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art critical essays This is an example of essay making, a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on essay the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Click on them to read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and making, playful intrigue . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of photo essay, rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in on decision motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion. 2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and in 3rd person, their feelings about their themes in on decision their work.

Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at essay project opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of essay on decision, worship, of speech and of taste. 4 Artists wanted only to essay produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of essay, feeling and essay death penalty, imagination. 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment.

In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for the portrait in essay making a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Essays Politics? Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out work. The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the essay, conditional nature of the observations. The colours are used to compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in essays politics the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it.

When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. 6 This statement demonstrates that the on decision, attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by essays politics, Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is on decision making not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the essay against penalty, dancer#039;s performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in essay the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and melody . This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and essays politics, spirit within the performer. The colour and making, form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for introduction essay death penalty line.

Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in Paganini is making flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. Essays Politics? The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene. On Decision? Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to essay person see in the scenes before them. Essay On Decision? Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the project, world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and the ugly equally by on decision making, looking for the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the essay, 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979.

Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the essay on decision, free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. Introduction Essay Penalty? 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and essay on decision, culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14.

7 F. Kleiner, C. Very On Dowry System? Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the essay making, ages , p. Essays Politics? 870. Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.

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Pepsi Vs Coke Essay Research Paper Coke. Pepsi Vs Coke Essay, Research Paper. Coke vs. Essay? Pepsi: Fighting for essays politics Foreign Markets. The soft-drink battleground has now turned toward new overseas markets. While once the United States, Australia, Japan, and Western Europe were the dominant soft-drink markets, the growth has slowed down dramatically, but they are still important markets for making Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Essay Person? However, Eastern Europe, Mexico, China, Saudi Arabia, and India have become the new “hot spots.” Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi are forming joint bottling ventures in these nations and in other areas where they see growth potential. As we have seen, international marketing can be very complex.

Many issues have to be resolved before a company can even consider entering uncharted foreign waters. This becomes very evident as one begins to study the international cola wars. The domestic cola war between Coca-Cola and Pepsi is still raging. However, the two soft-drink giants also recognize that opportunities for growth in many of the mature markets have slowed. Both Coca-Cola, which sold 10 billion cases of soft-drinks in 1992, and making, Pepsi now find themselves asking, “Where will sales of the next 10 billion cases come from?” The answer lies in the developing world, where income levels and appetites for Western products are at an all time high. Often, the company that gets into a foreign market first usually dominates that country’s market. Coke patriarch Robert Woodruff realized this 50 years ago and unleashed a brilliant ploy to make Coke the early bird in many of the major foreign markets. Surfing? At the height of World War II, Woodruff proclaimed that Awherever American boys were fighting, they’d be able to get a Coke.@ By the time Pepsi tried to make its first international pitch in on decision making the 50s, Coke had already established its brand name and a powerful distribution network. In the persuasive in 3rd person intervening 40 years, many new markets have emerged.

In order to profit from these markets, both Coke and Pepsi need to find ways to cut through all of the red tape that initially prevents them from conducting business in these markets. This paper seeks to examine these markets and the opportunities and roadblocks that lie within each. Coke and Pepsi in essay on decision Russia: In 1972, Pepsi signed an agreement with the essays politics Soviet Union which made it the first Western product to be sold to consumers in Russia. This was a landmark agreement and on decision, gave Pepsi the emerson experience essay first-mover advantage. Presently, Pepsi has 23 plants in essay on decision making the former Soviet Union and is the leader in the soft-drink industry in Russia.

Pepsi outsells Coca-Cola by 6 to essay 1 and is seen as a local brand. Also, Pepsi must counter trade its concentrate with Russia’s Stolichnaya vodka since rubles are not tradable on on decision the world market. Emerson? However, Pepsi has also had some problems. There has not been an increase in brand loyalty for Pepsi since its advertising blitz in Russia, even though it has produced commercials tailored to the Russian market and has sponsored television concerts. On the positive side, Pepsi may be leading Coca-Cola due to the big difference in price between the two colas. While Pepsi sells for making Rb250 (25 cents), Coca-Cola sells for Rb450. Essays Politics? For the economy size, Pepsi sells 2 liters for Rb1,300, but Coca-Cola sells 1.5 liters for Rb1,800. On Decision? Coca-Cola, on essays politics the other hand, only moved into Russia 2 years ago and is manufactured locally in essay Moscow and St. Petersburg under a license.

Despite investing $85 million in these two bottling plants, they do not perceive Coca-Cola as a premium brand in the Russian market. Moreover, they see it as a “foreign” brand in Russia. Lastly, while Coca-Cola’s bottle and label give it a high-class image, it is unable to capture market share. Coke and Pepsi in Romania: Romania is the second largest central European market after Poland, and this makes it a hot battleground for Coca-Cola and emerson experience, Pepsi. When Pepsi established a bottling plant in Romania in essay on decision 1965, it became the first U.S. Surfing? product produced and sold in essay on decision the region. College Essay Project? Pepsi began producing locally during the essay on decision making communist period and has recently decided to reorganize and retrain its local staff. Pepsi entered into very short essay a joint venture with a local firm, Flora and Quadrant, for its Bucharest plant, and has 5 other factories in Romania.

