apps are well accepted in essay, the market place. Art Higher Essay! These are the different group of people that we will be developing mobile apps for; Male Female Young Adult Children(games) Corporate Executives Corporate Organizations (Mobile Banking Apps, Currency Converter et al) Sports Men and Women (live score apps) Students Churches (Customized mobile apps) Police (Crime monitoring apps) Our Competitive Advantage. No doubt the competition in the mobile app development business today is so brutal; you have to develop nothing less than the possible best and most useful or entertaining app in order to survive in the industry. The ICT industry is indeed a very prolific and highly competitive industry. Clients will only purchase your mobile apps if they know that it can meet their needs. We are quite aware that to issues be highly competitive in write good admissions essay college, the mobile apps development industry means that you should be able to deliver consistent useful or entertaining mobile apps. You should be able to get good ratings from persuasive essay users of your mobile apps and above all your mobile apps must be users friendly and easy to download. Art Higher Essay! Our competitive advantage lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of young techies that are creative and persuasive essay issues highly proficient in mobile apps design and development, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in ICT straight from gcse english media Silicon Valley. Aside from the synergy that exists in our carefully selected mobile apps developers and programmers our products are going be unique and diverse.

Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the persuasive essay issues best within our category (startups mobile apps developing businesses in the United States) in great to start an essay introduction, the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and persuasive essay social objectives. Mobile App Development Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition in the mobile apps development industry; hence we have been able to hire some of the chapter best marketing experts to social handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and essays marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the ICT industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall business goal of Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co.

Our goal is to persuasive essay issues grow Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co to become one of the top 10 mobile apps developers in to start an essay introduction, the United States of persuasive social issues America which is why we have mapped out qualities good, strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to essay reckon with not only in the United States of thesis at each chapter America but also in other parts of the world. Persuasive Social Issues! Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our mobile apps development company by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, households and key stake holders. Promptness in bidding for mobile apps development contracts from the government and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to write work with their budgets and still develop customized mobile apps / software for them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of social mouth marketing from loyal and art higher essay satisfied clients. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co is established with the persuasive essay issues aim of maximizing profits in art higher essay, the ICT industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to develop mobile apps that can be easily downloaded from the three mobile app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store and Windows Store) and used by all handheld device. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co will generate income selling the following mobile apps; Games Mobile Apps Finance Related Mobile Apps (Mobile Banking Apps, Currency Converter et al) Entertainment Mobile Apps Geographical Related Mobile Apps Customized Mobile Apps as Requested by our Clients. One thing is certain; there would always be corporate organization and individual who would need mobile apps either for entertainment or for persuasive, other purpose. We are well positioned to take on the available market in media essays, ICT industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of persuasive social issues operations and grow our mobile apps development company.

We have been able to critically examine the mobile apps development market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection is based on latex thesis at each chapter information gathered on social the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in essay qualities of a supervisor, Los Angeles California. Below is the sales projection for Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co, it is persuasive essay social issues based on great ways to start introduction the location of persuasive essay issues our business and of course the to start an essay introduction wide range of mobile apps that we develop and persuasive social the apps stores where our apps are listed; N.B: This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and there wont be any major competitor developing same unique mobile apps as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. At Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co we will keep the prices of our mobile apps below the average market rate for all of our customers by keeping our overhead low and by good admissions collecting payment in advance from corporate organizations who would hire our services to help them design customized mobile apps. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to social issues all our customers at regular intervals. We are aware that there are some students that would need special assistance, we will offer flat rate for such services that will be tailored to take care of such students needs. At Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Great Ways To Start An Essay! Here are the essay issues payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash.

In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Mobile App Development Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and english essays advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of persuasive essay social issues our target market. We are set to become the number one choice for both corporate clients and individual clients in ways an essay, the whole of the issues United States and beyond which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our mobile apps development company. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co; Place adverts on both print (newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on destruction of nature essays the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our mobile apps Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Los Angeles California. Engage in road show from time to time in targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Contact corporate organizations by calling them up and informing them of persuasive essay issues Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co and the products we sell List our personal mobile apps development company in local directories / yellow pages Advertise our mobile apps in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site. Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al. Mobile App Development Business Plan Financial Projections and latex bibliography chapter Costing. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. Social Issues! If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a higher amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive.

This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The materials and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and destruction of nature can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for persuasive social, starting a mobile apps development company; it might differ in other countries due to the value of great ways their money. Essay! However, this is what it would cost us in the United of America; Business incorporating fees in good essay college, the United States of America will cost $750. The budget for Liability insurance, permits and social issues license will cost $3,500 Acquiring an office space or warehouse that will accommodate the number of great an essay introduction employees for at least 6 months (Re Construction of the persuasive social issues facility inclusive) will cost $150,000. Good! Equipping the office (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost $10,000 Launching an official Website will cost $500 Amount need to pay bills and staff members for at least 2 to 3 months $70,000 Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and persuasive social issues Promotions will cost $5,000.

Going by write good admissions essay college the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need over social two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. dollars to successfully set up a medium scale but standard mobile apps development company firm in the United States of America. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co. Tech Explorer Mobile Apps Development Co is a business that will be owned by Bob Lockley and his friend and business partner Ted Benny. They are the sole financial of the business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the start up capital for the business to just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start up capital from latex chapter personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the social issues start up capital from friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bibliography at each chapter bank (loan facility). Persuasive Essay Social Issues! N.B: We have been able to generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $85,000 and admissions college soft loan from family members $15,000) and we are at the final stages of essay issues obtaining a loan facility of $150,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited.

BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is thesis bibliography chapter easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of persuasive essay business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. We are aware of this which is why we have decided to develop a various mobile apps for write good essay, different clients and for persuasive essay, different purposes. We will also work with corporate clients to help them develop customized mobile apps for their business. Art Higher! We know that if we continue to design and develop excellent, effective and useful mobile apps for both businesses and individual, there will be steady flow of income for the organization. Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only hire creative, competent and selfless programmers / mobile apps developers / software developers, create a conducive working environment and employee benefits for essay issues, our staff members. Of Nature Essays! In the nearest future, we will give our most dedicated and essay social issues prolific employees the qualities good supervisor opportunity to persuasive be part owner of the business.

We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will achieve our business goals and objectives in record time. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and write good admissions Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start up capital from the founders: Completed Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of Logo for the business: Completed Secure trademark for our products: In Progress Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of social employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the business: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in various industries: In Progress.

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Argumentative Essay Topics | + 45 New Best Writing Ideas

layout quotes essay How to social, write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for an essay introduction, each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is social issues probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an thesis essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry?

P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the social issues, whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is destruction of nature essays never going to be an social issues easy task, even for destruction essays, the best writers. But you're about to social issues, find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gcse media, gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on persuasive essay social, that one. It's just not like that. In an at each English essay there is no one 'answer' and essay social issues, nothing to 'prove'.

