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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.
And one decade later, some people who had believed in essay website evaluation that message were celebrating one of the most sensational U.S. victories in the history of the Cold War: the withdrawal of 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from Afghanistan, marking the first time that the Red Army had withdrawn under fire from essay of science exhibition a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and a multi-billion dollar project to support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the website, anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in essay on importance of science exhibition the world. And at the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the celebrations, however, the essay website evaluation, war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and all kind, Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for power, adding more civilian casualties to the 1 million who had already died. Although peace had broken out between the essay, superpowers, the legacy of their long and bitter rivalry lived on in the Procter and Gamble, rocket-prone city of Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and the war-ravaged villages in the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Afghanistan. How is it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the rugged crossroads of Asia and website, deemed strategically insignificant by exhibition, the United States for decades, became a battleground for the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the 1980s? What stimulated the essay website evaluation, United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for a rebellion led by Islamic religious leaders and fought by mountain tribesmen?
What was the nature of the debate among U.S. officials and congressmen as to paper outline what the rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against the armed forces of the Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in South Asia, which played a crucial role in essay evaluation the war by providing sanctuary for the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the U.S. intelligence and defense communities drawn from the Afghan conflict and paper, applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to prop up a government that seemed constantly on the verge of collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to seize oil fields and warm water ports in the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to protect a new socialist government in a country contiguous to its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for itself against formidable odds? And how did the Afghan government manage to hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to answer these and the many other questions related to the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the thousands of pages of State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Washington; intelligence reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from Agency for International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and other previously classified materials found in this document set. An overview of U.S. policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for approaching these questions and demonstrates the usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan.
Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and 1990--four coups, the intervention and withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces, the website evaluation, exile of one-third of its population as a result of the war, and outline, one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the same: to prevent excessive Soviet influence. Specifically, this meant denying the Soviet Union a foothold in Afghanistan from which to launch aggressive actions in the region. Essay Evaluation? Afghanistan by itself was of little importance to essay exhibition the United States. Essay Website Evaluation? But the area around it?the Persian Gulf and college courses, the sea lines and ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. Website Evaluation? policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and friendly ties with Iran and Pakistan. Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in Afghanistan also remained consistent: the U.S. perception of paper outline template mla, Soviet goals in website evaluation Afghanistan, and the balance of power in the region. Until the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979, the United States was able to project its power into South Asia and protect its interests there with confidence.
In exchange for massive military assistance, the Shah provided the United States with access to research paper outline template military bases and intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf to the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. interests. Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and essay evaluation, because the paper Procter, United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in essay the region, U.S. Creative Writing College? officials viewed Soviet policy in website Afghanistan as part of a defensive strategy. A National Intelligence Estimate written in 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the Shah to his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to Afghanistan is part of www.speech, a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.
The United States, while working to minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. In 1962, the State Department reasoned that US fostering of active hostility toward the essay website, USSR [could] only serve to weaken Afghanistan?s ability to survive.(3) In 1976, the annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on the Soviet Union. Still, it concluded that the United States is not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for the ?protection? of Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of and Gamble, power in the region favored the United States, and no significant Soviet threat to that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of circumstances?which in website U.S. policy parlance is www.speech described as regional stability?changed dramatically in website 1979. The Shah of writing college in ontario, Iran abdicated his throne in January, allowing an anti-American, Islamic government to evaluation take power. Essay Of Science Exhibition? Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the Red Army within striking distance of both Pakistan and essay evaluation, a potentially vulnerable Iran. Of Science? The balance in the region had shifted. Essay? Soviet policy in Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by the White House as the gravest threat to writing college in ontario world peace since World War II.
The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of these changes, one needs to go back to the early 1970s when the power of Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. Afghanistan at this time was one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per capita GNP to be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in 1971-1972. Foreign aid, from such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and especially from the website, USSR, helped alleviate the country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the creative writing courses, country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. Essay Evaluation? The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only a titular head) since the age of 19, when his father was assassinated in 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. In 1971, the in ontario, U.S. Embassy in Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to increased disillusionment and frustration with the existing social/economic conditions and the apparent inability or unwillingness of the leadership to tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the most disgruntled and essay website evaluation, organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
The PDPA had been founded in 1965 by a group of 30 Afghans in essay of science Kabul. Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of its members looking to Moscow for guidance and inspiration. Many PDPA members, in fact, had studied or received military training in the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by quarrels and plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. Essay Evaluation? The two leaders agreed on the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. They both also complained of Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to a maldistribution of wealth and land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by traditional tribal and religious customs.
Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to implement them; Karmal and his supporters advocated the gradual introduction of of science exhibition, socialist change, working within the state system, incorporating along the way different elements of Afghan society. Karmal and several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the party and formed his own faction, also called the essay website evaluation, PDPA, but usually identified by the name of its newspaper, Parcham (banner). Parcham continued to strive for research outline template mla the same kinds of essay website evaluation, socialist reforms pursued by Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for its newspaper, but the two competed for power nevertheless. By the early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. Writing College? The Zahir Administration had shut down the Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and essay evaluation, arrested party members and put them in jail. In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the Khalqis. Parcham and Khalq were not the template, only groups opposed to the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on the royal palace, as did several other former officials and relatives of the king.
Realizing that a race was on to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the military and Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. On July 17, 1973, while the king was vacationing in Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and the minister of interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an end to the monarchy and the beginning of a republican government. The exact nature of Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. Did the two agree on political objectives for essay website Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of convenience? In any event, after ousting the royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to a reformist program and to his early backers was shortlived, however. Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by purging the government of leftists, replacing them with members of his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. He also sought more economic independence from the Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and the United States. Paper Procter And Gamble? He was careful, however, never completely to shun the Soviet Union. As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.
Embassy in Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. In pursuit of evaluation, personal power and a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to term Procter and Gamble alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by Marxism, others were diligently studying the Koran. Many of these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in Egypt where they came into contact with and were influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization which seeks the imposition of strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.
Some of those Afghans who studied in essay Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to Kabul determined to galvanize opposition first to Zahir Shah and then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and creative writing, Islam to counter the disruptive influence of essay website, both capitalism and communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. Jamiat organized anti-government protests and other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and other Muslim leaders fled for mis coursework the Afghan countryside and eventually to Pakistan where they received arms to fight the Daud government. U.S. officials knew very little about these Afghan rebels and doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Some of the names listed in State Department cables were those of people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the United States in website their jihad, or holy war, against research paper the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.
Especially alarming to the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Roughly half of Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and website evaluation, practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Millions of Pashtuns also lived on the other side of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an artificial line drawn by the British during the height of their colonial rule in India. Creative Writing Courses? These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only gain from pursuing such a goal, and essay evaluation, Afghan leaders, in essay of science exhibition turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for pursuing it. What was appealing to evaluation Daud and other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into the NWFP by annexing a good portion of essay on importance of science, Pakistan. Even if the border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Kabul for Pashtunistan always had the potential for stirring unrest in Peshawar and other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, and Hekmatyar, an Islamist who sought to unite Afghans belonging to all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for essay website evaluation keeping Daud off balance if he chose to creative college pursue an aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to purge more leftists from the evaluation, government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and the United States. The United States welcomed and encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.
In 1977, the State Department, remarking on Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to the improvement of regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. Www.speech? approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. Website Evaluation? In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and were anxious to see him removed from power. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for having deluded themselves into thinking that the PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and united to form one People?s Democratic Party of paper, Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on power. That day came on April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the PDPA and a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of interior.
Thousands of mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into website evaluation, an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. Exhibition? His response provoked PDPA supporters in the military to take action. On April 27, the military in website collaboration with the PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the coup as the beginning of the Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and pro-Soviet bent of the new government caused U.S. officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in the PDPA takeover. U.S. Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in the coup and writing in ontario, suggested a cautious approach to essay the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and term paper and Gamble, pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.
Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. Essay Evaluation? The PDPA was in mis coursework a better position than the Islamicists to seize power because of its stronger influence over the military and evaluation, within the creative in ontario, capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. The new government, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to foreign diplomatic posts.
Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from essay evaluation marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and advisors to Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to ignite strong opposition from all kind most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. The security of rural women, for example, often depended on essay website evaluation, a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to help small farmers, were opposed by research template mla, many for having alienated them from their former landowners, on website evaluation, whom they had always relied for help in growing and selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against the Taraki-Amin government or left the country. Some Afghans fled to Pakistan to essay on importance join the Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and essay website evaluation, Hekmatyar. Some of the more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Sufi leaders, had ties to the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for most rebels), and formerly taught Islamic law in Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in parliament in the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.
There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from Afghanistan in 1974 after writing a book that criticized the Daud Administration. Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to galvanize Afghans in his home province of Nangarhar to oppose the new government in outline template mla Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and another who joined in 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to form the Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for essay website evaluation a jihad, or holy war, against the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the charge against the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. The Shiite Afghans also played an outline template mla, important insurgency role in the western half of evaluation, Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in Iran where they received support from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the world?s attention, partly because the government of Pakistan, the mis coursework, host to most rebels and refugees and the foreign journalists writing about them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the PDPA?s ascension to power in Afghanistan.
This dilemma was summed up in a secret memorandum to Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the April takeover: We need to take into essay website, account the mix of nationalism and communism in the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the regime into a closer embrace with the Soviet Union than it might wish. On Importance? Yet the memo also pointed out essay website, various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to research paper outline template see if we acquiesce in or accept the communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and others of our friends in the area will see the situation clearly as a Soviet coup. Essay Website Evaluation? On the domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the government while keeping channels open to the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the mis coursework, new government and essay website, its radical reforms. To make matters worse, in February 1979, the U.S. ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the release of a political prisoner. Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Dubs was killed in the ensuing shootout. Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. All Kind? requests for an independent investigation of the killing. Congress in evaluation turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and threatened to of essay cut aid to the DRA.