Quadrant leases Pepsi the equipment and handles Pepsi’s distribution. In addition, Pepsi bought 500 Romanian trucks which are also used for distribution in other countries. Moreover, Pepsi produces its bottles locally through an investment in the glass industry. While the price of Pepsi and Coca-Cola are the same (@15 cents/bottle), some consumers drink Pepsi because Pepsi sent Michael Jackson to Romania for a concert. Another reason for drinking Pepsi is that it is on decision, slightly sweeter than Coca-Cola and is more suited for the sweet-toothed Romanians. Lastly, some drink Pepsi because, in the past, only top officials were allowed to drink it, but now everyone can. Coca-Cola only began producing locally in November 1991, but it is outselling all of death penalty its competitors. In 1992, Coca-Cola saw an increase in Romania of sales by 99.2% and outsold Pepsi by 6 to 5. While Pepsi preferred to buy its equipment from Romania, Coca-Cola preferred to on decision making bring equipment into Romania. Also, Coca-Cola brought 2 bottlers to Romania. One is the Leventis Group, which is persuasive, privately owned.

Coca-Cola has invested almost $25 million into 2 factories. These factories are double the size of the factory Pepsi has in Bucharest. Moreover, Coca-Cola has a partnership with a local company, Ci-Co, in Bucharest and Brasov. Ci-Co has planned an aggressive publicity campaign and has sponsored local sporting and cultural events. Lastly, Romanians drink Coke because it is a powerful western symbol which was once forbidden.

Coke and Pepsi in The Czech Republic: The key to success in the Czech Republic is for both Coca-Cola and Pepsi to increase the annual consumption of soft-drinks. Per capita consumption of beer, the national drink in the Czech Republic, exceeds that of soft-drinks by 3 to 1(165 liters of beer per capita of beer versus 50 liters of soft-drinks). Both companies are trying to increase their market share because distribution for essay both products is no longer as limited as it was in 1989. Coca-Cola and Pepsi face stiff competition from domestic producers, whose products are lower-priced. Because of this, domestic producers have a market share of about 60%. Very Essay In India? Coca-Cola and Pepsi each have a market share between 10%-25%. Essay Making? Another problem in the Czech Republic is that many people think that Coca-Cola and Pepsi are produced by against death, the same company. Recently, Pepsi opened an office in Prague. Coca-Cola, on the other hand, has been trying to convince local shop owners to stock and essay making, circulate its product. The main apprehension may be that the price of essays politics Coke is twice the price of locally produced colas and a little higher than Pepsi.

Coca-Cola has arrangements with 4 domestic bottling companies and acquired a new plant in 1992 in which it has invested almost $20 million. This may be one reason why Coca-Cola is closing in on Pepsi’s lead in essay the Czech Republic. Coke and Pepsi in Hungary: Traditionally, Pepsi held the lead in Hungary with a strategy of putting the infrastructure in place, upgrading it, and then marketing to the consumer. Pepsi plans to invest $115 million which includes acquiring FAU, an Eastern European bottler. Because of this, Pepsi will have greater control over distribution and introduction essay death, quality. In May of making 1993, Pepsi introduced Pepsi Light and short, had outdoor and essay on decision making, television advertising blitzes. Surfing Essay? Coca Cola, on the other hand, introduced Coke Light in essay making the beginning of 1993, but did not mention its product name during the surfing first few weeks of promotional advertising.

Coca-Cola’s strategy was to advertise internationally for Central Europe. Hungarians saw the ‘Always Coca-Cola’ commercials, along with the rest of the world, in April 1993. In 1992, Coca-Cola lead Pepsi. In addition, Coca-Cola participates in counter trade agreements with Hungary. Essay? Coca-Cola trades its concentrate for glass bottles which are exported and then sold to bottlers. Coke and Pepsi in Poland: Poland, with a population of 38 million people, is the biggest consumer market in central and eastern Europe.

Coca-Cola is closing in on Pepsi’s lead in this country with 1992 sales of 19.5 million cases versus Pepsi’s sales of 26.5 million cases. The main problems in essay this area are the essay centralized economy, the lack of modern production facilities, a non-convertible local currency, and poor distribution. However, since the zloty is now convertible, Coca-Cola realizes the growth potential in Poland. Essay Against Death? After Fiat, Coca-Cola is now the second biggest investor in Poland. On Decision? Coca-Cola has developed an system in india investment plan which includes direct investment and joint ventures/investments with European bottling partners. Its investments may exceed $250 million, and essay, it has completed the infrastructure building. Coca-Cola has divided Poland into 8 regions with strategic sites in each of these areas. Moreover, it has organized a distribution network to make sure its products are widely available. This distribution network, which Coca-Cola has spent a lot of money organizing, is extremely important to challenge Pepsi’s market share and to maintain a high level of customer service. Also, Coca-Cola, like Pepsi, signed counter trade agreements with Poland.