That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. Write Admissions College. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at persuasive essay social aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to essay, have support (E) from the persuasive issues, text (either a quotation, or an admissions college explanation of some aspect of persuasive social form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to destruction, such a view, the persuasive, effects it created, the methods the author used to destruction of nature essays, create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Persuasive Essay Social. Done and dusted!

More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an english media argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to essay, the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an write good essay example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the persuasive issues, opening scene, as well as through the introduction, characters of essay social issues Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the gcse english media, heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on persuasive issues, to explain and support to show that it is a view that is thesis chapter well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. Persuasive Social Issues. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for essay qualities supervisor, example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in social opinions, not facts . This is of nature why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview?

This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to issues, the test your knowledge of the text and gcse english media essays, your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and social, done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the art higher essay, text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and social issues, its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to destruction of nature essays, show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in essay social issues the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the art higher, writer to want to persuasive issues, write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to latex thesis at each chapter, avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question.

This is the persuasive social, bulk of the essay supervisor, essay. It is persuasive essay issues a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and latex at each, which drifts from the persuasive issues, essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to of a supervisor, the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and persuasive social issues, guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to art higher essay, search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points.

Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the persuasive social issues, P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the good admissions essay college, writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of social realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the of a, method used affect the reader's understanding of the persuasive essay, text and essay, its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to persuasive social issues, gain the reader's attention in essay order to begin exploring the overall theme of essay social issues injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No.

1! Begin all of write good your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to persuasive, generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of of nature essays your essay . Here is an persuasive social issues example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and thesis bibliography, supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is persuasive essay issues your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and art higher essay, support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the persuasive social, paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and thesis bibliography at each, Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to persuasive essay social, say and do in Act One of the play.

The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and write good admissions essay college, support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of social Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for art higher, writing an issues effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and write good college, the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.

The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in persuasive essay complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the of a, Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an persuasive social issues important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves.

MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and essays, so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is persuasive essay social a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. Gcse English. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. Essay Social Issues. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand.

Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to write essay college, waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to essay, focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to great ways introduction, reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in issues effective ways in their writing . Aim only to introduction, choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of social place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the latex thesis chapter, writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. Persuasive Issues. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY.

The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of good essay view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an persuasive issues idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at essay of a supervisor different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to persuasive essay, search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately.

Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to ways to start introduction, state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to persuasive, the essay question: that is, to college, explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the persuasive essay, questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the art higher, text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay, essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the write admissions college, text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the persuasive social, author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and gcse media, is a hallmark of the best essays.

TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into issues your own sentences, using quotation marks of write admissions course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for issues, this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and art higher essay, interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of social issues this. If your essay title does concern aspects of destruction of nature context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from persuasive essay social quotations rather than by great to start an essay introduction merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to persuasive essay, introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and latex bibliography chapter, Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is essay issues no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to art higher essay, your essay.

4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the persuasive essay social issues, 'body' of the essay. Qualities Of A Good. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and social issues, provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. Ways To Start. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the social issues, text helped you develop your interpretation and introduction, viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to persuasive essay issues, the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on essay qualities of a supervisor, track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event.

It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the essay social issues, staging and great an essay, stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the essay, language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the of nature essays, text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of essay P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the write good admissions college, text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY.

The conclusion to an essay is essay important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from art higher essay what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to persuasive essay, sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to essay good supervisor, introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an persuasive essay social example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake:

In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and essay qualities of a, Juliet', these are the essay social, first two lines of the english media, 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for persuasive essay, the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of college Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the essay social issues, higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE.

This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. Art Higher. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to social issues, a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is destruction of nature essays received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by persuasive writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of qualities of a good form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the essay, inclusion of write good college bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and persuasive, very creative with the use of form. Gcse. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at social the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of great to start an essay introduction form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on.

A playwright, of persuasive issues course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the great ways an essay introduction, staging and essay social, stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning.

It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the destruction of nature, coming on of a storm'. This is a way of persuasive issues 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and of nature, represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is persuasive essay social taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of write good essay college evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in essay issues an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of to start which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Essay Social. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is gcse intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language.

But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an issues 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in essay qualities good supervisor speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for essay social, that matter), words have to latex chapter, be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is persuasive taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the gcse essays, one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in persuasive essay issues an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to ways an essay, comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to persuasive issues, suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . Essay Of A Good Supervisor. When you aim to persuasive essay social, convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive!

Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. Gcse English Media Essays. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the persuasive essay social, writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to essay, comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to essay social, create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on admissions essay college, the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in persuasive essay social the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to destruction of nature, be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and issues, sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about good admissions both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the persuasive essay, points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.

This second method is the gcse english essays, more complex and sophisticated of the two.

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+20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) We glanced at your resume. Persuasive Issues? And we want to tell you: Thanks, but no thanks. An employer who just threw your resume in the trash. Poor Michelle. Art Higher? Why aren’t employers looking at her resume? Michelle has a ton of job experience, but she is preparing to change her career. Michelle could have used a great resume objective to grab the recruiter’s attention and persuasive essay issues let the recruiter know that her resume is in the right place. The recruiter would have known from the beginning that Michelle was the right person for the job.

This article will tell you why good resume objective statements are important plus: What a good objective for essays, a resume should look like. When to write an objective on a resume. Essay? How to write a resume objective. Great To Start An Essay? And I will explain the differences between a general resume objective, resume summary, and resume profile. For industry-specific examples , keep reading. If you don't find a sample resume objective for essay social, your industry, let us know in the comments and we'll write an example for introduction, you. A resume objective is a short, targeted statement or blurb at the beginning of a resume that reflects what you have already achieved, and how you are a perfect match for the position that is on offer. Outgoing Certified Public Accountant with an MBA and +2 years of experience in specialized tax services.

Seeking to leverage my technical and professional expertise to grow in the new role of persuasive essay social Accountant at your company. Seeking a job as mattress tester because I like sleeping and I can quickly fall asleep anywhere. Here is a template from essay our resume builder . Persuasive Essay Issues? Notice how the sample resume objective stands out. Write Essay? If you want to save time, get professional tips, and quickly write your resume, you can try our resume builder. It's fast and easy to use. See more templates and create your resume here. So, what does objective mean? The dictionary definition of ‘objective’ (noun) is a goal or aim to get something specific. What is your goal for applying for persuasive, a job? Employers know you want the job.

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Because employers care more about issues what they want. Essay Supervisor? Surprise, surprise. You aren’t writing a letter to Santa. When you send your resume to large companies in 2016, it could end up in a pile of +250 other resumes on average. The modern recruiter needs to quickly scan each resume. They only have time to look for what they want and need. Attracting a recruiter's attention in the fastest, most direct way possible is now invaluable. So the beginning of the resume needs to provide a different sort of information - the information that the recruiter wants and needs. Issues? This is why the essay of a good supervisor, format for persuasive essay issues, great resume objectives has changed. Modern resume objectives have become a tool for showcasing your ability to qualities of a good supervisor achieve the employer’s objective not your own. Resume Objective Statement Example.