In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of Herat responded to rebel calls for a jihad by massacring hundreds of essay, DRA officials and Soviet advisors who were in college courses in ontario charge of introducing the women?s literacy program there. Evaluation? Afghanistan was beginning to draw attention from the outside world, including Washington. At the White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the Soviet Union, with its hundreds of advisors in Afghanistan to assist in reforms and counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on Afghanistan and creative writing courses, possibly the whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and others worried that the USSR might take advantage of its presence in Afghanistan in order to influence events in neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for years had helped safeguard U.S. interests in the region, namely access to oil and the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into a launching pad for aggression in the region. Weeks after the Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the essay website evaluation, National Security Council (NSC) to be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the template mla, evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for website moderate covert support for Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the command of Rabbani and Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for years. According to a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in paper 1988, the website evaluation, U.S. Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in term Procter and Gamble April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the website, best use of college courses in ontario, U.S. aid. The following month, the Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the essay, Pakistani government considered the most militant and organized rebel group, the outline, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)
Freedom of website evaluation, Information Act requests for records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the U.S. Embassy in creative college Tehran in November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the Soviet intervention and immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the essay evaluation, United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Although most of the cables and memoranda released to date show that U.S. officials politely turned down rebel requests for U.S. assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and creative courses, close monitoring of Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in essay website Afghanistan at the time.
According to of essay declassified documents and essay website, this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and broaden their political base by essay of science exhibition, including non-communists in the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for Soviet officials, were not in power. When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to essay induce political change, meeting with former members of the template mla, monarchy and other non-communists to seek their participation in the DRA government. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in Kabul kept the U.S. Embassy informed of their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for Soviet counsel. The government responded to the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and the PDPA?s base continued to narrow. Amin, who as the defense minister was in essay evaluation charge of the failed counterinsurgency operations, became the focus of Soviet frustrations.
State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in Afghanistan to the rule of Taraki and Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to support the more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to assess the stability of the government. In September, Taraki, on his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in Cuba, stopped in Moscow where he and Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon his return and executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to Moscow and presented the Politburo with a grim picture of the essay on importance of science, situation below their border.
The Khalqi government had lost control of 23 of essay website evaluation, Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the Soviets drew up plans for military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of www.speech, readiness. Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into essay, an airbase near Kabul during the first week of December, laying the groundwork for what was to follow. On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of thousands of Soviet troops riding in tanks and armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Moscow. Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and Doctrines of Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the limits of Soviet influence in and Gamble Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the government through political means, Moscow attempted to do so with military force, much the same as the United States had done years before in Vietnam. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on the Kremlin?s chessboard.
The invasion coincided with the website evaluation, decline of U.S. Essay On Importance Exhibition? influence in Iran and other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in website evaluation 1977 and Nicaragua in 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. Term Paper Procter? It also coincided with an election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from website conservatives for failing to prevent these Soviet gains. Many of writing college, these U.S. observers argued that the global balance of essay evaluation, power, particularly the Procter, geostrategic balance in South Asia, had shifted in favor of the Soviet Union. The new dominant U.S. perception of Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in essay evaluation nature: the Brezhnev Doctrine of protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the Warsaw Pact. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.
Control of Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to term paper Procter and Gamble the Indian Ocean and to essay domination of the Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the Soviet Union on January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by creative college in ontario, any outside force to gain control of the essay website evaluation, Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the U.S. and [would] be repelled by www.speech, any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the Carter Doctrine. Since, however, the United States was neither interested in nor prepared for a war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the website, Persian Gulf, Carter looked for alternative ways to essay on importance slow down a potential Soviet drive and make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. He called for international economic sanctions against the USSR and a boycott of the Olympic games being held in essay evaluation Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and Southwest Asian countries, and provided more covert aid to the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in order to provide the Kremlin with a way out of what they believed was a political and military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the Kremlin leadership to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. These advisors did not believe the intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the United States, Europe and mis coursework, China.
What is more, the deeply traditional and Islamic Afghans, in their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and essay website, Washington. A combination of fear, pride and creative college, superpower obligations caused the leader of the free world and the vanguard of socialism to struggle violently over a destitute country the size of Texas for the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in essay evaluation the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the Soviet Union was on mis coursework, a roll in the Third World and had to be rolled back. Moderates thought the intervention, regardless of its purpose, was an egregious act for which the essay website evaluation, USSR should pay a price. On Importance Of Science? All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from Afghanistan. The question was how to convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Soviet Union?s willingness to negotiate in good faith. According to their view, the USSR would not withdraw unless and until it felt the costs of essay website evaluation, its occupation.
Most U.S. moderates and outline, liberals fell into website evaluation, line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of resolving the conflict. All Kind Of Essay? The State Department believed that the rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at the White House, Carter opted for a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for website a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to Reagan in the 1980 presidential election signalled the end of the negotiation track. The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to make the mis coursework, Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the centerpiece of the Reagan Doctrine, an aggressive initiative designed to increase the cost of Soviet support for Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to essay website evaluation tie Soviet troops down in Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the paper, cost of essay evaluation, occupation became unsustainable. The key to this objective was Pakistan. Since the overthrow of Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for essay of science exhibition make-shift tent villages in the Northwest Frontier Province and essay evaluation, Baluchistan. Without the cooperation of Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Gen. Paper Outline Mla? Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the rebels would have had no sanctuary from which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to Pakistan in 1977 because of website, concerns about its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for human rights and democracy.
There was ample evidence to suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. In addition, the Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to respond to Zia?s well-known history of brutal and dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. After promising elections within 90 days of the of essay, takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and essay website evaluation, eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of human rights abuses paled in essay on importance significance when compared to website evaluation the Soviet move into Afghanistan. Literally days after the Soviet invasion, Carter was on term paper Procter and Gamble, the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of dollars in economic and military aid in website evaluation exchange for cooperation in helping the rebels. Zia accepted this quid pro quo, but his government remained wary of Washington?s stated commitment to protect Pakistan from possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to gain Pakistan?s confidence by college in ontario, offering a huge, six-year economic and military aid package which elevated Pakistan to the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign aid. The Reagan White House had equal success in persuading Congress to accept Zia as a new ally.
The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and seemed uninterested in ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in website evaluation charge of a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of mis coursework, supporting Afghan self-determination and opposing the Afghan puppet government, he and essay, his military had their own agenda in Afghanistan. Term Procter And Gamble? Zia chose to evaluation favor the and Gamble, more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in some cases, were no more popular or representative than the website evaluation, PDPA. He was able to divert a disproportionately large share of U.S.-supplied weapons to these groups, especially the creative writing college courses in ontario, most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Later in essay evaluation the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to Zia?s favoritism of the fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is all kind still in essay evaluation question.
The relationship between the CIA and Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to the rebels, is not well-documented. Template? This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the most effective rebel organization, although some officials from Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Website Evaluation? Many secular Pakistanis outside of the www.speech, government worried that foreign aid for Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to bolster the conservative Islamic forces in Pakistan, including the military. Available documents and evaluation, chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, U.S. officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and term Procter and Gamble, Covert Aid.
Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the Reagan Administration?s efforts to aid the contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and successfully pushed for more covert funding for website the Afghan rebels than the White House ever requested. Hence, the all kind, debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in scope although not without tension. Website? While everyone seemed to support Afghan self-determination and a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of Congress, backed by conservative lobbying groups, criticized the administration for not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over the PDPA. It was the CIA, ironically, that cautioned against too much covert aid for the rebels. Officials from CIA headquarters in essay on importance of science exhibition Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for essay the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Pakistan and would certainly be subject to leakages and corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to calls for providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in order to plausibly deny U.S. involvement if the mis coursework, need arose. Throughout the Afghan war, the CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and essay website, elsewhere and transported them to Pakistan. Cables reveal that Chinese and Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in essay exhibition Pakistan as early as 1980.
This covert purchasing process not only covered U.S. Essay Website Evaluation? tracks, but ensured the availability of weapons that were compatible with the kind captured by the rebels from college courses in ontario their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. material aid for the rebels in their fight for essay website evaluation freedom from foreign domination. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the Tsongas-Ritter resolution to research paper mla increase the essay website, size and quality of the rebel covert aid program. While Washington and Moscow poured more weapons into Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to all kind of essay end the essay evaluation, war. In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to find a way for term paper the United Nations to mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.
For the next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and forth from New York to essay website evaluation South Asia to the Soviet Union and to Geneva. He tried to convince the numerous parties to the conflict?the Afghan government, the various rebel groups, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on a set of principles or conditions under which the Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Cordovez and his U.N. Of Essay? colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to Geneva on numerous occasions to essay website evaluation discuss conditions for on importance a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to move back and forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to sit at the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of mistrust between the superpowers. On a number of occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from essay website allowing material aid for the rebels to pass through its territory in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the timing or conditions of the creative college courses, accord. To most U.S. officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. In March 1983, Under Secretary of essay evaluation, State for Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in a settlement.
About the same time, Charles Cogan, then the CIA?s official in charge of mis coursework, covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the essay, U.S. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Was Moscow supporting U.N. efforts as a smokescreen for research outline template mla its strategy of subjugating the mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and others argued? Or did increased U.S. aid for the rebels cause the USSR to dig in deeper, suspecting that the United States was not interested in a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in evaluation galvanizing congressional backing for www.speech a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of corruption in both the essay, military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. By 1987, the United States was providing the all kind, rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from evaluation Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on the House Intelligence Committee to mis coursework tack on evaluation, an additional $50 million for Afghan covert aid and www.speech, convinced the essay evaluation, CIA to purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the and Gamble, Hind Mi-24 helicopter.
The CIA went even further in essay website 1985, purchasing the sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. And in 1986, due to pressure from several congressmen and a number of of essay, bureaucrats at the State and website evaluation, Defense departments, the CIA provided the www.speech, mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of website evaluation, a covert insurgency support operation, and the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the mis coursework, Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. Policy.
The dislocation of 3 million Afghan refugees in Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the war?was something Congress, the White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. Website? Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the country, testifying to the destruction and chaos caused largely by heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. In 1981, the all kind of essay, U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the mujahidin by essay, focusing attention on U.S. influence in mis coursework the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to help the refugees and website evaluation, rebels as long as they were provided with the necessary resources to do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of aid through favored NGOs and urged other countries to either aid the same organizations or to contribute to and Gamble the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In the end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of it ended up in the hands of rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over evaluation, the millions of Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for mis coursework providing aid to the refugees in essay website Pakistan, the United States also sought to alleviate political and mis coursework, economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for evaluation the rebels. In 1982, the CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan would help generate political unrest and retard economic development until the www.speech, end of the century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and tolerance for the refugees, others despised their presence.
Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over essay, scarce resources and political, religious and personal differences. Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and money from the Afghan government to www.speech disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the Afghan government?s infiltration of Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and proved key to its survival. The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to essay website evaluation buy or rent the loyalty of Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the border). Weapons and money were doled out to tribal militia who in turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in Pakistan. Some tribal leaders responded to Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the Pakistan-based tribes? support for the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and ultimately contributed to the rise of Najibullah, the KHAD?s director and the man responsible for creative this counterinsurgency campaign, to the leader of the DRA in 1986. Other kinds of essay website, counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on paper, government-held garrisons and cities, were some of the principal causes of the refugee flow into evaluation, Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the most damage. Congress, determined to counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.
The Agency for International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of term paper Procter, AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and rebels alike?with the means to survive without having to flee to Pakistan. The mass exodus of Afghans had been putting too much pressure on Pakistan, and the empty Afghan villages left the essay, rebels with little material or moral support inside the country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the richest documents in the collection, describing the situation inside the normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the bizarre politics of the mujahidin. As part of a pro-insurgency operation, the program was unique and controversial. AID was being used to maintain and build up the rebels? infrastructure.
As one U.S. Essay On Importance Of Science Exhibition? advisor explained to this author in Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. The Soviets were trying to evaluation drain the sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the www.speech, sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into action to coordinate U.S. government agencies to enhance U.S. national security and counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. Essay Website Evaluation? U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by www.speech, war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the essay website evaluation, National Security Council, in keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to discuss ways of increasing media coverage of the war and generating sympathy and support for the mujahidin. News coverage of the war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the longest war in Soviet history, the largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the bloodiest regional conflict in outline mla the world at the time. Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to station a reporter in Peshawar, Pakistan, the base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to the Khyber Pass for a glimpse of the essay evaluation, war.
A major reason for this, of course, was the risk involved in paper outline reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to be biased toward the mujahidin. Several factors explain this. Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to Peshawar or managed to go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to tell about losing homes and relatives to Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from Soviet bombs marked the landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and many Afghans who found their way to Pakistan walked the website, streets with artificial limbs, victims of land mines. In addition, the Afghan government often proved to be an unreliable source of information, causing Western journalists to rely heavily on courses in ontario, U.S. Essay Website? officials for details of the war.
The DRA in 1980, for example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on a visit into Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. That same year the outline, DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for biased coverage. When the government allowed journalists to return to the country in 1986, the journalists discovered in essay website Kabul another side to the story: victims of rebel land mines and indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on the capital. Thus, for much of the war most reporters found it physically and mis coursework, journalistically safer to rely on Western diplomatic sources in Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at the Consulate in essay website Peshawar or the Embassy in Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. officials still complained of its limited nature. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the www.speech, United States Information Agency (USIA) to teach Afghan rebels how to film and evaluation, write about research template mla, their jihad.
The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of website evaluation, Communications to train Afghans in Peshawar to become television and newsprint journalists. This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from professors at the university and several American journalists who called the exercise in Procter public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. Documents on the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and several private organizations to increase and improve coverage of the essay website, war. The United States was also able to influence coverage by taking advantage of Western journalists? inability to cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of creative writing, a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Kabul. These Sitreps were to serve two purposes. They provided U.S. officials at home and abroad with detailed information on the political and military situation in Afghanistan. They also formed part of the Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to punch holes in essay evaluation the Soviet news blackout. The press, however, was usually allowed to hear only the first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to www.speech government human rights abuses and essay evaluation, mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and template mla, bizarre war being fought on more levels than just that of Soviet-backed communists against essay website evaluation freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the refugee camps and press conferences in research paper outline template Pakistan, a real and essay evaluation, very destructive war was going on inside Afghanistan.
Cables from Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and journal articles by the few reporters who bravely ventured into war zones reveal how pockets of mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and paper outline, U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. Website? Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on government-held garrisons and in ontario, cities and other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from essay website Kabul. Writing College In Ontario? Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and Jalalabad, where the mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to essay observers of essay of science, this war just as Hue and Khe Sanh had in Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the website evaluation, Muj were not the www.speech, Viet Cong. It is true that U.S. military aid improved the essay, rebels? battlefield performance. One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and air support changes in the last quarter of of essay, 1986 and the first quarter of 1987 than in evaluation the previous 7 years of the writing college in ontario, conflict.(21) Also, more and better land mines allowed the rebels to disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. Essay Evaluation? No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the mujahidin remained fractious. Research Paper Outline? It was not uncommon for one rebel group to turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of website evaluation, rebel infighting even before the Soviet intervention.
In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. Mis Coursework? officials that they likened the idea of a dissident provisional government to essay evaluation putting five different animals in the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by research paper outline mla, withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to evaluation coalesce and of essay, form a united opposition front. Yet foreign aid often did more to divide the rebels than to unite them. The Saudi government, which deposited many of its contributions into a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of essay website evaluation, Islam which was alien to the majority of www.speech, Afghans. Iran supported the Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in the western part of the country but were left out of power-sharing arrangements made by the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. For its part, the Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of CIA-purchased weapons to Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the arms against essay website evaluation rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to mis coursework overthrow the evaluation, PDPA. The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.
In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for Zahir Shah as an research, alternative head of state for essay Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and other leaders denounced the poll as propaganda by the monarchists. But U.S. officials had evidence from their own observations and conversations that many Afghans might unite around the former king for an interim period if only to help find a more expedient way to mis coursework negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and essay website, an end to the war. Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to oppose the unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Diego Cordovez and paper Procter, his U.N. Evaluation? team also recognized the king as a potential key to a settlement and kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to grant Zahir Shah a visa and writing college in ontario, kept a close eye on essay website, pro-Zahir activities. Pakistan?s President Zia and mis coursework, his supporters in the military were determined to put a conservative Islamic ally in power in Kabul. U.S. officials and private experts yielded to website the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the king?s return would do little good. Some of these officials argued that as a result of the www.speech, war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and toward the mujahidin commanders and their political/religious leaders in Peshawar.
The Soviet presence and Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and website evaluation, ethnic groups to fight a common enemy. That unity was soon put to a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the world by announcing that the Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from Afghanistan. Three days later, in the midst of celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in his office. Research Paper Outline Template Mla? His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by a string of assassinations and acts of essay website evaluation, intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to a fundamentalist government in Afghanistan as they were a communist one. Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only widen further. The Geneva Accords and term paper, the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the fragmented nature of the rebel movement worked to its advantage for much of the war. The USSR could find no central rebel base of operations to bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to infiltrate, no single popular leader to negotiate with?or eliminate.
The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from essay evaluation all directions in this war without borders. Gen. Of Essay? Boris Gromov, the last commander of the evaluation, Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the mis coursework, Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in and out of service in Afghanistan and website evaluation, brought home all the signs of paper, a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and more.
The war also hit home in essay other ways. Billions of term paper Procter, rubles were spent on Afghanistan instead of the crumbling Soviet economy. In the troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the Afghan jihad when, at various points during the war, rebel bands crossed the sensitive Soviet border to foment unrest among the Islamic population. The impact of the Afghan war on Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.
Gorbachev and essay website, his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to Third World governments, some of which seemed to rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to tie future foreign assistance to certain understandings, one being that the recipient government had to concentrate on building a broad base of support before implementing social and mis coursework, economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in Moscow?s strategy to protect the Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in Moscow that the Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to Kabul and essay evaluation, immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an effort to broaden the government?s political support base. On Importance Of Science Exhibition? He announced a cease-fire and an amnesty for armed oppositionists.(25) But the war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and website evaluation, Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to withdraw for on importance of science exhibition quite some time.
In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the withdrawal was to be completed, a top official in evaluation the U.S. Embassy in Kabul claimed that the Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from unraveling. Although most of his colleagues disagreed, the term and Gamble, diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the Soviet occupation was based on a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the withdrawal. Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in keeping the PDPA in essay website evaluation power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and all kind of essay, others also distrusted the Soviet initiatives.
Months before the U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to essay evaluation stop the White House from guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the mujahidin even after the USSR had withdrawn. As a co-guarantor of the accords, the United States was obligated to cut aid to research paper outline template the rebels on the first day of the essay website, pull-out. Humphrey and others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from Moscow. Secretary of State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to paper Procter and Gamble accord the Afghan rebels the evaluation, same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Soviet and research paper template mla, Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. The rebels refused, calling the offer a ploy to keep the PDPA in power. Essay? Due to congressional pressure and over Soviet objections, the United States created a separate, unwritten clause to the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the rebels as long as the Soviet Union aided Kabul. The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the www.speech, signing of the accords. At the last minute, after the essay evaluation, United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to drop its demand for a coalition government as a precondition to signing, Pakistan insisted on the formation of and Gamble, a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of rebel and other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.
President Reagan called President Zia and assured him that the United States would stand by the rebels until they seized power, and that since the USSR was probably going to withdraw with or without an agreement, Pakistan ought to website sign. Besides, the White House had been advised that the PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the in ontario, governments of Afghanistan and website, Pakistan agreed?with the USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from any form of interference in each other?s territory, and to give all Afghan refugees the opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the research outline template mla, superpowers pledged to stop interfering in website evaluation Afghanistan, with the USSR agreeing to withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the term, other elements of the accords would be rendered obsolete by positive symmetry. Essay? To Washington, however, that seemed not to matter, for a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the corner. On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from college courses in ontario Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?
Journal of Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of State, Elements of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Maxwell J. Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1974, p. Essay Evaluation? 4. 6. United States Department of State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Creative Writing? Strategy for the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.
9. United States Department of State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Carter Would Fight for Persian Gulf; Seeks to Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.
14. Evaluation? Author?s interview with present and on importance exhibition, former U.S. officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.
United States Department of State, Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 1980. 17. Selig S. Harrison, Inside the Afghan Talks. Website? Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. United States Department of State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.
19. Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. Www.speech? United States Army, Impact of the Stinger Missile on Soviet and Resistance Tactics in Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of State, Nature of the Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.
23. United States Army, Lessons from the War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. A Diplomatic Solution to Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.
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s2disk resume NOTE : This page is outdated and is only retained for historical purposes. Suspend with KMS has been implemented and working for all cards exept for essay website evaluation, TNT2. Ben Skeggs has given a great update on the status of Nouveau including an update on Suspend/Resume: Yes, that's right, Nouveau finally supports suspend/resume. All Kind? In theory the support is there for all chipsets. In the very least, every chipset I own (at least one from each family, and 5 G80-class cards) can suspend/resume reliably except for a TNT2 that has other issues.. This support is only available when kernel modesetting is switched on, so that's even more reason to use it! The following status only applies to TNT2:
Q: Is suspend working with nouveau? A: In unpatched nouveau, only if you use Option ShadowFB on in your xorg.conf, but this only works for evaluation, s2disk and disables all acceleration for 2D and 3D and disables Xv. Q: (Follow-up) Is it possible to creative writing college courses get rid of Option ShadowFB on for nouveau suspend to have Xv and evaluation EXA working? A: Yes, Stuart Bennett (malc0) has a patch for nv0x-nv4x: http://people.freedesktop.org/ stuart/nv0x-nv3x_suspend/ (also install the current drm repro) Q: Do malc0's patches also work with running 3D applications? A: Maybe, please test and report! Q: (Follow-up) Is there a way to paper Procter make this work with s2ram ? A: Yes, but none is working for all cards yet, so it requires some experimentation and website work. a) You can try to add a call to vbetool post to your resume script to light up the term paper Procter monitor after s2ram.
Similarily, you can try to add acpi_sleep=s3_bios,s3_mode to your kernel command line. Note, this only works on Intel machines as it requres the execution of Intel machine code. b) On PPC, or if the website evaluation method above does not work for you (e.g. Of Essay? if your backlight stays off after resume, but the essay website kernel otherwise runs), you have to creative in ontario cold-boot the card by interpreting the NVIDIA BIOS init table. Essay? There are two ways to do it: You call nouveau's BIOS-parsing card init routine when your X server switches to the X terminal: http://pastebin.com/m4287d7bf Note: You have to restore the backlight registers NV_PBUS_DEBUG_DUALHEAD_CTL and NV_CRTC_GPIO_EXT using radeontool (the version for nouveau) to get backlight back. On PPC, you have to set the card to mis coursework big endian mode before running nouveau's BIOS parser to init the card. Ask moondrake in IRC for further information. Matthew Garrett (mjg59) and essay website Stuart Bennett (malc0) managed to run nouveau'S BIOS parser in the kernel (see http://mjg59.livejournal.com/91888.html ) together with nv but it is not integrated with nouveau yet, causes lockups with nouveau and all kind of essay only works for certain older cards (like nv44). For more info, look at the section on essay website evaluation cold-booting the card.
Comment: Nouveau BIOS-parsing card init (both methods, 1 and 2) does not restore text mode. Ben Skeggs has been hired by RedHat and so he can work on on importance of science the features which are important for evaluation, RedHat and distributions in general, like KMS and suspend/resume which seems to be fully done now. In any case, you can come to the nouveau IRC channel, report any issueas and ask if you could help. 3. Possibilities for suspending and resuming the card. Working suspend2ram requires ability to Procter and Gamble cold-boot (also called POSTing - Power-On Self-Test) the card. This is very card-specifc, and may work on some hardware with some method, or not. Currently, there are the following ways how the card can be posted. This does much more than just turning on the backlight (eg. like xset dpms). Fore example it needs to init the nvidia ASIC, upload the firmware into it and boot it.
3.1.1. Cold-booting the card using x86 BIOS routines. The VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE) provide a way to POST the evaluation card even after boot with cards whose VESA BIOS is working after boot. For many (nmost?) nvidia cards, it's not, but the BIOS of G8x cards (nv50) cards seems to work. There are two ways to use the of essay VESA BIOS to post the card: In the kernel: Controlled thru the boot parameter acpi_sleep=[s3_bios,s3_mode] and thru /proc/sys/kernel/acpi_video_flags (can be set by the s2ram tool) the kernel will, on evaluation resume, POST the card and/or set the VBE mode which it saved before suspending. All Kind Of Essay? If the essay kernel is told to also restore the test mode (s3_bios,s3_mode), it will also restore the text mode. From Linux user space thru vbetool post. This does not restore the mis coursework text mode, it only essay website cold-boots the card. The now-implemented nv50 kernel modesetting is used to restore the text mode. 3.1.2.
Cold-booting the card by interpreting the init scripts in mis coursework the Video BIOS. This depends on nouveau's BIOS parser to correctly interpret the reverse-engineered init script of your Nvidia BIOS. There are two ways to cold-boot the card by interpreting the Nvidia BIOS tables: In xf86-video-nouveau/src/nv_bios.c , change pNv-VBIOS.execute = false to true . These BIOS parsers do not set or restore a text mode after cold-booting the card, and they only work for nv4x cards and older. (For nv5x cards the VBE POST can be used.) For s2disk, the machine is essay evaluation ultimatively turned off completely and all power can be removed. The resume process is www.speech preceeded by a normal system boot thru the BIOS, so the card is initialized by website, the VGA BIOS in this case, so we do not need to have cold-booting the card working. 4. Support for suspend in other drivers. The blob has support for suspend2disk and all kind suspend2ram, but on some newer cards (some G80 cards) it fails to resume from disk. The nv driver has suspend2disk working (at least with g80 cards). Switching to a text console before suspend (like suspend scripts usually do) is required tough.
It re-initializes the g80 hardware in each EnterVT when switching back to X. ShadowFB disables Xv, EXA and hardware-accelerated RENDER as well as hardware 3D. If you only need 2D graphics and your system is essay website evaluation fast, ShadowFB is likely also fast, but you have to switch to the text console before suspending. 6. Www.speech? Possible tools for essay website evaluation, reverse-engineering. Hopefully, MmioTrace works during suspending and resume. mmiotrace does not provide much symboic information on nv5x cards yet. Note: Below, you may Nvidia-specific terms which you may not know yet. Read HonzaHavlicek to understand what they mean. Nvidia cards are composed of several separate units: PMC, PTIMER, PFB, PGRAPH and paper and Gamble PFIFO.
Nouveaus's GPU initialisation code in essay evaluation nouveau.ko is www.speech called during X server startup thru an ioctl which is issued during DRI initialisation. nouveau.ko skips this step if nouveau.ko's internal status indicates that the GPU is already initialized. Even the oldest cards supported by nouveau (NV04 = TNT2) have a GPU unit which has support for essay website evaluation, multi-tasking like a full-blown CPU and they even appear to have other CPU-like features like memory protection so that one GPU process cannot mess up the mis coursework state of other GPU processes, and Nouveau does a context switch between two such GPU processes even as part of the X startup. For 2D and essay website evaluation 3D acceleration in parallel, these context switches have to be working. All the GPU processes which were set up before suspending need to be saved and have to be restored on resume - after the various parts of the GPU are initialized. Contexts of these GPU processes live in differnt parts of the GPU, one part of these GPU contexts lives in the actual drawing engine (PGRAPH) while one part lives in the part which feeds the drawing engine with the writing college courses in ontario commands for drawing (the PFIFO).
7.1. Low-Level Card initialisation in nouveau.ko. The initialisation routines for the nvidia chip components differ from chip generation to essay chip generation, so the 1st step which nouveau.ko does is checking which chip generation the card uses. Depending on paper outline the generation, the essay website pointers to the card-specific functions are set to the card-specific functions for mis coursework, the detected chip generation. Essay Website Evaluation? When the GPU initialisation is finally called, the card-specific initialisation functions for the various initialsation stages are executed. All Kind Of Essay? First, the evaluation initialisaiton functions for rather low-level units are called. All Kind? The first one is the PMC. It seems to essay be someting like a power switch for the other units, at least it seems to be used by the initialisation functions of the other units to power-cycle the respective unit before it is initialized. At least on NV04, init of term PMC, PTIMER, PFB and PGRAPH are trivial. PFIFO init is where things get more involved. Essay Website Evaluation? PFIFO needs to know the locations of several parts of the cards instance memory(a special memory region in VRAM, reserved for the internal GPU status and commands, size is 512 KiB or 1MiB, depending on research mla the card): RAMHT (hash tables), RAMFC (FIFO context) and RAMRO (FIFO runout table).
This information is configured and written to the FIFO in fifo_instance_mem_init() and that part is still trivial. All drawing commands are sent to the GPU inside a channel (someting like a process for a CPU). A channel is composed of it's FIFO context, it's PGRAPH context, as well as allocated GPU objects and DMA objects. DMA and Interrupt setup are the final stages of the GPU initialisation routine in nouveau.ko. Current status is essay website evaluation that I can run the init routines of PMC, PTIMER and outline template mla PFB during EnterVT when switching from console text mode back to graphics mode on essay website evaluation NV04 and have EXA still working, to add make GPRAPH init I have to call the graph_save_context and graph_load_context routines around graph_init(), but for PFIFO init, it gets more tricky, see below, and for that, we may need some mmiotraces to know what to mis coursework do to get the combination of PGRAPH and PFIFO init work. Off-Topic: Regarding saving power): Depending on wether the PMC really can really power-down all the other units of the GPU, the PMC and the suspend code in general could used to save power (= gain of battery time) using nouveau (in addition to essay evaluation reducing the clock speed with nvclock) when no drawing is done thru the GPU or when all drawing is mis coursework done directly by the CPU like when ShadowFB is enabled. When nothing is drawn for essay website evaluation, some time, we could already (with current code) test wether we can turn off PTIMER, PFB and PGRAPH and turn them on again quickly triggered by trapping writes the the user-space command submission buffer. When suspend is term paper and Gamble working, we could turn off most chip compenents to save power and restore their status when drawing starts again. 7.1.1. Examples of what we need to do on Nvidia chip generations. All generations: Tell the card the essay evaluation location of RAMHT, RAMRO and RAMFC thru writes to the registers NV03_PFIFO_RAMHT, NV03_PFIFO_RAMRO, NV03_PFIFO_RAMFC/NV40_PFIFO_RAMFC by calling nouveau_fifo_instmem_configure() from nouveau_fifo_init() inside the nouveau drm kernel module.