Both trade their concentrate for Polish beer. All of this has helped Coca-Cola to close in on Pepsi’s lead in Poland. Conclusion on Eastern Europe: Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi are trying to have their colas available in as many locations in Eastern Europe, but at a cost which consumers would be willing to pay. The concepts which are becoming more important in Eastern Europe include color, product attractiveness visibility, and display quality. In addition, availability (meeting local demand by increasing production locally), acceptability (building brand equity), and afford ability (pricing higher than local brands, but adapting to local conditions) are the key factors for Eastern Europe. Both companies hope that their western images and brand products will help to boost their sales. Emerson Essay? Coca-Cola has a universal message and campaign since it feels that Eastern Europe is part of the on decision world and should not be treated differently. Essays Politics? Currently, it is difficult to say who is winning the cola wars since the data from the relatively new market research firms focusses on major cities. Essay? Pepsi had a commanding 4 to 1 lead in 1992 in the former Soviet Union. Without this area, Coca-Cola has a 17% share versus Pepsi’s 12% share in the soft drink industry.

While both companies have been in Eastern Europe for many years, the main task now is to develop the market. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are in emerson essay a dogfight, but both will end up as winners. In the on decision making end, the ultimate winner will be the Eastern Europeans who will have access to some of the world’s best soft drinks. Coke and introduction essay penalty, Pepsi in Mexico: The Mexican government recently freed the Mexican soft drink market from nearly 40 years of price controls in on decision return for a commitment from bottling companies to invest nearly $4.5 billion and create nearly 55,000 jobs over the next 7 years. Naturally, Mexico has become another battleground in the international cola wars. In Mexico, Coca-Cola and essay, Pepsi command 50% and 21% of the market respectively. Essay? The cola war is especially hot here because the per capita consumption of Coca-Cola and Pepsi exceeds that of the United States (Murphy, 6). Mexico is the only soft-drink market in the world that can make this claim. The face off in Mexico is between Gemex, the largest Pepsi bottler outside the United States, and Femsa, the beer and soft drink company that owns the largest Coca-Cola franchise in the world.

Femsa, however, may be at a disadvantage. Despite being part of the conglomerate Grupo Vista, Femsa lacks financial punch because it plays only a small part in the conglomerate’s overall interests. The challenge in Mexico is to win market share through distribution efficiency (Murphy, 6). With this in photo mind, each company is undertaking strategic efforts designed to essay making bolster their shares of the Mexican market. Pepsi is moving in on the Coke-dominated Yucatan peninsula while Femsa, the Coca-Cola franchisee, is planning to invest $600 million more for persuasive 3 new Coca-Cola plants next door to Gemex’s Mexico City facilities.

The parent companies have joined the battles as well. Coca-Cola has made a $3 billion long-term commitment to the Mexican market, and making, Pepsi has countered with a $750 million investment of its own. Coke and Pepsi in China: Coca-Cola originally entered China in 1927, but left in 1949 when the Communists took over the country. In 1979, it returned with a shipment of 30,000 cases from Hong Kong. Pepsi, which only entered China in 1982, is trying to be the surfing photo leading soft-drink producer in China by the year 2000. Even though Coca-Cola’s head start in China has given it an essay on decision edge, there is plenty of room in introduction essay death the country for both companies. Currently, Coca-Cola and Pepsi control 15% and 7% of the essay on decision making Chinese soft-drink market respectively. The Chinese market presents unique problems. For example, 2,800 local soft-drink bottlers, many of whom are state-owned, control nearly 75% of the Chinese market. Those bottlers located in remote areas have virtual monopolies (The Economist, 67).

The battle for emerson essay China will take place in essay on decision making the interior regions. Essay Project? These areas are unpenetrated as most of the essay foreign soft-drink producers have set up in the booming coastal cities. China’s high transportation and distribution costs mean that plants must be located close to short essay in india their markets. Essay? Otherwise, in a country of China’s size, Coca-Cola and Pepsi risk pricing their products as luxury items. In China, it is easier and politically safer to expand through joint ventures with local bottlers. It is expected that, in very essay system China, the essay on decision making company that wins the emerson experience cola war will win based on the locations of their bottling plants and the quality of the partners they choose (The Economist, 67). Essay On Decision Making? Coca-Cola is bottled at 13 sites across China; five of these are state-owned.

Also, Coca-Cola owns 2 concentrate plants in China. By 1996, Coca-Cola and its joint venture partners will have invested nearly $500 million in China. Pepsi is planning a $350 million expansion plan that will add 10 new plants. Both companies are ploughing profits straight back into expansion. They reason that any returns will not come until the next century. Coke and Pepsi in Sandia Arabia: In Saudi Arabia, Pepsi is the market leader and has been for nearly a generation. Part of this is due to the absence of its arch-rival, Coca-Cola.

For nearly 25 years, Coke has been exiled from the desert kingdom. Coca-Cola’s presence in Israel meant that it was subject to an Arab boycott. Because of this, Pepsi has an 80% share of the $1 billion Saudi soft-drink market. Saudi Arabia is Pepsi’s third largest foreign market, after Mexico and Canada (The Economist, 86). In 1993, almost 7% of Pepsi-Cola International’s sales came from Saudi Arabia alone. Essays Politics? The environment in Saudi Arabia makes the country very conducive to soft-drink sales: alcohol is essay making, banned, the climate is hot and dry, the population is growing at 3.5% a year, and the Saudis’ oil-based wealth “make it the most valuable market in the Middle East” (The Economist, 86). Coca-Cola, long known as “red Pepsi”, has finally started to fight back.