Experienced chef interested in becoming a zoo keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Essay Issues? Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to great to start taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. Pro Tip: A good resume objective needs to show that you are a perfect match for that position . You will need to change the objective statement for essay issues, a resume every time you apply for a different job. You may also want to take a look at our guides and resume examples (here) for specific positions. So, if you apply for 1,000 jobs how many good resume objectives do you need?

Yes, that’s right - 1,000 resume objectives. You don't need to latex thesis at each change everything, just re-tailor each objective on a resume to match the new job post. The topic of persuasive essay writing a resume objective is confusing. There seem to great to start an essay introduction be about a dozen different names for what you can put in the space at the top of a resume. The resume profile layout gets called: career summary career objective personal profile statement profile statement resume summary resume summary statement summary of qualifications.

Here’s the thing - they are all basically the same. But, there are minor differences and you should not confuse them. Just remember: put your resume objective or summary at the top of issues your resume. You can choose one of our +20 resume templates, and art higher use our resume builder to save time, and quickly create your resume here. Take a look at essay issues a sample resume below: When Do You Need a Great Resume Objective? When you're writing a resume, the first thing you will probably include after adding your contact information is some sort of introduction. Think of admissions essay college this section as an elevator pitch that you've designed to persuasive sell yourself to the employer. The introduction comprises what you would say to bibliography at each chapter the hiring manager if you were to pitch your resume face to face. A recent study by The Ladders has shown that recruiters will only spend 6 seconds looking at a resume. So, you need to catch a recruiter’s eye immediately to make sure they keep reading. Essay Issues? And the best way to make recruiters keep reading is to introduce yourself in a way they can't ignore . Okay, but let's go back to great to start an essay writing a resume objective for a resume.

There are three main types of essay introductions for resumes: 1. Bibliography At Each Chapter? The Resume Objective. Persuasive Social? 2. The Resume Summary or Executive Summary. 3. Gcse English Media? The Resume Profile. Resume objectives are the introduction of choice for three types of people: 1. People who are entering the job market for the first time. 2. People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explain an unclear career path. 3. People who are targeting specific positions. Persuasive Essay Issues? The rest of you might want to consider either a resume summary or resume profile . Or you don’t have to use anything if you don’t feel like it. You can just jump right into art higher your experience or education section. It depends on what you think is most important and what you want a recruiter to see first. The Resume Objective vs.

The Summary vs. Persuasive Essay? The Profile. Another reason why experts will tell you that general resume objectives are dead is because of the rise of the bibliography, resume summary and the resume profile. Here are the differences: A resume objective is one or two lines at the beginning of your resume that state how you are a good fit for the position on offer. This type of introduction is useful for people who have little or no work experience. Social? Dump Truck Driver with a valid Class A Certified Driver's License (CDL) and great to start introduction 2 years of persuasive essay social experience. Wishing to leverage my experience to fill the position of Truck Driver at your company. Zero accidents or injuries throughout entire career. Obtain a challenging management position where I can develop myself creatively and become a high-level professional.

A resume summary is also a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume. But a resume summary statement will include a brief overview of work experience that matches the requirements of the position. Professional Dietician and Caterer with 6+ years in the foodservice industry. Highly entrepreneurial and efficient at building and maintaining client relationships. Media Essays? Seeking to leverage my interpersonal skills to bring a solid customer service perspective to the position of essay social Catering Manager at your company. Essay College? Professional Photographer seeking a full-time position taking picutres in the fashion industry. Bonus: Download actionable examples of essay social issues real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for essay, Your Profession (Download) For people who have work experience in persuasive essay issues, the same field as the job for which they are applying. If this is write essay college, your case, make sure you read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] A resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and essay social issues education in terms of the company’s needs and values. It is exactly like a resume summary statement, just more extensive. Of Nature Essays? It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with bullet points.

Let’s look at IT jobs for a moment. The resume profile structure works well for IT resumes because IT hiring managers want to see a list of all the different software and hardware you are familiar using. Analytical problem solver (6) with High School Diploma and 3.5 GPA (1). Undergraduate studying computer science with an emphasis on persuasive social issues, computer systems and architecture. Strong exposure to Windows Server 2008 / 2012, Win7, and Microsoft Office 2010 / 2013 (2). Working understanding of remote connectivity software (RDP, Citrix, and Cisco VPN), Cisco switches, routers, and TCP / IP networking (3 and 4). Media? Experience with Microsoft Active Directory, administration, creation of user accounts, and Internet email (5). In the persuasive essay issues, end, the real difference is whether or not you have quantifiable work experience . Essay? Pro Tip: Never confuse resume introductions with cover letters. Yes, it is still necessary to write cover letters.

Cover letters introduce you to an employer and explain why your skills and experiences fit the job for which you are applying. An introduction to persuasive issues your resume does the same thing, but in a couple of lines at latex chapter the beginning of your resume. Introductions reinforce what you write in your cover letter and the experience you show in your resume. Five Examples of Resume Objectives for Specific Situations. In this section, I’ve put together a bunch of examples of great resume objectives for people in specific situations. These examples are for the three types of people I mentioned at issues the beginning of the article: People who are entering the job market for destruction essays, the first time (entry level). People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explaing an unclear career path. People who are targeting specific positions (professionals). Social? A. Entry-level Resume Objective Samples.

Entry level or first-time employees include: Recent High School graduates with zero work experience and no higher-level education. College graduates looking for thesis bibliography at each chapter, their first professional job. Persuasive Essay Issues? People who have been out of work for longer periods of time or have not worked. If you are a person looking for your first job, you should focus on english media essays, the traits that will make you a good employee.

But you shouldn’t randomly pick three nice adjectives out of thin air. Look back at your accomplishments and activities as a student. Find traits that are easily displayed during those activities. Persuasive Essay? Whatever it is that you did before as a student, pull traits from that experience that match the traits required for the job. Use your experience as proof that you actually have these traits later in the resume. A high school resume objective sample might look like this: Dedicated team player (1) (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at latex thesis bibliography chapter your restaurant (2) . I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets (3) . Essay? Lead with your strongest trait. The traits you list should match the traits you marked as keywords from the job description.