NV40 and newer: Write the Voodoo into the card NV50 and essay on importance of science exhibition newer (and maybe als older ones like NV28): Write the CTXVals into the card. malc0's suspend patch does this by calling mc.init(), timer.init(), fb.init(), graph.init() and essay website evaluation fifo.init(). Creative Courses? Afterwards, he restores the RAMIN area. What should we do with all the gpu data objects in the channels? When a channel is allocated and used, lots of gpu data objects are allocated in VRAM. Data structures are complex: Each channel has a fifo context which has a pushbuf attached which has a number of essay website evaluation gpu objechts (look at nouveau_fifo_alloc). FIFO alloc is started from mis coursework, user space, goes into the kernel and back to essay website do remaining things in user space again. malc0's patch saves and restore the whole RAMIN area instead. The space currently allocated to RAMIN by nouveau is 1MiB for =NV40 and www.speech 512kib for all older cards. Essay Website? It would take less memory to save and restore RAMFC, RAMRO and then not the complete RAMIN heap but only the allocated GPU objects in it. For that, we'd have to traverse thru the in ontario list of allocated gpu_objects within the memory management of nouveau/drm and back up those.
In theory, it would be nice to allocate the RAMIN backup space in swappable memory (may have to be allocated by the user process?) and essay website use copy_to/from_user for the transfer in essay on importance exhibition order to not require a large continous chunk of memory (which may not be available if memory gets fragmented), but swapping would need to be running during suspend/resume for essay website, this to work. 10. Obsolete progress reports from Spring 2008. BernhardKaindl: After adding save/restore of all PFIFO regs, I now even get a PGRAPH context switch interrupt (it's alive! it's alive!) after X starts sending commands thru the FIFO again, so that looks good. The bad news is that I get weird errors from the on importance card afterwards.
After seeing this this, I guess we should really take MMIO traces of the blob when it's suspending and website resuming the card as there might be GPU state in registers and memory areas which might not even be used by all kind, nouevau so far as they might be very card-internal and only need to be touched to essay evaluation save and restore a complete GPU status. Another possibility would be that the all kind of essay the state which gets lost is in RAMIN - I think that I didn't touch RAMIN in this initial experiment, so I hoped it's not touched at alls, bit it might be that the FIFO initialisation also initiialses part of the RAMIN area for example possibly to website RAMRO aread (FIFO runout area - nouveau does not know anyting about it, nouveau only allocates space for it), so saving the RAMIN area (which includes RAMRO and hopefully all the rest of the FIFO status) before re-initialising the GPU and restoring it afterwards would be a try. Ideally, we should be getting a mmiostrace of a suspend of the blob so we can really *see* what the blob is doing there. Now that I have understood some basics of the card, such mmiotrace should be able to tell me something.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to website start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into writing in ontario, one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Website. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on on importance of science exhibition, it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for website the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).
Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about mis coursework, what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of essay website, All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on term, the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on essay evaluation, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Outline. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of essay, cutting and research paper pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to website what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of research outline template mla, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on essay, the top third of your resume. Of Essay. This top section is what the hiring manager is evaluation, going to template see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to.
In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on website evaluation, making the mis coursework, rest of essay website evaluation, your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Paper. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the website, bottom line is research outline mla, this—you want the information here to be concise, and essay website evaluation making yourself keep it to paper and Gamble one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on essay website evaluation, more than one page of your resume, then go for it. Essay. But if you can tell the same story in website less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for www.speech cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in essay evaluation less space. Mis Coursework. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on essay, one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work?
Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the of science exhibition, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on essay website, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and all kind 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and evaluation the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman?
Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an term paper, ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Evaluation. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to www.speech put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Essay Website. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to all kind of essay include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Website. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in research paper getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.
This is arguably the essay website evaluation, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to college courses which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into essay, more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to essay exhibition the one you’re applying to). 14.
No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. Website. No matter how long you’ve been in outline a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.
No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to website get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . Www.speech. You may be tempted to essay throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to term paper the average person. Essay Website Evaluation. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to all kind be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of evaluation, them. Www.speech. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to essay website evaluation your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about www.speech, how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company.
By doing this, you clearly communicate not only website evaluation, what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to of essay sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Website Evaluation. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in mis coursework a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.
Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is evaluation, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and research paper outline mla spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.
Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Website. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the mla, most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the website, reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.
The reviewer cares more about www.speech, whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the essay website, fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Mis Coursework. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the essay website evaluation, skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and research outline mla any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is essay website evaluation, expected to of essay have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out website evaluation one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.
Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about mla, it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.
Maybe you help raise money for your church on essay website evaluation, the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to of science include them or not. Website Evaluation. Do include awards and courses accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.
Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in essay evaluation a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Writing College In Ontario. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. Essay Evaluation. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position.
Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at term paper and Gamble, your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for essay leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the creative courses, gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and essay website evaluation make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the research paper mla, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at evaluation, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to on importance of science include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume.
For example, if you took time out of the evaluation, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of of essay, laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is essay, as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for paper and Gamble references—and will assume that you have them. Essay. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to Procter take a look at evaluation, it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). On Importance Exhibition. If emailing your resume, make sure to essay website evaluation always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at all kind of essay, it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to essay website take. Carve out mis coursework some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and essay evaluation make some updates.
Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Paper Procter. When your resume is essay website, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to creative writing college pounce when opportunity presents itself. Essay Evaluation. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the essay, standard of writing on essay evaluation, the web.
Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and of science led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an website, individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Term Paper. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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essay world interpret these words of Admiral Muller (an advocate of launching a war soon) as saying that nothing was decided for 1912-13, but that war was decided on website evaluation, for the summer of 1914. Rohl is on mis coursework, safer ground when he argues that even if this War Council did not reach a binding decision - which it clearly did not - it did nonetheless offer a clear view of their intentions, or at least their thoughts, which were that if there was going to be a war, the German Army wanted it before the new Russian armaments. The Causes of World War One Essay. led to evaluation the assumption that the war would only paper Procter, last a few months when it would in fact last four years. But when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia helped Serbia. Germany and Italy then decided to help out Austria-Hungary and declared war on Russia, which caused France to join Serbia and Russia in war. When Germany decided to attack France by travelling through Belgium, as per essay, the Schlieffen plan, Belgium denied entry to Germany, making Germany also declare war on Belgium. Great Britain was. Essay on term paper and Gamble, The Causes of World War One. and economic imperialism. The Moroccan Crisis was not the most provocative cause of the war, but it is still relatively important as it led to the great increase and tensions between countries in Europe, and all over evaluation the world. On the other hand, a short – term origin to World War One was the Balkan wars.
The Balkan wars were two consecutive wars among the various countries of the Balkan Peninsula. The first Balkan war in 1908 saw Austria take over the provinces of of science, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Russia. the Allies the war during the German Spring Offensive of 1918, but Pershing's insistence that American soldiers fight under American commanders sent an essay evaluation, important message of on importance exhibition, American independence to the world. American soldiers fought bravely and well in battles at Cantigny, Belleau Wood, St. Mihiel and in the Argonne Forest from essay evaluation May to November 1918. With nearly one million troops in the line by the end of the war, the American presence finally convinced the Germans that the paper outline template mla war could not be won;
Essay on The Cause of World War I. 1st of August; Germany decides to go to war with Russia, as the Triple Alliance had required of them. On the 3rd of August, Germany declare war on France, and on the 5th of August Britain declared war on Germany. The First World War had started. This was not really the only reasons why France and Britain wanted to go to war with Germany, there are quite a few reason why. The Main reason why was the Franco-Prussian war.
In July 1870, France declared war on Prussia in part over a disagreement about. Essay about World War I: Cause and Effect. obtaining colonies, they began to build a stout navy also. The tension of this rivalry that led to a war was another cause for World War 1. Imperialism was another cause for World War 1. Imperialism, as defined by Dictionary.com, is the policy of extending the website rule or authority of an empire or nation over essay of science exhibition foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.” A major cause of World War 1 was its economic rivalries. Germany's fast economic progression threatened The British. By 1900. “It has been said that the system of alliances meant that a war involving two members of opposing alliances was responsible for evaluation, dragging in all the others- making a major war out of a small conflict”2 The assassination of The Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie was the “spark” that led to World War One. Although this was the very last straw that led to the war, there were many crises’ beforehand that caused the tensions between the major powers. The first incident was in 1905 and was.
Cause and Effect of World War I Essay. Imperialism also divided European nations. In 1905, and again in 1911, competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the edge of war. This was also another cause for the outbreak of World War 1. The spark in which World War 1 was started was due to the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. Mis Coursework! The reason for Ferdinand's assassination was he announced he would visit Sarajevo the essay evaluation capital of essay on importance, neighboring Bosnia, on June 28. The Serbians were outraged; June 28 was the. Possible Underlying Causes of the First World War Essay. For example, because France had lost a war and Alsace-Lorraine in 1870-1871 to Germany, the Germans and The French have always been confronting each other. 6. Germany had been developing its naval and evaluation military strength, and of essay thought that they were stronger than other countries, and that they were ready to fight, so developed a warlike stance. 7. Another cause of the World War One is the tangle of Alliances.
The alliance system is so, that when. Underlying Causes of World War I Essay. jump into war at any time. The newly-popular belief was that a country’s power was measured by essay evaluation its ability to wage war against all kind of essay, another, which started the militarism system in most European countries. Military tools invented in the late 1800s began to essay website evaluation be rapidly produced at the turn of the century. Hence, European spending on military forces skyrocketed from 1900-1914, the time leading up to World War I. These political beliefs turned Europe into a continent prepared and ready for war, at all times.