The battle for against penalty Saudi Arabia actually began 6 years ago, when the Arab boycott collapsed and Coca-Cola began to make inroads into the Gulf, Egypt, Lebanon, and Jordan. The start of the Gulf War, however, temporarily stunted Coca-Cola’s growth in the region. Pepsi’s 5 Saudi factories worked 24 hours a day to keep the essay on decision troops refreshed. The most significant blow to Coca-Cola’s return to the desert, however, came at the end of the war, when General Norman Schwarzkopf was shown signing the cease-fire with a can of diet Pepsi in his hand. Coca-Cola aims to control 35% of the Saudi market by the year 2000. Coca-Cola, which plans to pour over college essay $100 million into the Saudi market, is essay, focusing on marketing to get there. Recently, it shipped some 20,000 red coolers into Saudi Arabia over emerson the last 9 months. Also, Coca-Cola put $1 million into sponsoring the Saudi World Cup soccer team.

This alone has doubled Coca-Cola’s market share to on decision making almost 15%. America’s Reynolds Company is college essay project, among the investors looking to cash in on Coca-Cola’s return to Saudi Arabia. The company is among the investors in a new factory which, by 1996, will be producing 1.2 billion Coca-Cola cans per year. This equates to essay nearly 100 cans for every Saudi in the country. Photo Essay? Pepsi, trying to fight off the essay on decision Coca-Cola onslaught, has responded with deep discounting. Coke and Pepsi in essay India:

Coca-Cola controlled the Indian market until 1977, when the Janata Party beat the Congress Party of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. To punish Coca-Cola’s principal bottler, a Congress Party stalwart and longtime Gandhi supporter, the Janata government demanded that Coca-Cola transfer its syrup formula to an Indian subsidiary (Chakravarty, 43). Coca-Cola balked and withdrew from the country. India, now left without both Coca-Cola and Pepsi, became a protected market. Essay? In the meantime, India’s two largest soft-drink producers have gotten rich and lazy while controlling 80% of the Indian market. These domestic producers have little incentive to expand their plants or develop the persuasive person country’s potentially enormous market (Chakravarty, 43). Essay Making? Some analysts reason that the surfing essay Indian market may be more lucrative than the Chinese market. India has 850 million potential customers, 150 million of whom comprise the middle class, with disposable income to spend on cars, VCRs, and computers.

The Indian middle class is essay making, growing at 10% per very short on dowry in india, year. To obtain the license for India, Pepsi had to export $5 of on decision locally-made products for every $1 of materials it imported, and it had to agree to help the Indian government to initiate a second agricultural revolution. Pepsi has also had to system take on Indian partners. In the end, all parties involved seem to come out ahead: Pepsi gains access to a potentially enormous market; Indian bottlers will get to serve a market that is expanding rapidly because of making competition; and the Indian consumer benefits from the competition from abroad and essays politics, will pay lower prices. Even before the essay on decision making first bottle of Pepsi hit the persuasive essay shelves, local soft drink manufacturers increased the size of their bottles by 25% without raising costs.

The new battleground for the cola wars is in the developing markets of Eastern Europe (Russia, Romania, The Czech Republic, Hungary, and essay, Poland), Mexico, China, Saudi Arabia, and India. With Coca-Cola’s and Pepsi’s investments in these countries, not only will they increase their sales worldwide, but they will also help to build up these economies. These long-term commitments by both companies will raise the level of competition and efficiency, and at the same time, bring value to the distribution and production systems of these countries. Many issues need to be overcome before a company can begin to produce its goods in a foreign country. These issues include political, social, economic, operational, and environmental topics which must be addressed. When companies like Coca-Cola and short essay system, Pepsi effectively analyze and solve these problems to everyone’s liking, new foreign markets can translate into lucrative opportunities in the long run. “A red line in the sand”, Economist, October 1, 1994, p. 86.

Chakravarty, Subrata N. ” How Pepsi broke into essay on decision India”, Forbes, November 27, 1989, pp. 43-44. Clifford, Mark. “How Coke Excels”, Far Eastern Economic Review, December 30, 1993- January 6, 1994, p. 39. “Coke v Pepsi”, The Economist, January 29, 1994, pp. 67-68. DeNitto, Emily. “Pepsi, Coke think international for future growth”, Advertising Age, October 3, 1994, p. 44.

Murphy, Helen. Photo Essay? “Cola war erupts in Mexico”, Corporate Finance, May 1993, pp. 6-7. Quelch, John A., Erich Joachimsthaler, and Jose Luis Nueno, “After the Wall: Marketing Guidelines for Eastern Europe”, Sloan Management Review, Winter 1991, pp. 82-93. “Selling in making Russia: The march on essays politics Moscow”, The Economist, March 10, 1995, pp.

65-66. Stevens, Clifford. “Soft drink wars: Pepsi vs Coke”, Central European, July/August 1993, pp. Essay? 29-35. Winters, Patricia and Scott Hume. Essay? “Pepsi, Coke: Art of deal-making”, Advertising Age, February 19, 1990, p. 45.

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cicero book report Translated by J. S. Watson. Formatted by on decision making, C. Chinn. He takes this woman’s death so nearly, what. If he himself had loved? what would he feel. For me, his father? 62. Or enter Salamis without your brother? And dreaded not your father’s countenance? You have afflicted, and bereaved, and essays politics killed; Regardless of your brother’s death, regardless.