Here is the example of the media, server job description with the keywords marked: Here is essay issues, our career objective example again with the keywords highlighted: Dedicated team player (captain of the latex thesis bibliography, swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills. Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at essay social issues your restaurant. I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets. If you have graduated from university, your resume objective statement will look a bit different: Highly-motivated (1) Business Administration graduate (2) looking to fill a position as a Management Assistant (3) . I am ambitious, hardworking (4) and want to find a company that I can grow with as I achieve their goals. 1. Lead with a strong trait. 2. Follow with the type of education you have and any work experience you have. Qualities Good Supervisor? 3. State the position you are seeking. 4. End with a sentence that emphasizes that you add value to the company. Persuasive Essay Social? Let’s say you’ve just been out of the game for of nature essays, a long time. Persuasive Social Issues? You took time off to destruction be a full-time mom or dad, but now you want to go back to work.

If you have higher education or work experience, a good job objective for a resume will look the same as a university graduate or young professional's resume objective. Persuasive Issues? Start with your education or your previous work experience - even if you gained it years ago. Maybe you have never worked and don’t have higher education. What would a good resume objective example look like then? Organized and motivated (1) employee able to media apply my skills (be specific - which skills?) in various environments. Seeking a position as an office assistant (2) in (name of company). I am personable and reliable and will prove to be an asset to the company. B. Transitioning Industries or Career Change Resume Objective Samples.

You have experience, you just have it in another industry. Essay Issues? A career objective for a resume is a place for you to state that you are making a change and that where you were is of a supervisor, relevant to essay where you are going. That way, a hiring manager doesn’t think your resume is in the wrong place. What is this concert pianist’s resume doing in my pile of flight attendant applications? A killer resume objective will answer that question right away so that your resume doesn’t end up in the trash. Accomplished (1) Marketing Manager (2) with 10+ years (3) of experience in ways to start an essay, the retail real estate industry (4). Seeking to social use my background in planning, overseeing, and essay good implementing marketing campaigns (5) to take on the role of Brand Manager (6) at essay (name of company).

I am creative and effective at presenting and good admissions developing the persuasive essay issues, brands I represent (7 and 8) . Essay Of A Supervisor? Strong Trait (1) + Past Work (2) + Number of Years (3) + Specific Industry (4) + Types of Duties (5) + Specific Position (6) + How these Skills will Translate (7) + Added Value (8) You could also add a reference to your education either at the beginning or end of the resume objective statement. Persuasive Essay Social? C. Professional Resume Objective Sample: Applying for a Specific Position. This sample is for people who have the destruction, education and work experience but feel that a brief introduction will address an persuasive issues, interest in a specific position. IT Professional (1) with 3+ years (2) of experience in admissions, systems management and configuration at a large telecommunications company (3). Aiming to use my proven technical, management, and communication skills (4 and 5) to issues effectively fill the position of Network Engineer (6) at (name of gcse essays company). Possess a BA in Computer Science (7). Past Work (1) + Number of Years (2) + Specific Industry (3) + Types of essay social Duties (4) + Strong Traits (Keywords) (5) + Specific Position (6) + Your Degree and Training (7) Seven Tips How Not To Ruin a Good Resume Objective. 1. Essay College? Here Is the Best Way To Be Credible.

One of the persuasive issues, benefits of putting a good resume objective on a resume is that it makes you stand out to an employer at first glance. Essay? Unless you write a general resume objective like this one: Dedicated person interested in pursuing a job that allows me to use my skills to persuasive essay social issues benefit the company. Remember? We already talked about to start introduction this. This is the “Nice person applying for nice job at nice company” career objective that almost made it taboo to pur resume objectives on a resume at all. The problem is that it doesn’t answer any of the following questions: What job do you want to essay issues pursue? What skills do you have? How will they benefit the company? Be specific. Avoid writing generic statements that could apply to any job seeker looking for any job in the world.

Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and art higher essay customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Now that’s specific. Pro Tip: Some experts will tell you that being too specific will box you in and hurt your chances if there are other jobs on offer. Persuasive Social Issues? That may be true if you are not responding to a specific job offer. In most cases, you will respond to specific job offers. They will include job descriptions that will tell you exactly what type of traits and great ways skills the employer wants.

It won’t box you in if you show that you have everything they want in the first two lines of your resume. You will come across as the essay issues, exact person they need to hire for the job. 2. How To Use Numbers To Attract Attention. Gcse English Media? Use numbers and details when possible: 2 years of essay experience 50% increase in sales 100 people in attendance at essay my event managed a team of 50 people saved 25 baby seals from poachers. My proven managerial and organizational skills were developed through 2 years of experience creating a series of events that drew over persuasive social issues 100 people each. Both of these things will also help you avoid being generic and having a general resume objective on a resume. Write Good Essay College? The main question you should be asking when writing a resume objective for essay issues, a resume: How are your skills and traits going to benefit the employer? This is especially important for people transitioning from one industry to another. How does your past experience translate to your future position? Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated.

We can see that the interpersonal and essay customer service skills that this waitress used at her old job can be used to essay issues help achieve the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Read more about showcasing your skills here: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) You will find out what are the skills that employers desire most. Oh, and did I mention that the essay, article comes with a fun and social actionable infographic? Go check. 4. How Long Should A Good Resume Objective Be? Make it short and destruction sweet.

Resumes are short documents. A career objective for a resume shouldn’t be more than two or three lines at the beginning of your resume. No one wants to read a novel about your job experience. 5. Social Issues? Should You Use First Person Pronouns? Maybe you’ve heard a rule like: Don’t use pronouns or the essay of a supervisor, first person on your resume. There is something called a “smart” third person approach that eliminates the persuasive essay issues, pronoun and destruction essays starts with an action verb. Instead of saying “I manage” you write “Manage.” When writing a resume objective in the third person and in the present tense, you are giving the employer a chance to imagine you transferring your skills and duties to their open role. It focuses on the employer by leaving direct references to you out of the equation. But, like I said before, there are no real rules. As long as you are making a clear point and showing added value, it won’t matter that you used personal pronouns.

Also, what are you supposed to call the persuasive social, thing? As I mentioned before, there are endless names for the introduction section of english a resume. You can start a good objective for a resume like this: Or forget the title and essay issues just start writing. Make it work for you. Write what’s comfortable and thesis bibliography compelling. Pro tip: Most of the examples provided in the sample section of persuasive this article start without a title. Because general resume objectives on a resume are seen as cliche and out of fashion, it might be better not to good slap the label in persuasive, front. 6. How To Use Keywords To Get Results. Instead of using a bunch of random, flowery adjectives like “hard working” or “dedicated” use the adjectives from the essay, job description. Persuasive Essay Social? Note: use “hard working” and “dedicated” if they are in the job description. This is art higher essay, a form of keyword optimization.

All you need to do is go back through the job description looking for keywords. These keywords should be written throughout your resume. Essay Issues? A couple of them can show up in your resume objective as well. Whoever is looking at your resume will probably start by scanning the document. Recruiters will be looking for the keywords they put in the job description, and destruction essays if you add them to issues a resume and an objective in thesis at each chapter, a resume, they will find what they are looking for right away. Do you want to persuasive social issues know how to use keywords to tailor your resume to the job description? I'll show you in thesis at each chapter, our actionable step-by-step guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description 7. Most People Make These Mistakes - Do You? Okay.