Treaty of Versailles-Cause of World War Two Essay. forced Germany to accept full responsibility for the war. When, in May 7th, 1919, the creative courses in ontario Treaty of Versailles was presented in essay evaluation its completion to of essay Germany's foreign minister, Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, he responded with anger. Essay Website Evaluation! He said, It is demanded that we confess ourselves guilty. Such a confession in my mouth would be a lie (Elson 30. After deliberation, Brockdorff-Rantzau made the writing college courses in ontario decision to resign rather than sign the treaty. The ?war guilt' clause was later found to be another way that. Essay about The Main Cause of World War Two.
broken, the allied reaction to maintain peace should have been to defend the rules set out by the Versailles Treaty. They could have easily overrun the Germans in a quick decisive battle, as the website Germans were not fully armed and ready for war. Instead, the USA passed the www.speech Neutrality Acts so they wouldn't have any hand in the responsibility, and Britain and France did nothing, because France would not do anything without Britain and essay evaluation Britain thought that the treaty of Versailles. Essay on World War 1 2 / United Nations. considered the greatest and lengthiest in world history.
Never before or since has there been such a lengthy battle, involving so many men, situated on such a tiny piece of land. The battle, which lasted from 21 February 1916 until 19 December 1916 caused over an estimated 700,000 casualties (dead, wounded and missing). The battlefield was not even a square ten kilometres . Three years after the fighting began in Europe, the United States enters World War I when German submarine attacks on Atlantic. World War 1 Peace Conference Essay. So Woodrow prepared a 14 point plan to contribute to the Treaty of Versailles and these were: 1. No secret Treaties - there shall be no private international understandings of on importance of science, any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. 2. Free access to the seas in peacetime or wartime – Absolute Freedom of navigation upon essay evaluation the seas, also during peace and in war 3. Free trade between countries – Establishment of mis coursework, equality of essay website evaluation, Trade Conditions among all the nations 4. All countries. Lesson 8.02: World War I: Causes and paper Procter Alliances Essay.
The United States Neutral No More What was the cause of the United States entering World War I? The United States tried very hard to remain neutral and stay out but since 1/3 of the Americans were immigrants, they supported their country and allies. Germany sent a telegram to Mexico persuading them to invade U.S, which lead to the President declaring war! Writing assignment- I am a World War 1 soldier I live in the trenches. My real home however is in essay website evaluation Britain, with my lovely wife and 2 3 year. Essay on Events Leading Ti World War 1. Italy, was still trying to grow in power. Creative College! Britain then began to notice how out of hand Germany was getting, especially because of the creation of evaluation, a new Navy. Wilheim II was already doubling his army, while France was doing the same already showing a war was looming, Wilheim II was setting up a new navy and building it up, becoming a big threat to Britain.
Because of this, in 1904, Britain forgave France for the canal situation and joined forces to create a military alliance, another entente in 1904. Significan Events of World War 1 Essay. believed that the failure of the campaign was predicted. Before the term paper Procter campaign even got started, Lloyed George had prophetically written: “Expeditions which are decided upon essay website and organized with insufficient care generally end disastrously” (Memorandum to War Council, December 1914). In 1915. In addition, The Gallipoli campaign, which went on for 259 days, is unique in mis coursework the sense that such a large number of soldiers fought on essay, such a narrow place.
The second important battle in research paper mla WW1 is the battle of. ? to What Extent Was Naval Rivalry the website evaluation Main Cause of the First World War? These alliances were defined as defensive, but choosing allies obviously also implicate choosing the most likely enemies, therefore this two blocs were ready to fight in case of a war. Another long term cause was the colonial rivalry. In the decades preceding WWI almost all the European nations were involved in research paper template the “Scramble for Africa”. All the nations wanted to demonstrate their strength occupying vast areas of essay evaluation, Africa. France was one of the most successful, controlling almost all the West and creative courses Centre. Naval Rivalry as the Main Cause for essay evaluation, World War One Essay. By 1914, Britain had built 29 Dreadnoughts whereas Germany had only built 17.
This naval race consequented in the First World War, as the growing tension between Germany and Britain was very high, there was an research outline, increase in essay evaluation Anglo-German mistrust and Europe was divided into two armed camps. In 1905-06 and 1911 there were two crises in Morocco caused by Germany’s attempt to research mla block Frances control of the evaluation country and to restrict French power. While visiting. The Main Cause of World War I: Imperialism or Alliances? Essay examples. surmounting pressure in establishing themselves left them to no choice but to develop conflict. According to Fitzgerald, Pickard and Stewart, The Two Moroccan Crises is one of the essential events that show the www.speech connection between Imperialism and the Great War (18). Morocco was to essay website be a colony of France but Germany desired to make Morocco independent from essay on importance France. Germany had their own intentions to essay show their growing power by gaining Moroccan support, and of course, the French was not pleased with the Kaiser. To What Extent Was Germany Responsible for creative in ontario, Causing World War 1?
Another reason the war was made a WORLD war was because of the 2 main alliances in Europe. These massively increased tensions and bounded countries which would otherwise not be forced into war, into war. The two alliances were those between the essay website evaluation Central Powers /Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) and those between the Triple Entente/Entente Cordiale (Britain, France and Russia). The first was formed in 1882 and the latter by 1907. If certain countries had not joined alliances, they.
Essay about Woodrow Wilson Post World War 1 Vision. Nations would be free to navigate upon territorial waters during times of war or peace thus removing the U-turn rules practiced by Germans. In his mind, Wilson understood the world was literary becoming a global village and wars were no longer a private matter. More emphasis was put on whatever affected the life of the world should become a global concern and later played as a key instrument to the birth of the reign of the League of Nations. Www.speech! Wilson’s free trade agendas would be realized when he. understand that even a few nuclear weapons can cause an essay evaluation, unacceptable amount of damage. 3) States will seek to essay advance their own interests, but only within acceptable levels of essay website evaluation, risk.
The presence of creative courses in ontario, nuclear weapons, therefore, will cause states to become risk averse, as any nuclear attack would produce an unacceptable amount of damage. (Cimbala) Nuclear irrelevancy, the second perspective, concludes that nuclear weapons were unnecessary to website Cold War stability. This position is tenable if one accepts. the Soviet Union and the west was the term paper Procter and Gamble threat of nuclear war. Evaluation! Both the Soviet Union and www.speech the United States knew how to make nuclear weapons. Essay Evaluation! This knowledge made the consequences of their actions much more cautious. This helped to cause the mis coursework war during the Cuban Missile Crisis where the Soviet Union planted nuclear missiles at the United States from Cuba for a time. The Cold War was brought about by many factors caused at the end of World War II. The idealogical differences, economic barriers,political. out these weapons and munitions in essay website evaluation large quantities and at a rapid pace.
But the paper Procter and Gamble descent into war was not just driven by evaluation new weapons and the arms race: it was also fuelled by the pervasive culture of militarism that reigned in many parts of writing college in ontario, Europe” (Causes of World War 1). When one military defeats another that means that one country has conquered another. Essay Website! That is what the of essay countries fighting in World War I were trying to ultimately accomplish. Essay Website! Nationalism is the belief that your country that you. power, some have more than others. Through this war, the United States is showing off the huge amount of www.speech, power it has. Some say that in website evaluation a few years, Iraq will be part of the United States of America. If this would truly happen, it would be another cause of the war.
We are in all kind economical crisis right now because of the war. As we are not in as much trouble as the website Depression, we could easily slip into a similar event. Writing Courses In Ontario! The cause of the war is different in many people’s eyes. But to essay website most. How Far Was the First World War the research Main Cause of the Fall of the website Romanovs in February 1917? Another important reason for why the essay of science war damaged Tsarism was the fact that it caused inflation in Russia, which lead to extreme poverty and high food prices.
In 1914, Russia's economy had been strong but between 1914-1917 government spending rose from 4 million to 30 millions roubles, causing severe inflation by 1916. The government tried to stop this by increasing taxation and borrowing heavily from other countries, but these were not successful in raising the evaluation money it needed. This inflation made. ‘There Are No Just Causes for War’ Essay. A reason why war can be unjust is the thousands of paper template, innocent people who would die and be injured without being involved in the situation. The sanctity of evaluation, life can be argued here as God has made every human sacred and the protection of all the term Procter and Gamble people will not be possible. Essay Website Evaluation! Ambrose and Augustine both said that reprisal killings and massacres are forbidden, also there is no justifiable cause for www.speech, the loss of human life, however the essay existence of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. Declaration of War, President Madison stated, We behold our seafaring citizens still the daily victims of lawless violence. We behold our vessels wrested from their lawful destinations into British ports. We behold, in fine, on the side of Great Britain a state of war against the United States. (Doc.
4) Although maritime problems were the main cause of the War of 1812, Manifest Destiny also played a large role. The idea of Manifest Destiny throughout the United States contributed to the War of 1812. Religion and the Cause of War Essays. Those involved in Judaism believe in fighting for survival as well as fighting a “Just War”. Christians are not in favor of creative writing college in ontario, killing, but they feel that at essay website, many times its unavoidable.
This shows that Christians believe in fighting for what they believe in. The Islam Religion believe in research paper template mla defending their faith, if someone goes up against their religion they believe in fighting to defend what they believe. Buddhist believe in killing if there are certain justified reasons. If one is attacked and one. Causes of the Pelopenesian War Essay. argued that Sparta and evaluation Athens were already preparing for war with each other and that the writing courses in ontario support of their allies' wars against evaluation, each other was not a direct cause of the war but simply each side trying to hold an advantage for the coming war. I don't feel there is evidence for this because I don't feel there was any significant Spartan move towards war until this happened. The Spartans were not eager for war. After the Persian wars there was a development of Athenian control over the commercial. In World War 1, due to lack of experience with massive full scale wars and technology, battle plans involved trench warfare.
This primitive, defensive warfare involved huge lines of trenches, sometimes as deep as 12 feet, which would mark the front lines of the conflict. Waves upon waves from opposing nations would charge these impenetrable defensive positions only to be shot down by machine gun fire by the heavily fortified defenders. The only term, answer to these fortifications was artillery strikes. Describe the Causes of War and Conflict. Essay. We also go to essay website evaluation war and have conflicts between different countries because of a shortage of resources in one country and that country wanting to win over the land to win the resources with the result of winning the land and and Gamble resources helping the country financially.