Of his young son entrusted to your keeping! Who neither have a father nor a mother, Such confidence? Away with all that pride. As soon as he had come to essay making wealth, he died. That woman, what is emerson experience essay she to you? My wife. Essay! Like you, by Hercules! 118.

As long as he was living at the waters. He never 119 died. Strange that I do not sing! I am condemned. Of sepulture; she’s laid upon the pile, 2 Multos et ingeniis et magna laude dicendi.

This passage, as Ellendt observes, is persuasive person manifestly corrupt. He proposes ingeniis magnos et laude dicendi; but this seems hardly Ciceronian. Aldus Manutius noticed that an adjective was apparently wanting to ingeniis, but other editors have passed the passage in on decision silence. 3 See Brut. c. 43, 44. 4 Spe aggredior maiore ad probandum. That ad probandum is to project be joined with spe, not with aggredior it shown by Ellendt on on decision, b. College Essay Project! i. c. 4. 5 The second hour of the morning, answering to our eight o’clock.

6 The same that was consul with Caius Marius, when they obtained, in conjunction, the on decision making, famous victory over essays politics, the Cimbri. 7 He was the brother of Quintus Catulus, by on decision, the mother’s side, and about twenty years his junior. Their mother’s name was Popilia. Ellendt. See c. Persuasive Person! 11. He was remarkable for wit, but his oratory is said to have wanted nerve. Brut. c. 48. Cicero with great propriety makes Sulpicius sit with Crassus, and Cotta walk with Antonius; for Sulpicius wished to resemble Crassus in his style of oratory; Cotta preferred the manner of Antonius.

Brutus, c. Essay On Decision! 55. 8 In the speech which he made on behalf of Curius, on persuasive essay, the occasion mentioned in book i. c. 39. Proust. 9 A learned orator, who wrote in the time cf the on decision making, Gracchi, and who is mentioned by Cicero, Brut. c. 26. Essays Politics! Proust. Of Decimus nothing is known.

Ellendt. 10 Navasse operam; that is, bene collocasse. Essay On Decision! Ernesti. 11 Ironically spoken. 12 Quae ad scientiam non saepe perveniat. Ellendt encloses these words in brackets as spurious, regarding them as a gloss on the preceding phrase that has crept into the text. Their absence is desirable. 13 The reader will observe that the construction in the text is very system multi omnium generum atque artium, as Ellendt observes, referring to Matthiae.

15 See b. i. On Decision! c. 62. 16 The writer of Comedies, Vincere Caecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. Hor. 17 I wished to refute you yesterday, that I might draw Scaevola and Cotta from you. This is spoken in jest. Proust. 20 See note on c. 3. 21 Domitius Ahenobarbus. Essay On Dowry! Plin. Essay On Decision Making! H. N. xvii. 1.

22 A tribune of the people, A.U.C. 655, whom Antonius opposed about the Agrarian law. He is mentioned also in c. 66, and appears to be the same that is said to have played vigorously at essay, ball, ii. 62, iii 23. Ellendt. See also Cic. Brut. c. 62. 23 Of these, Acusilas or Acusilaus, a native of Argos, was the most ancient, according to Suidas. Ellendt.

The others are better known. 24 Lucius Coelius Antipater published a history of the essay on decision making, Punic Wars, as Cicero says in his Orator, and was the master of Crassus, the speaker in these dialogues, as appears from Cic. Short System In India! Brut. c. 26. Proust. 25 Aptus et pressus. A scriptor, or orator aptus, will be one “structa et rotunda compositione verborum utens”; and pressus will be, “in verborum circuitione nec superfluens nec claudicans.” Ellendt. 26 He is called Pusillus Thucydides by Cicero, Ep. ad Q. Fratr. xii. 27 A promontory of Campania, where Antonius had a country house. 28 Ruhnken, in essay on decision a note on Timaeus’s Lex. p. Experience! 78, expresses a suspicion that Cicero, when he wrote this, was thinking of a passage in Plato’s Letters, Ep. vii. p. Essay On Decision Making! 718, F. Essay Against Penalty! Greenwood. Orellius very judiciously inserts tactu, the conjecture of Ernesti, in his text, instead of the on decision, old reading cantu, which, though Ellendt retains and attempts to defend it, cannot be made to give any satisfactory sense.

29 Cicero means orators. The speeches which historians have written are not given as their own, but put into the mouths of others. Ellendt. 30 Reorum,. Essay In 3rd! This reading is very properly adopted by Oreliius and Ellendt, in essay making place of the old rerum. Ellendt refers to c. 43 and 79 for on dowry the sense of reus. 31 Cato defined an orator vir bonus dicendi peritus. Cicero in this passage, under the character of Antonius, and in his own person, De Inv. i. 3, 4, signifies that though he thinks a good character of great importance in an orator, he does not deny that much eloquence may at times be found in a man of bad character. Essay Making! Cato and Cicero spoke each according to the character of his own age. Quintilian, xii.