I lied. There are two rules you should always follow. Never use the word utilize and persuasive social don't lie. Never use “utilize” in essay, a job objective on a resume (or any unscientific situation for that matter) - just do not do it. You will sound pretentious. You will sound like you are trying too hard to sound intelligent.

You will sound like someone who slips French words into persuasive essay issues conversations at parties. There are only a few people who can do that without being embarrassing - French people. Also, don’t lie about your traits or skills: If you hate people, then don’t say you are “friendly” or “bubbly” or have “good interpersonal skills.” Don’t say you hate people, just pick a different trait to emphasize. Writing a resume may seem scary and intimidating. You have to art higher essay catch the attention of hiring managers within the first few seconds. Writing a strong introduction can turn a glance at your resume into a full read. Putting a great resume objective on a resume could be the one thing that keeps your resume on the hiring manager’s desk and out of the trash can. A good resume objective is key for anyone lacking professional experience. It signals to the person reading your resume that you are right for the job, even if you have never had a job. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them.

Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any questions about how to social write a great resume objective for a resume? Leave a comment. We'll be happy to help. Destruction Essays? Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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ceng 100 homework The purpose of persuasive social issues this assignment is to familiarize you with OS/161, the operating system with which you will be working this semester, and System/161, the latex bibliography at each machine simulator on which OS/161 runs. We will also present here an introduction to some tools that will make your programming job this semester easier: CVS (Concurrent Versions System): CVS is a source code version control system. It manages the source files of persuasive a software package so that multiple programmers may work simultaneously. Each programmer has a private copy of the source tree (or part of it) and makes modifications independently.

CVS attempts to merge multiple people's modifications and highlight potential conflicts. GDB (Gnu Debugger): GDB allows you to of nature essays, examine what is happening inside a program while it is running. It lets you execute programs in a controlled manner and view and set the values of essay social variables. In the art higher case of OS/161, it allows you to debug the operating system you are building instead of the machine simulator on which that operating system is persuasive essay issues running. The first part of this document briefly discusses the code on which you'll be working and the tools you'll be using. Supervisor? The following sections provide precise instructions on exactly what you must do for the assignment. Each section labelled with (to be submitted) at the beginning indicates a section where there is something that you must submit. Some of the questions you will answer are related to persuasive issues, concepts not yet covered in the lecture. The aim is your gaining a basic understanding the code base, not learning new concepts on your own. However, for some questions, it may be easier to take a quick view at the textbook and then return to the code base for answers.

We advise you to spare some time now and take advantage of this assignment for learning the system and the code base as much as possible. Don't forget you will always have much more spare time at the beginning of the ways an essay semester in comparison to the end. Getting to persuasive social, Know OS/161 and System/161. The code for this semester is divided into essays, two main parts: OS/161: the persuasive operating system that you will augment in write good college, subsequent homework assignments. System/161: the machine simulator which emulates the persuasive essay issues physical hardware on which your operating system will run. This course is about writing operating systems, not designing or simulating hardware. Therefore you are not allowed change the machine simulator codes.

If, however, you think you have found a bug in System/161, please let us know as soon as possible. The OS/161 distribution contains a full operating system source tree, including some utility programs and latex thesis bibliography, libraries. After you build the operating system you boot, run, and test it on the simulator. We use a simulator because debugging and testing an operating system on persuasive essay social, real hardware is extremely difficult. The System/161 machine simulator has been found to be an excellent platform for rapid development of operating system code, while still retaining a high degree of great to start introduction realism. Apart from floating point support and persuasive social issues, certain issues relating to RAM cache management, it provides an accurate emulation of a MIPS R3000 processor. There will be an good OS/161 programming assignment for each of the social issues following topics: 1. ASST1 : Synchronization and concurrent programming. 2. ASST2 : System calls and multiprogramming.

3. ASST3 : Virtual memory. 4. ASST4 : File systems. These four assignments are cumulative. Ideally you will build each assignment on top of your previous submission. So it will be better for you to take care to write clear and understandable code.

If, however, you are not able to complete one of the phases, we will supply you a sample solution, so that you can go on with the following phases. Here, using these solutions we give instead of your own solutions may seem like an attractive alternative, since they are guaranteed to work. However, there will be a penalty for using the supplied code, so we recommend commenting and testing your own code with the idea in mind that you will need the same code for media, further assignments also. Most programming you have done at school has been 'one-shots': you get an assignment, you complete it yourself, you turn it in, you get a grade, and then you never look at it again. The commercial software world uses a very different paradigm: development continues on the same code base producing releases at regular intervals. This kind of development normally requires multiple people working simultaneously within the same code base, and necessitates a system for tracking and essay social issues, merging changes. You will work in groups on OS/161, and will be making use of CVS, the Concurrent Versions System. CVS is very powerful, but for the time being you only need to know a subset of its functionality. The CVS tutorial handout contains all the of nature essays information you need to know and should serve as a reference throughout the semester. In case you would like to find out social, more, a perfect place to have a look at is Open Source Development with CVS . In some ways debugging a kernel is no different from debugging an ordinary program. On real hardware, however, a kernel crash will crash the whole machine, necessitating a time-consuming reboot.

The use of a machine simulator like System/161 provides several debugging benefits. First, a kernel crash will only crash the simulator, which only takes a few keystrokes to restart. Second, the simulator can sometimes provide useful information about what the kernel did to cause the crash, information that may or may not be easily available when running directly on top of real hardware. You must use the cs161 version of GDB to debug OS/161. You can run on the UNIX systems used for the course as cs161-gdb . This copy of GDB has been configured for MIPS and has been patched to art higher essay, be able to communicate with your kernel through System/161. An important difference between debugging a regular program and persuasive essay social, debugging an OS/161 kernel is that you need to essay, make sure that you are debugging the operating system, not the machine simulator.

Type. and you are debugging the simulator. Detailed instructions on how to persuasive issues, debug your operating system and a brief introduction to GDB can be found in the GDB tutorial . For setting up cs161-gdb on your computer, see the document Installing the Toolchain on Linux . Getting the Distribution (to be submitted) [NOTE: In addition to the OS/161 and System/161, you will see the OS161 toolchain ( binutils , gcc and gdb distributions), in the downloads directory. If you are working on the department Inek machines, you do not need these additional files, as they are already installed. Great Introduction? If you wish to develop on your own machine at home, you will need to download, build, and install these packages as well, then please consult the document Installing the Toolchain on Linux before continuing. Persuasive Issues? ] 1. Script the supervisor following session using the script com mand . The output of essay social this script ing session will be submitted. (see below)

2. Make a directory in which you will do all your work. Essay Of A Good Supervisor? For the purposes of the remainder of this assignment, we'll assume that it will be called ceng334 . Also, create a directory called asst0 into which you'll place the files that you will submit and a root directory under which you will run the simulator. 3. Uncompress and build System/161: 4. Unpack the OS/161 distribution by typing. This will create a directory named os161-1.11. Rename your OS/161 source tree to just os161. 5. Social? End your script session by typing exit or by pressing Ctrl-D. Rename your typescript file to be setup.script . Setting up the CVS Repository (to be submitted) The CVS Repository is the storage area containing all files and directories under version control. If you are working in the department Inek machines, you can use the repository: If you are in a remote machine, you can connect via ssh by setting environment variable: and using the repository: : ext : username @ external . ceng .metu.edu.tr:/ home / cvs.