For example in Afghanistan we are fighting for evaluation, territorial purposes to protect the oil that passes near Afghanistan. This is a war that is both because of land and resources. Politics is one of the causes of war. This is usually. Military War: Cause and Effect Essays. the country to dominate the world. Further, the all kind idea of govern in the country was to be spread across the globe as it gained supremacy. However, international understanding played a key role in evaluation the direction the war took. On one side, Germany had to seek allies such as Italy in research outline mla order for it to achieve its goal and on the other side the countries under siege had to combine forces to essay website evaluation protect their borders and in so doing, they formed the allied forces (Waltz, 9). Essay Exhibition! The war resulted to destruction of infrastructural.
that a verbal decision was certainly given. 5 Hitler's final decision to go begin the holocaust was a result of his declaration of war against the United States, and their declaration of war against Japan after the bombing of pearl harbor as well as his army loosing the battle against the Russians due to the extreme cold weather. Now Hitler was in the middle of World War II. Hitler's problems began to rise as his armies in Moscow were taking the turn for the worst, and his decision to eliminate all. The Causes of the Civil War Essay. national incident over website night. While President Jackson prepared to send troops to Charleston to enforce the tariffs, South Carolina prepared a militia to on importance of science exhibition repel them (Stoddard and Murphy, 6).
The nation was on the brink of war nearly 30 years before the Civil War finally came to pass. War was averted for a time, however, when the federal government issued the evaluation compromise tariff of 1833 (Stampp, 68). The nullification incident was the first time a state attempted to push its rights beyond those granted. Essay on The Cause of the Opium War. with China.
With so much opium in China, many, many people got addicted; the government officials felt that it was shattering their country and www.speech decided to make opium illegal. Thus, making trades stop. This made Britain angry, who wouldn’t? Their #1 merchandise couldn’t be sold anymore and China decided to dump all the thousands of essay, chest of opium in a river, making them lose lots of on importance of science exhibition, money in the process. However, opium still made its way back into China. The British found a way to get opium in China. Germany's aggression in World War I, but also, perhaps for website, the Franco-Prussian war in 1871. In Germany, citizens were worried about how radical changes after the war could affect their daily lives. All these biases, worries, plans, and ideas came together in Paris on all kind of essay, the 28th of June 1919 with the Treaty of website, Versailles, establishing the post-war peace in term Procter Europe. Yet just twenty years later, war would once again break out in Europe.
So why were the peace settlements of World War I unable to prevent. Essay about Timeline from World War 1 Up Until Russian Revolution. March • March 1: The Duma and Soviet discuss whether the latter would support the creation of a Provisional Government (PG); they agree. The British and French governments recognise the PG. Essay! • March 2: The Soviet expands to include soldier's soviets; the Provisional Government forms with Lvov as Prime Minister. All Kind Of Essay! In Pskov, and encouraged by his ministers and generals, the Tsar abdicates on behalf of himself and essay evaluation his son (which was technically illegal) in order to help both the war and peace. • March. Causes of the Cold War Essay examples. that became known as the Cold War.
The Cold War between the superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union was a clash of mis coursework, ideologies. The touch between the two developed on many occasions as either side attempted to essay evaluation expand their fields of influence in politics, geographical surrounding, and on importance of science exhibition space. Continued the essay website evaluation clashes between the US and Soviet Union began to tense their relations during this decade. Meanwhile, the aggressive on both sides lead to on importance the Cold War; America was in power economically. Serbia because of the frequent guidance and encouragement given at Belgrade, and if a war were to break out they would more than happy to fight along with the belief of France and Britain helping out. Website Evaluation! Furthermore, at the same time as Russia was carrying on diplomatic relations they were secretly preparing military measures which alarmed both Germany and Austria. Fay believed that France's part in the creation of the war was not as clear as the rest of the major powers, although they did assure Russia.
Essay on Causes of the mis coursework First World War. As apparent by the quotes, it is evident that the two ideologies differ in nature; Stoessinger advocates the idea that the perception of the essay website Kaiser and Germany as a flamboyant displayer of paper outline template mla, military power is misleading while Fischer, controversial in his approach, places significant blame on website, Germany for the subsumption of other European nations due to her boastfulness in military superiority. Research Template! The second consequential step taken during the July Crisis can be asserted as the issuance of the Austrian. Textbook p. 716 ( exceeded the number of troops he was allowed to have ) iii. Textbook p. 716 ( formed treaty with Mussolini called the Rome-Berlin Axis) iv. Textbook p. 716 (Anschluss) b. Hitler expanded Germany way beyond the boundaries drawn by the Treaty of Versailles. i. Textbook p. 718 (Munich Conference, Sudetenland was annexed to Germany ii.
Textbook p. Essay Website! 718 (Hitler sent troops throughout Czech area of Czechoslovakia and made it a German protectorate) iii. Textbook. all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the research outline Allies and the Axis. Essay Website Evaluation! It was the mis coursework most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people, from more than 30 different countries, serving in military units. In a state of total war, the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources.
Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust. Compare How Poets Present World War 1 in ‘Mametz Wood’ and One Other Poem You Studied. of war, showing how a solider felt in such a dangerous place whereas; ‘Mametz Wood’ has a regular structure and very few run on lines. This could suggest a sense of safety and end. There isn’t any uncertainty (like the run on lines in essay evaluation Bayonet Charge) and unlike them, the soldiers are now away from danger and the audience knows it’s harmless. The writers using this structure could present how during war there was doubt and continuous movement without knowing how it’s going to all kind of essay end but after war, the. Essay on The Causes of the American Civil War. Act. Another issue that further increased tensions was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.
It created two new territories that would allow the essay website states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be free or slave. The last cause of the American Civil War was the growth of the Abolition Movement. Increasingly, the northerners became more polarized against slavery. Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against slavery and slaveholders. Mis Coursework! This occurred especially after some major events. It was at that time that the website evaluation percentage of survival wasn’t high and soon enough zombies would start swarming the houses until they got in. The aftermath of the war was stable and most people weren’t that crazy in the interviews.
Some went to Rehabilitation Institutions, others moved on in their life. Nations began to unite and Procter and Gamble form allies; “Our allies are back on their feet again, but we still have some White Zones to website evaluation clear…..we’re all in exhibition this together….. [We stop by an old oak tree…my companion. Essay on World War II and essay Propaganda. reasons why World War II had a huge impact on the world was from propaganda because it promoted a great deal of industry and economic stability. When one thinks of how many people participated in the war, they probably only think of how many soldiers fought in the war and how many casualties there were. Due to the art of term Procter and Gamble, propaganda, most of the citizens from each country during World War II were acting participants because it lit a fire in everyone’s stomachs to help their country’s cause in whatever. Changes in Government Between World War I and World War II Essay. June 1914. Website Evaluation! As a result, Austro-Hungary invaded Serbia. Due to complex treaty obligations in Europe, Russia declares war on creative writing courses, Austro-Hungary, Germany declared war on website, Russia and France, Britain declared war on www.speech, Germany and Austro-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia, Britain and website France declared war on the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria declaredwar on Serbia, and Italy declared war on the Central Powers due to territorial goals.
Colonies of the respective powers in Europe also fight each other to.
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How to Write an essay website, Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Exploratory essays don't take a position. Instead, they explore the problem and the different viewpoints about the answer. Objective : Exploratory essays approach a topic from an objective point of view with a neutral tone.
Rather than trying to solve the problem, this essay looks at creative writing college in ontario all the different perspectives on essay evaluation the issues and seeks to explain the different viewpoints clearly. Common Ground : Exploratory papers look at the different audiences or groups of people who are interested in this issue and explore their different perspectives while also noticing common ground. Three or More Points of View: Sometimes there are two sides of an issue that are most often expressed and which polarize debate. This type of essay on importance, paper seeks to look beyond the obvious answers to find creative solutions. For example, on the illegal immigration topic, an exploratory paper could consider not only the liberal and conservative political views but also look at the argument from the point of view of immigrants or border patrol employees. Prepare a basic outline using the Outline format below. Website. Re-read your articles and essay on importance your Summary-Analysis-Response paper. Fill in how each article can be used to support your points in your outline. Be sure to include the source of that point in MLA form, which is website, author last name and page in parenthesis. Example: (Brown 31).
Talk out essay, your paper with a friend. Work with a friend or a small group. Website Evaluation. Explain your paper using your outline. Tell them your points and make sure they understand. Do they have any ideas on mis coursework how to make your essay more interesting? Have them answer the questions on Peer Edit Outline below. Optional: you may want to gather some visuals to include in your essay.
Write a draft. Evaluation. Be sure to include transitions such as “some people believe,” “another perspective is,” “one way to look at the issue is,” “a final perspective might be.” Don’t forget to use author tags if you are talking about a particular article. Work summarized ideas, paraphrases, and quotes from your research into your draft. Procter And Gamble. In an essay, exploratory paper, you mainly summarize or paraphrase in your own words the positions you describe. Research Outline. Only use quotations which are especially striking or make the point in a way you can’t by paraphrasing. Website. Peer Editing: Using the questions in the Peer Editing section below, evaluate your paper by following the Instructions for Writer and having someone else do the peer editing questions. Final Draft: Use what you've learned from the peer editing session to revise your paper. 1. Define and describe the issue and www.speech present the arguable question (introduction). 2. Analyze the essay, rhetorical situation of the issue, including Text, Reader, Author, Constraints and Exigence (see below on outline) (body part one).
3. Identify and summarize at least three major positions on term paper Procter and Gamble this issue (body part two). 4. Indicate your personal interest in this issue and the position you favor (conclusion). 5. Optional: You might want to gather one or more visuals to add to your paper. Exploratory Papers need to have an arguable question, which means it is essay website, a question that is: Not solved. Not a fact you could easily check the answer to. Something people have different views about (try to find at least three). Interesting to people right now. Linked to an enduring issue.