1, goes back to the opinion of Cato. In 3rd Person! Aristotle had previously required good morals in an orator, Rhet. i. 2, 4; ii. 1. 6i5. Ellendt. 33 Cicero, Brut. c. 7, says that some compositions were in making circulation under the very short essay on dowry system, name of Pericles; and Quintilian, iii. 1, 12, looking to that observation of Cicero, tacitly assents to those who denied the genuineness of those compositions. See also Quint, x. 2, 22; 10, 49. Ellendt.

34 That Alcibiades left nothing in essay writing, though he had great reputation as a speaker, seems to be rightly inferred by Ruhnken from Demosth. De Cor. c. 40. Thucydides is essay here mentioned among orators, on account of the orations which he inserted in making his history. Surfing Essay! Ellendt. 35 He wrote not only essay making orations, which are mentioned by Dionys. Halicarn. de Lysia iud. c. 2, cf. de Isaeo, c. 2, by Phrynichus, ap. Experience! Phot, cod. 158, and by essay making, others, but also tragedies, elegies, and other works. That he was eloquent and learned we are told by Cicero, De Or. iii.

34, Brut. c. 7. Henrichsen. The remains of his writings were collected by Bach, 1827. Ellendt. 36 The eloquence of Theramenes is mentioned by Cicero, iii. 16, Brut. Emerson Experience Essay! c. 7. The writings which Suidas enumerates as being his were doubtless spurious. On Decision Making! See Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Or.

Gr. p. Essays Politics! xl. Ellendt. 37 The words magister istorum omnium, which, though retained by Orellius, are pronounced spurious by Lambinus, Ernesti, Ruhnken, Schutz, and Ellendt, are left untranslated. “They cannot be Cicero’s words,” says Ellendt, “even though they are found quoted by Nonius, p. 344.” 38 Henrichsen and essay on decision Ellendt read Philisci. Philistus, apparently, from the way in which he is persuasive in 3rd person mentioned in c. 13, has, as Ellendt observes, no place here. “Philiscus of Miletus, a disciple of Isocrates (see Anon. Vit.

Isocr.), and master of Timaeus the historian (see Suidas, under Philiscus and Timaeus), wrote a treatise on rhetoric, orations, and a life of essay making, Lycurgus, noticed by Olympiodorus in Comment. ad Plat. Gorg. and other works. See Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Gr. Or. p. lxxxiii. Goell. de Situ et Orig. Syracus. p. Essays Politics! 114.” Henrichsen. 39 Naucrates, a native of Erythrae, called Isokratous hetairos by Dionysius Halicarnassensis, Rhet. vi. 1, was distinguished for the composition of funeral orations.

He seems also to have written on essay making, rhetoric. See Cicero, De Orat. iii. 44; Brut. Essay! 51; Quintil. iii. Essay Making! 6, 3; also Taylor, Lectt. Lys. c. 3, p. Death! 232; Ruhnk. Hist. Crit. Or. Gr. p. lxxxiv. Henrichsen.

40 This is one of on decision, Virgil’s directions to the farmer in the first Georgic, where he gives the reason for it, Luxuriem segetum tenera depascit in herba, Cum primum sulcos sequant sata? --Georg. i. 114. 41 Magna offensio vel negligentiae, susceptis rebus, vel perfidiae, receptis. Recipere is used with a reference to others, by whom we allow some duty to be laid upon us; suscipere regards only ourselves.

Ellendt. 42 Inertia. This passage puzzled Lambinus and others, who did not see how the reproach of inertia in an orator could be greater than that of essays politics, tarditas, or stupidity. Essay Making! But inertia here signifies artis ignorantia, ignorance of his art, which is surfing doubtless the greatest fault in an orator Verburg. 43 Because he was then attached to the party of the Gracchi.

Proust. 44 A law of essay, Lucius Apuleius Saturninus, tribune of the people, A.U.C. 652. It is also mentioned in against death penalty c. 49, But neither the cause nor subject of it is at all known. Essay On Decision! Ellendt. 45 Superioris generis causa duplicatur. Ellendt explains these words thus: “in the same cause, the short on dowry in india, allegations of the two parties are judged as two separate questions of the same kind.” 46 Which shows what a speaker ought to essay say, and what is effective is persuading an audience. Proust. 47 Martius Aquilius, who, after the termination of the servile war in Sicily, was brought to trial on a charge of extortion.

As he was unwilling to entreat the pity of the judges, Antonius, who pleaded for him, tore open his tunic in front, and showed the scars of the honourable wounds which he had received in battle. He was acquitted. Livy, Epit. Proust. 48 Norbanus the tribune. See note on c. 47. Ellendt. 49 He was consul with Publius Rutilius, A.U.C. 649; and having refused to unite his troops with those of Quintus Caepio, the proconsul, was defeated by essays politics, the Cimbri, and lost his army. Livy, Ep. lxvii. For this miscarriage he was, with Caepio, brought to trial, and must have been defended by Antonius.

Ellendt. 50 Of the trial of Quintus Marcius Rex nothing is known. Essay! Ellendt. 51 He was accused of having been bribed to bring Opimius to trial for having caused the death of Caius Gracchus. See Smith’s Dict. of Biog. and surfing photo Mythol. Art.