If you haven't before, take a look at the CVS tutorial now, so you will be able follow the instructions easily. Script the following session using the script command. 1. Set your CVSROOT environment variable as your repository. This will keep you from having to essay, specify the essay -d argument every time you use CVS. If you are working in department Inek machines, set the CVSROOT as: % export CVSROOT = : ext: username @external.ceng.metu.edu.tr:/home/cvs. 2. You can add these to your. / . bashrc file as well (but do this in another terminal, so it will not be not included in your scripting session .) Change directories into the OS/161 distribution that you unpacked in the previous section and import your source tree.

You can alter the arguments as you like; here's a quick explanation. -m Initial import of os161 is the log message that CVS records. (If you don't specify it on the command line, it will start up a text editor). Media Essays? src is where CVS will put the files within your repository. It will also be the name that you specify when you check out your system. os161 is the branch tag. Social? You needn't worry about the full implications of this; think of it as giving CVS a name to help you remember from where you got this code. os161-1_10 is the name of the version of the destruction of nature essays code that you are importing. (Always use the issues actual version, whatever it is. Replace dots with underscores.) You can use this name later with cvs diff and media, other CVS commands. Now, remove the persuasive social issues source tree that you just imported. Don't worry - now that you have imported the tree in your repository, there is a copy saved away. In the art higher essay next step, you'll get a copy of the source tree that is yours to work on.

You can safely remove the original tree. You cannot ever remove your CVS repository located in $CVSROOT . 3. Now, checkout a source tree in which you will work. 4. Persuasive? End your script session. Rename your script output to cvsinit.script . One of the at each chapter challenges of CS161 is that you are going to be working with a large body of code that was written by someone else. When doing so, it is important that you grasp the overall organization of the entire code base, understand where different pieces of functionality are implemented, and learn how to augment it in a natural and correct fashion. Issues? As you develop code, although you needn't understand every detail of your partners' implementation, you still need to understand its overall structure, how it fits into the greater whole, and how it works. In order to become familiar with a code base, there is no substitute for actually sitting down and reading the code. Admittedly, most code makes poor bedtime reading (except perhaps as a soporific), but it is essential that you read the code. It is all right if you don't understand most of the assembly code in the codebase ; it is not important for this class that you know assembly.

You should use the code reading questions included below to help guide you through reviewing the existing code. While you needn't review every line of code in the system in order to answer all the questions, we strongly recommend that you look over every file in destruction of nature, the system. The key part of this exercise is understanding the base system. Your goal is to understand how it all fits together so that you can make intelligent design decisions when you approach future assignments. Persuasive Essay? This may seem tedious, but if you understand how the system fits together now, you will have much less difficulty completing future assignments. Also, it may not be apparent yet, but you have much more time to do so now than you will at any other point in gcse essays, the semester. The file system, I/O, and network sections may seem confusing since we have not discussed how these components work. Persuasive Social Issues? However, it is still useful to review the code now and get a high-level idea of what is happening in each subsystem. If you do not understand the low-level details now, that is qualities of a supervisor OK. These questions are not meant to be tricky -- most of the answers can be found in persuasive essay social issues, comments in of nature, the OS/161 source, though you may have to look at the textbook for some background information.

Place the persuasive issues answers to the following questions in english, a file called. Using Grep Command. Whenever you must search for pieces of writing in a bunch of persuasive files that you do not know very well, you would really feel the thesis bibliography chapter need for essay, a CTRL+F like tool. Destruction? Grep is one of such tools, which you will make great use of social not only in this part, but also through the all four assignments later. Usage : grep [ options ] PATTERN [FILE. Essay? ] eg : grep interrupt kern / include / kern /*.h. Grep searches the named input files (or standard input if no files are named, or the file name - is given) for lines containing a match to the given pattern. By default, grep prints the essay social matching lines. Most commonly used options are: 1. To search all files under each directory, recursively: grep -r pattern /kern (continues searching in the subdirectories of kern)

2. For case-insensitive search (By default, grep makes case-sensitive search.): grep - i pattern /kern/* 3. To search for essays, a regular expression: grep -ri -E 'func(A|B)' * See man grep whenever possible, this is a very handy tool. Top Level Directory. The top level directory of many software packages is called src or source . The top of the OS/161 source tree is persuasive social issues also called src . In this directory, you will find the following files: Makefile : top-level makefile ; builds the great ways OS/161 distribution, including all the provided utilities, but does not build the essay issues operating system kernel. configure : this is an autoconf -like script. It sets up things like `How to run the compiler.' You needn't understand this file, although we'll ask you to specify certain pathnames and options when you build your own tree. defs.mk : this file is generated when you run ./ configure . Great Ways Introduction? You needn't do anything to this file. defs.mk.sample : this is a sample defs.mk file. Issues? Ideally, you won't be needing it either, but if configure fails, use the essay comments in this file to fix defs.mk . You will also find the following directories: bin : this is where the source code lives for all the utilities that are typically found in persuasive social issues, /bin , e.g., cat, cp, ls , etc.

The things in bin are considered fundamental utilities that the art higher essay system needs to run. include : these are the include files that you would typically find in / usr /include (in our case, a subset of them). These are user level include files; not kernel include files. kern : here is where the kernel source code lives. lib : library code lives here. Social? We have only two libraries: libc , the C standard library, and hostcompat , which is for recompiling OS/161 programs for the host UNIX system. There is also a crt0 directory, which contains the startup code for user programs. man : the OS/161 manual (man pages) appear here. The man pages document (or specify) every program, every function in the C library, and every system call. You will use the system call man pages for reference in essay good, the course of assignment 2. The man pages are HTML and can be read with any browser.

mk : this directory contains pieces of makefile that are used for building the essay system. You don't need to worry about these, although in gcse, the long run we do recommend that anyone working on large software systems learn to use make effectively. sbin : this is the persuasive issues source code for the utilities typically found in art higher, / sbin on a typical UNIX installation. In our case, there are some utilities that let you halt the machine, power it off and reboot it, among other things. testbin : these are pieces of test code. You needn't understand the files in bin, sbin , and testbin now, but you certainly will later on. Issues? Eventually, you will want to good admissions essay college, modify these and/or write your own utilities and essay social issues, these are good models. Destruction Essays? Similarly, you need not read and understand everything in lib and include, but you should know enough about issues, what's there to be able to get around the source tree easily.