There are three things you need to do in the introduction: Grab the reader's interest in the arguable issue. Use one of the introductory techniques in the table to of essay explain the situation and argument. Essay Website. Make sure the reader understands the issue and why it is creative writing, important (some issues need lots of explanation and description, but others are so well known you don't need to explain). Tell the arguable question (usually at website the end of the introduction). Re-tell a real story Give statistics Depict a made-up scenario Vividly describe a scene or situation Explain a typical situation Have a real or imagined conversation about the issue Talk about what makes this argument important now Use an intriguing statement or quote Give history of this idea or argument Make a list of problems Give several examples of this problem Ask a series of mis coursework, questions Use a frame (use part of story to open, then finish story in conclusion) Use interview questions and answers. The body of this type of essay has two parts. The first part is generally one paragraph and explains the problem or issue. The second part is generally three or more paragraphs and explains the different positions on the topic.
Part One: Explain the Rhetorical Situation: Text : What sort of essay website evaluation, writing is term paper, being done on this subject? Is it a question being discussed in the news? By advocacy groups? Politicians? Is there an academic study being done? Reader: Who are the audiences interested in this question? What are the essay evaluation, different positions they hold?
Why are the readers interested in this question? Author : Who are the people writing on this question? What is common ground between the paper, authors and website readers (audiences)? Constraints: What attitudes, beliefs, circumstances, traditions, people, or events limit the way we can talk about writing in ontario this subject? Do constraints create common ground or do they drive the essay, people holding different positions apart? Exigence: (Context of essay on importance of science exhibition, debate on the issue) What events or circumstances make us interested in this question now? What is the history of this issue and question? How has interest in this question changed over time?
What enduring values (big life issues) does this debate relate to? Part Two: Three or More Positions on the Issue. For each of the three or more positions, you need to write a separate paragraph. In each paragraph: Explain the essay website, position. Tell why people believe that position. Give the best arguments for www.speech that position. Explain how those arguments are supported. You can also do some contrast and comparision between the positions. Website Evaluation. That makes an especially effective transition.
For example: In contrast to creative courses in ontario the idea that homelessness is caused by a lack of homes, faith-based homeless agencies often argue that there are relationship issues which are at the heart of the problem. A third position suggests that it isn't lack of housing or poor relationships which are the root of the problem, but rather substance abuse and mental illness. Sample Starting Sentences for Body Part Two. Start each of the paragraphs with a clear sentence stating the essay website, different position. Here are examples of how to begin each paragraph: Position 1: Many people believe… What is this point of view?
Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 2: Other people would contend… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for www.speech this point of view? What part of the article is helpful?
Position 3: Another way to look at this question is…. What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of essay evaluation, view? What part of the article is helpful? The conclusion of your essay is where you can tell your personal opinion on this issue. You can also explain why you are interested in this particular topic.
Your position may be one of the ones you describe in in ontario the body or it may be something you have thought up yourself. Evaluation. In the creative writing in ontario, conclusion, you can use some of the same techniques that you use in your introduction. Essay. Here are some other ideas: Finish the term, frame story. Add the final evidence you find most convincing. Tell the reader your own conclusions and point of view. If you aren't sure what you think, then say that and explain what you think are the most important points to consider.
Challenge the reader to decide. Outline the essay website, main things we need to think about when we make a decision about creative writing college this question—what is important and what is not. After you have written your outline, get some help by practicing talking about website evaluation your paper idea in a small group, or in front of the whole class. Take turns in your group having each person share about their paper using their outline. Then the group can respond to writing college in ontario questions, comments, and suggestions. It helps if you write down your comments so the person can remember.
In my class, I hand out these questions, or sometimes write them on the board and have students choose one or two to answer. Is the introduction interesting? Do you feel you understand the issue and the question? Do the question and the three positions match up? Is there a contrast in the positions? Are there other positions you think need to be considered? Is the website, context/constraints of the on importance exhibition, question clear?
Is there other supporting evidence you can think of? Is the response interesting? Does the author respond to the ideas and connect them with their own thoughts and/or experiences? How can they do that better? Anything you think is missing or needs to be explained or expanded? Having someone else read your essay and essay evaluation give you some feedback is a great way to improve your writing. In my class, students work in groups to term and Gamble peer edit and essay website I usually try to have at least two people read every essay.
If your class does not do that, you can arrange it on mis coursework your own by having a friend or even your parents look over evaluation, your essay. Here is the peer editing worksheet I use in my class. I start by having each writer look at their own paper, and then have at least two peer editors answer the questions. Underline: your question, the www.speech, three positions, your position Wavy underline: author tags and website citations. II. Write (at top of outline mla, draft or on a separate sheet of paper):
What is best about your paper. Questions you have for the peer editor. What you want them to help you with. I. Read the paper and essay website evaluation make marks on the draft about: grammar and spelling errors what you think is good where they need more support where they need better transitions where they need references, citations or author tags (or any problems with ones they have) where they need more explanation or description. II. On a separate sheet of paper write: Intro : was the issue both defined and described?
Anything that needs to be added? Was the opening interesting? How could it be improved? Body : How well does the paper examine the rhetorical situation? (exigence [reason for this debate], audience [who is interested in this issue], and constraints [situations and attitudes which affect the all kind of essay, debate]) Is there any part missing? How can it be improved? Does the essay website evaluation, paper effectively summarize three different positions and explain what they are? Who believes them? Why do they believe it? Does the all kind of essay, paper give enough evidence for each position? Conclusion: Does the author respond to the issue and give an interesting perspective? Does the website evaluation, author need to add anything?
Most of the time, students are asked to write argument papers that present a particular point of view and attempt to persuade the audience. Sometimes that makes this writing assignment seem confusing. Here is the difference between this assignment and an argument paper: Argument Essays focus on proving one point of view : An argument or position essay seeks to come to on importance exhibition a conclusion and convince the audience which side of the issue is essay, correct. The emphasis in an argument paper is on the side the author wants to prove is on importance of science, best or right, so while the paper may talk about essay website other views, most of the paper is spent proving one point of view. Exploratory essays look at several points of view in a neutral way. Rather than trying to solve the problem, this sort of paper explores the different perspectives of the www.speech, problem and essay seeks to understand the paper, cultural and social context of the issue. Evaluation. It is the Procter and Gamble, sort of paper you would write before writing a solution paper. An exploratory paper is common in businesses when they are attempting to find a solution to a problem and need to get all of the essay website, possible perspectives and information available. Exploratory papers help you look at different audiences to help find common ground.
This paper also explores the different audiences or groups of research, people who are concerned about this issue, giving their different viewpoints on the cause, effects, and solutions proposed. In order to essay evaluation do this paper, you may want to narrow the issue you are thinking about so that you can cover the idea more effectively. Exploratory papers should examine at least three points of view : Sometimes there are two sides of an issue which are most often expressed and which polarize a debate. In an exploratory paper, you are asked to look beyond the obvious answers in order to find other points of term paper Procter, view which can sometimes help in solving the problem. For example, in essay website evaluation looking at the issue of illegal immigration, you can examine the conservative and liberal political views, but you can also look at the viewpoint of the illegal immigrants themselves, the viewpoint of the all kind, government that the illegal immigrants come from, and the viewpoints of the people who live on both sides of the border where illegal immigrants cross. You might also consider the viewpoint of the essay website evaluation, border patrol employees. The conclusion of an exploratory paper can give your opinion: You will explore at creative college courses least three sides of the issue, giving fair treatment to each side. Website Evaluation. However, in the conclusion of the paper, you will indicate your own position and why you are persuaded in www.speech that direction. Whether it is labeled an website evaluation, exploratory essay or not, you will find this sort of paper template mla, paper in many business and college research papers.
The basic point of this paper is to let you examine all the different viewpoints on an issue. Here are some examples of exploratory questions: What caused the Civil War in the U.S.? What will happen in the Middle East in the next 10 years after the essay website evaluation, Arab Spring? How should the all kind of essay, U.S. Essay Website Evaluation. handle illegal immigration? What should we do with embryos left over from in-vitro fertilization? In a business, an employee might be asked to write an of essay, exploratory report about:
How do people perceive our product based on essay website different types of advertising? How do people use our product most often? What are the top competing products and what advantages does each have over our product? What are the of science, different possible cell phone or Internet service contracts available to us and what are the advantages/disadvantages of each one? By looking at three or more viewpoints, you can get a better understanding of the different audiences for an issue and better understand how a solution or compromise might be developed.
Which Exploratory Essay question is most interesting to you? 100 Exploratory Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 0. Exploratory Essay Outline and Organization. by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. Easy Steps to Write a Position Paper.
by Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Hi Sharon! Welcome back to the classroom.
I'm so glad this has helped you. Evaluation. I have over 50 articles on writing here on term and Gamble HubPages that I've written for my own students. These should be helpful for most college writing classes although you always need to make sure they fit with your particular instructor's assignments. Hope you do very well this semester! This is extremely helpful for me as a student. I've been out of school for quite some time.
Unfortunately, not all instructors are the same. Thank you for sharing your knowledge with us. This is so helpful, thank you! Susan Baxter 4 years ago from Georgia. This would be useful for my teenagers to use during their essay at school. Thank you.
Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Aubria--thanks for evaluation your comment. I do understand that sometimes we need students to be tested for their own ability to write without help. I do that too. However, I know that not all of my students have actually had good instruction on the different aspects of various types of essays.
Often the instructions in textbooks aren't as clear as they could be. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from paper and Gamble, United States. Thanks so much kerlynb! I've been frustated with many of the evaluation, books I teach out of because they don't explain how to organize these papers. I certainly was never taught anything about how to put the of essay, paper together. Essay Website Evaluation. So after a few years of college teaching, I started analyzing the essays in my textbooks and also the essay exhibition, best student essays and came up with my series of How to write papers.
I've been amazed how many views they get each day. Essay. I'm so glad if I can help students! kerlynb 5 years ago from Philippines, Southeast Asia, Earth ^_^ Just where were you when I was in HS? This is so useful! I mean, many of us writers would need to come up with an www.speech, exploratory piece every now and then. Website. Have to vote this one up and useful :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and writing company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of website, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and term paper Procter and Gamble others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.