Decius, n. 4. 52 Innumerable accusations may be brought against a person, as against Verres by Cicero; but the essay, loci, common topics or grounds, on which the attack or defence will rest, (respecting, for instance, avarice, luxury, violence, treason,) will be but few. Ellendt. 55 See i. 45; also iii. 33; ii 55; and De Legg. Project! i. 3. 56 The words in brackets are regarded by all the best critics as the production of some interpolator.

57 That the allusion is to the islands of the Sirens, who tried to allure Ulysses to listen to their song, the commentators have already observed. On Decision! Ellendt. 58 Quum erat in hac gente Magna illa Graecia, “when Great Greece was in (or among) this people.” In hac gente, i.e. in Italis, among the college, Italians, or in Italy. Ellendt. 59 In one of the tragedies of Pacuvius were represented two brothers, Amphion and Zethus, the former fond of philosophy, music, and the refined arts, the other of a rougher disposition, addicted to war and despising science. To this story Horace also alludes, Ep. i. Essay! 18.

41: Zethi, dissiluit, donee suspecta severo. Conticuit lyra. Fraternis cessisse putatur. Moribus Amphion. B. 60 In this passage I adopt the correction, or rather restoration, of Ellendt, Nam et omne, quod eloquimur, fit, ut id aut esse dicamus aut non esse. All other modern editions for fit have sic. 61 Diogenes, and other Stoics like him. Proust.

62 Terence, Andr. i. 1. 83. Colman’s Translation. 63 I follow Ellendt’s text: Sic has ego argumentorum volui notas quaerenti demonstrare ubi sint. Orellius and most other editors have Sic has ego argumentorum novi notas, quae ilia mihi quaerenti demonstrant, “sententia perinepta,” as Ellendt observes; for essays politics it was not what Antonius himself knew that was to be specified, but how he wished learners to essay be assisted. 64 Pacuvius in essays politics his Hermione, as appears from Nonius v. flexanima. The thought is borrowed from Euripides, Hec. 816. Ellendt. 65 See note on c. 28.

66 See note on c. 47. 67 The forefinger, which Crasaus is said to hare pointed with wonderful effect. See Quintilian, xi. 3. 94. 68 Spondalia. For this word I have given “verses.” “That it is corrupt,” says Ellendt, “all the commentators agree.” Hermann, Opusc. i. p. 304, conjectures sponda illa, “from that couch,” on which he upposes Telamon may have been reclining. 69 Quintus Servilius Csepio, in essay on decision his consulship, says Henrichsen, had embezzled a large portion of the gold taken at the capture of very short essay on dowry system in india, Toulouse, A.U.C. On Decision! 648. In the following year, when, through the disagreement between him and the consul Manlius, the Romans were defeated in two battles by college, the Cimbri, his property was confiscated, and his command taken from him.

Some years afterwards, A.U.C. 659, when Crassus and Scaevola were consuls, Caius Norbanus, then tribune of the people, brought Caepio to trial, as it appears, for the embezzlement of the gold at Toulouse, and for on decision exciting sedition in the city. The senate, to whom Caepio, in his consulship, had tried to restore the judicial power, exerted themselves strongly in his behalf; but Norbanus, after exciting a great tumult, carried his point by force, and Caepio went into banishment at Smyrna. 70 As Caepio had tried to death take it out of the essay on decision making, hands of the knights, and to restore it to the senate. 71 Since public or common fear must affect individuals. 72 Quae si inflammanda sunt. An elegant mode of expresaion, for “si ad animos invidia inflammandos adhibenda sunt tanquam faces.” Ernesti. 73 Exitus spissi et producti esse debent. Essays Politics! “Non abrupti, sed lenti” Ellendt. “Vehementes et longiores.” Proust. 74 Simul atque intuleris.

Rem sc. “As soon as you have introduced the subject.” 75 Orellius’s text has inferenda; many others, efferenda. There have been various conjectures offered, as infirmamda, evertenda, elevanda, infringenda. The reader may take his choice. 76 Cavillatio.

Ironical or satirical humour seems to essay making be meant. 77 Quippe; leve enim, c. Quippe is equivalent to the Greek eikotos. Ellendt. 78 Ne in rutis quidem et caesis. Ruta were such things as could be removed from houses and other premises without pulling down or damaging any portion of them; caesa, as Proust remarks, refers to the cutting down of trees. 79 Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus, in his tribuneship, A.U.C. 651, was hostile to the pontifices, because they had not chosen him in the place of person, his father, and proposed a law that those who were chosen by the pontifices into their body should not be appointed till their choice was sanctioned by the people. Veil. Pat. ii. 12; Suet.

Ner. 2; Cic. Rull, ii. 7. He had some ability in speaking, but was not numbered among eminent orators. Cic. Brut. 45. Henrichsen. 80 An allusion to the proverb Sus Minervam.

81 He signified that other pleaders were mere brute animals in comparison with Crassus, and therefore to essay on decision making be fed upon hay. Turnebus. 82 The same that is mentioned by Sallust, as having accused Calpurniua Bestia. 83 Lacerat Lacertum Largi Mordax Memmius. The writer of the article “Memmius” in against death penalty Dr. Essay On Decision Making! Smith’s Biog.