The rest of this code walk-through is going to concern itself with the an essay kern subtree . The Kern Subdirectory. Once again, there is a Makefile . This Makefile installs header files but does not build anything. In addition, we have more subdirectories for each component of the kernel as well as some utility directories. kern/arch : This is where architecture-specific code goes. Issues? By architecture-specific, we mean the english essays code that differs depending on the hardware platform on which you're running. For our purposes, you need only concern yourself with the mips subdirectory. conf.arch : This tells the persuasive issues kernel config script where to find the great ways to start machine-specific, low-level functions it needs (see kern/arch/ mips/mips ).

Makefile.mips : Kernel Makefile ; this is copied when you config a kernel. kern/arch/ mips /include : These files are include files for the machine-specific constants and functions. Question 1. Persuasive Essay Social? Which register number is used for the stack pointer (sp) in OS/161? Question 2. What bus/busses does OS/161 support? Question 3. Latex Thesis Bibliography At Each? What is the persuasive difference between splhigh and spl0? Question 4. Why do we use typedefs like u_int32_t instead of simply saying int ? kern/arch/ mips/mips : These are the source files containing the machine-dependent code that the kernel needs to run. Most of this code is quite low-level. Question 5. Essay Qualities Supervisor? What does splx return? Question 6. What is the highest interrupt level?

kern/asst1 : This is the directory that contains the framework code that you will need to complete assignment 1. You can safely ignore it for now. kern/compile : This is where you build kernels. In the persuasive social compile directory, you will find one subdirectory for ways an essay introduction, each kernel you want to build. In a real installation, these will often correspond to things like a debug build, a profiling build, etc. In our world, each build directory will correspond to a programming assignment, e.g., ASST1, ASST2, etc. These directories are created when you configure a kernel (described in the next section). Persuasive Social? This directory and build organization is typical of UNIX installations and bibliography at each, is not universal across all operating systems. kern/conf : config is the script that takes a config file, like ASST1, and creates the corresponding build directory.

So, in order to build a kernel, you should: This will create the essay social ASST0 build directory and then actually build a kernel in it. Note that you should specify the latex thesis bibliography at each chapter complete pathname ./ config when you configure OS/161. If you omit the ./ , you may end up running the persuasive social configuration command for the system on which you are building OS/161, and that is almost guaranteed to produce rather strange results! kern/dev : This is where all the low level device management code is stored. Latex Thesis At Each Chapter? Unless you are really interested, you can safely ignore most of this directory.

kern/include : These are the include files that the persuasive social kernel needs. Qualities Of A Good? The kern subdirectory contains include files that are visible not only to the operating system itself, but also to user-level programs. Essay? (Think about why it's named kern and where the files end up when installed.) Question 7. How frequently are hardclock interrupts generated? Question 8. What functions comprise the standard interface to a VFS device? Question 9. How many characters are allowed in a volume name?

Question 10. How many direct blocks does an gcse english media SFS file have? Question 11. What is the standard interface to a file system (i.e., what functions must you implement to implement a new file system)? Question 12. What function puts a thread to sleep? Question 13. How large are OS/161 pids ? Question 14.

What operations can you do on a vnode ? Question 15. What is the persuasive issues maximum path length in latex thesis at each chapter, OS/161? Question 16. What is the system call number for a reboot? Question 17. Where is STDIN_FILENO defined? kern/lib : These are library routines used throughout the persuasive issues kernel, e.g., managing sleep queues, run queues, kernel malloc , etc.

kern/main : This is where the admissions college kernel is initialized and where the kernel main function is implemented. kern/thread : Threads are the fundamental abstraction on which the kernel is built. Question 18. Essay Social Issues? Is it OK to initialize the great an essay introduction thread system before the persuasive essay scheduler? Why (not)? Question 19. What is a zombie? Question 20.

How large is the initial run queue? kern/ userprog : This is where you will add code to essay college, create and essay, manage user level processes. As it stands now, OS/161 runs only latex bibliography, kernel threads; there is no support for user level code. In Assignment 2, you'll implement this support. kern/ vm : This directory is essay issues also fairly vacant. Thesis Bibliography At Each Chapter? In Assignment 3, you'll implement virtual memory and most of persuasive essay social your code will go in here. kern/ fs : The file system implementation has two subdirectories. Of Nature? We'll talk about each in turn. kern/ fs/vfs is the essay issues file-system independent layer ( vfs stands for Virtual File System). Qualities? It establishes a framework into which you can add new file systems easily. You will want to go look at vfs.h and persuasive social, vnode.h before looking at this directory.

Question 21. What does a device pathname in OS/161 look like? Question 22. What does a raw device name in OS/161 look like? Question 23. What lock protects the vnode reference count? Question 24. Great An Essay Introduction? What device types are currently supported? kern/ fs/sfs : This is the simple file system that OS/161 contains by default. Social Issues? You will augment this file system as part of Assignment 4, so we'll ask you questions about it then.

Building the Kernel (to be submitted) Now it is time to build a kernel. Essay? As described above, you will need to configure a kernel and then build it. 1. Script the following steps using the script command. 2. Persuasive Essay Social Issues? Configure your tree for the machine on which you are working. 3. Configure a kernel named ASST0. 4. Build the ASST0 kernel. 5. Latex Bibliography At Each Chapter? Install the ASST0 kernel. 6. Now also build the user level utilties . 7. End your script session. Essay Social? Rename your script output to build.script . Running the great ways introduction Kernel (to be submitted) Download the file sys161. Issues? conf from the course web site and place it in your root directory ( 1. Script the following session.

2. Great? Change into your root directory. 3. Run the persuasive essay issues machine simulator on your operating system. 4. At the good admissions essay prompt, type p / sbin/poweroff return . This tells the persuasive essay social issues kernel to run the poweroff program that shuts the gcse english system down. 5. End your script session. Rename your script output to persuasive essay social, run.script . We are now going to make a modification to the OS/161 kernel. We are essentially going to be adding a new function/system call.

This will be nothing more than a simple hello world function, but it will give an insight on how additions are made to art higher, OS/161. So we are adding a routine to the kernel, i.e., hello.c is not a user level program. First, download the hello .c file. Copy hello.c to kern/main directory. Persuasive Essay Social? This file contains all the needed code for implementing the addition to OS/161. However, we need to great to start, tell the build system that it is there, and then have it linked into the kernel. That is why you will want to put hello.c into the kern/main/ directory of persuasive social issues OS/161. It is recommended that you take a look at the complex_hello function in hello.c . This is the function that we want to invoke with our new command. Open menu.c file in the current directory. You can take a look at menu.c and to see how they have implemented other commands for OS/161. As a hint, you will want to find the array of structs called cmdtable (short name for thesis at each chapter, the command table) in the file menu.c . ch , cmd_complex_hello.

line to the cmdtable array. This defines the command for calling complex_hello . Again in menu.c file, define the cmd_complex_hello function, which interfaces to persuasive essay social issues, hello.c in menu.c as follows: static int cmd_complex_hello ( int nargs , char ** args ) Now you need to tell the build system to essay qualities good, build hello.c as well. This is persuasive issues done with the essay configuration system that you have already used. Change to the kern/conf directory in OS/161s source tree. Edit the file conf.kern to have the build system compile and link hello.c into the kernel. To do this add the following line in conf.kern . After adding a reference for hello.c into conf.kern you need to reconfigure as you did previously.

Here is the command again for your reference: Then build and install your kernel into the. /ceng334/root directory as you did before. Here is the persuasive essay social issues whole set of commands for qualities good supervisor, your reference as well: Now change directory to. /ceng334/root and issue the command. to run the new kernel! This is persuasive essay social just as you have done before.

When the main menu comes up, type the command that you specified for the provided complex_hello function, e.g., ch . Uh oh, looks like the kernel is having a problem with running the code. The kernel is receiving a panic and shutting down. Luckily we have a debugger at our disposal. We can use GDB to help with the tracking down of bugs in the code. Sure, it might be convenient to sprinkle your code with print statements that say what is going on, but there will be times that one might not have this luxury. Essay Of A Good? Additionally, as with OS/161, you might not be debugging code that you originally wrote yourself.

System/161 has the ability to allow a GDB connection to the kernel that it is currently running. Persuasive Essay Social? This is done with the -w argument. Essentially, it tells System/161 to wait for great to start, a debugger connection. To do this, as before change directory to. /ceng334/root and issue the issues command. The version of GDB we are using has been patched to qualities good, allow connections through UNIX sockets. You can use any debugger you want, but the cs161-gdb version that is supplied will definitely connect to System161.

The reason that we cant directly connect to the kernel is because it is running in the System/161 emulator. You will want to open another console, switch to the location of kernel and persuasive essay, sys/161 ( /ceng334/root) Now type the following command to get the destruction of nature essays debugger going in a second window: This tells gdb to load the symbols found in the binary that you specified. This way it knows the names of the symbols that it will be getting from System/161. Now, type the following command to connect to System/161 and start debugging the persuasive essay social kernel: You should see something like the following after doing this: Remote debugging using unix :. sockets/gdb. __start () at of nature .. /../arch/mips/mips/start.S:24. 24 .. /../arch/ mips/mips/start.S : No such file or directory. Current language: auto; currently asm. This means that the debugger is now talking to System/161.

Below are some commands that you will need to know to find the persuasive essay social issues current bug in the kernel. Also, note that many of the commands can be abbreviated to save typing. The abbreviations are also included. next (n): Step to the next line of code. This will Step Over any subroutine calls. step (s) : Step to the next line of code. This will Step Into any subroutine calls. list (l): List lines of code.

Type help list for more information. break (b): Set a breakpoint. You can provide line numbers, function names, etc. For example, to break at our new function, type: b complex_hello . Or if you wanted to do it by line number you would do: b hello.c:33. info ( i ): Get information. For example, do info b for latex thesis bibliography at each, info on breakpoints. continue (c): Continue running the code until a signal or breakpoint causes it to stop. backtrace ( bt ): Print a backtrace of all stack frames that lead to where this is invoked. quit (q): Quit the debugger. So, you will want to switch back and forth between OS/161 and gdb . Persuasive Essay Social? For example, you might want to start testing the code by setting a breakpoint at complex_hello and see if you can figure out where the thesis at each kernel is essay social issues crashing.

After setting the breakpoint, you would want to continue , at which time you will see that OS/161 is responding on its terminal again. From here you can do anything you want, and gdb will catch breakpoints, signals, etc. Basically, you will have to switch between two terminals to art higher, control OS/161 and to debug it with GDB. Additional debugger usage info. Theres probably all the info you need to use the debugger in its help files. When you get the debugger running, for persuasive essay social, example by doing cs161-gdb kernel, when in. /ceng334/root, do a help info. Theres a list of essay info commands. Two of the most helpful in addition to persuasive essay, the ones mentioned above are info set and latex at each, info locals. Persuasive Essay Social? info locals tells you the value of the local stack variables and set variable=something lets you change that variable. Also be careful to use n and essays, s appropriately, i.e., dont step into something you dont want to go through all the steps of. Debugging the kernel.

This now leaves you with the next assignment. It is your task to persuasive social issues, find out why the great to start an essay introduction kernel is crashing. For submission, take the following steps: 1. Persuasive? Script the great ways following gdb session (that is, you needn't script the essay social issues session in the run window, only the session in the debug window). Be sure both your run window and your debug window are on the same machine. 2. Run the kernel in gdb by of nature essays first running the kernel and then attaching to it from gdb . 3. End your script session. Rename your script output to gdb.script . Once you find the essay social issues problem, correct it, recompile the kernel, and run it. If you are successful you will see a statement similar to the following displayed by OS/161. Operation took 0.001896160 seconds.

You will submit the fixed version of hello.c as well as the gdb.script . Admissions Essay? (See the Submission section.) Copy hello.c to. Practicing with CVS (to be submitted) In order to build your kernel above, you already checked out a source tree. Now we'll demonstrate some of the most common features of CVS. Create a script of the following session (the script should contain everything except the editing sessions; do those in a different window). Call this file cvs-use.script . 1. Edit the file kern/main/ main.c . Add a comment with your name in essay issues, it. % cvs diff -c kern/main/ main.c. to display the qualities of a good differences in your version of this file. 3. Now commit your changes using cvs commit. 4. Remove the first 100 lines of main.c . 5. Essay? Try to build your kernel (this ought to fail). 6. Realize the essay error of your ways and get back a good copy of the social issues file.

7. Try to build your tree again. 8. Qualities Of A Supervisor? Now, examine the persuasive issues DEBUG macro in lib.h . Based on your earlier reading of the operating system, add ten useful debugging messages to your operating system. 9. Now, show us where you inserted these DEBUG statements by destruction essays doing a diff. 10. Finally, you should create a release. The files you must submit through COW are the ones that are in.

/ceng334/asst0. Check them to issues, see if any is missing: Then tar the qualities good directory. /ceng334/asst0 with the essay issues command: % tar cvf ceng334-asst0.tar. and submit ceng334-asst0.tar file via COW.

ONLY one person in each group should do the submission, it does not matter who submits. Acknowledgement: This material is essay adapted from persuasive essay social issues, related materials of the CS161 course as prepared by Matt Welsh .