Dict. thinks that Memmius had from some cause the nickname of Mordax. The story of his having eaten or bitten Largius’s arm, appears, from what Cicero says, to have been a mere invention of Crassus. We do not half understand the persuasive essay person, joke. 84 This jest is from a speech of on decision, Crassus against Domitius. The gens Domitia, a family of great nobility, had produced many patricians remarkable, as well for other vices, as for vanity. Ellendt.

85 These words are from some play now lost. 86 Quaesitor. The magistrate who presided at introduction essay against death penalty, a quaestio capitalis, whether the praetor or any other. See Cic. Verr. i. 10; Vatin. 14; Sall. Jug. 40. Henrichsen. 87 Whether the joke was directed against him as being unclean, or as being dishonest, is uncertain.

Ellendt. 88 Probably taken from the apophthegms of Cato, and probably, also, a saying of Caius Claudius Nero, who was consul with Marcus Livius, A.U.C. 547, and defeated Hannibal at Sena. Liv. On Decision Making! xxvii. 34. Ellendt. 89 The original is, Num claudicat? at hic clodicat. “What, is he lame? No; but he favours Clodius.” The reader easily sees that the force of the pun, which is bad enough at the first hand, is entirely lost by a literal translation.

I have been forced to coin two English words from the Latin to convey some idea of it. Had Clodius lived in this country, and surfing his name been Greville, I had been as happy as Glaucia; for then I could have said, “Where is the old proverb, What, is he gravelled? No; but he is Grevilled. On Decision! B. Num claudicat is essays politics thought by Strebaeus to making have been a common question with regard to a man suspected of persuasive essay in 3rd, want of on decision making, judgment or honesty. 90 Quid hoc Naevio ignavius? It is thought to have been a joke of on dowry system, Publius Africanus Major, who, according to some, was accused by the Petilii, tribunes of the people, or, according to making others, by a certain Marcus Naevius.

See Liv. xxxviii. 50, 56; Val. Essay Against Death Penalty! Max. iii. 7; A. Gell. iv. 18. But it might have been said by Africanus the younger in reference to some other man. Ellendt. 91 Video me a te circumveniri.

Toup, in his Appendix to Theocritus, suggests that we should read Video me a te non circum, sed hircumveniri, referring to a similar joke of Aristophanes, Acharn. 850. 92 Calvus satis est, quod dicit parum. The meaning is by making, no means clear, and no change in death the punctuation elucidates it. […] Pearce supposes that it is said of essay on decision, a bad orator: “If he were to say more, he would give less satisfaction; what he has said is so far satisfactory, as it is brief.” [. ] Henrichsen thinks that calvus might be used metaphorically, as calva oratio for ieiuna; and that the joke is on the ambiguity of the word. Essays Politics! To me the passage seems inexplicable.

Ellendt. Whether calvus in the text be a proper name or not, is a matter of uncertainty; Turnebus thinks it is not. 93 Sannio. The sanniones were so called from sanna, a grimace, and personated ridiculous characters, like the Arlecchini or Pulcinelli of the Italians. Ellendt. 94 This verse of Lucilius would be unintelligible to us, even if we were certain that the reading of it is sound. Heusinger thinks that Lucilius referred to the game played with nuts, which the author of the elegy entitled “Nux “mentions: Quas puer aut rectus certo dilaminat ictu. Others think that confixum facere signifies merely configere. Ernesti supposes that a sort of dish, made of pieces of on decision, flesh, fricasee, is meant. Essay Person! Schutz suggests that, if this be the meaning of confixum, some kind of eatable must be intended by nucula.

But this profits us nothing. Ellendt. 95 Non esse sextantis. A phrase applied either to anything worth more than a sextans, and therefore perhaps of great value, or to anything worth less than a sextans, or of no value at all. Turnebus. 97 Marcus Fulvius Nobilior. Cato had accused him of having taken poets with him into his province, and essay on decision making called him Mobilior, to denote his levity, which, among the Romans, who were fond of gravity and steadiness, was a great crime. Turnebus. Death! See Cic. Tusc.

Quaest. i. 2. He had also built a temple to the Muses. Cic. Essay Making! ib. et Arch. c. 11; Brut. Emerson! c. 20; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36. Ellendt. 98 This appears to us moderns a very poor joke. Essay On Decision Making! No translation can make it intelligible to those who do not understand the original. 99 Divisorem. Divisores were those who distributed money among the tribes, in introduction essay against the name of the on decision, candidates, as bribes for their votes.

Sea Cie. Verr. Surfing! i. 8; Planc. Making! 19. Ellendt. 100 The Lex Licinia Mucia de civibus regendis, A.U.C. 659, by which it was provided that no one should be accounted a citizen who was not really a citizen. Cic. Off. iii. 11.

Ellendt. 101 Turnebus thinks that the reference is to the Greek proverb, Ei me dunaio boun, elaune onon, “If you cannot drive an ox, drive an ass,” (see Apostol. Prov. vii. 53; Zenob. iii. 54; ) but that proverb seems inapplicable to this passage. Talaeus and Lambinus suppose, with more probability, that something like this must be understood: Agas asellum, cursum non docebitur.

Asellus is again mentioned in c. Very On Dowry System! 66. Ellendt. 102 Nothing is recorded of that actor in pantomime. Essay On Decision Making! Ellendt. 103 This passage is corrupt, but as no emendation of it can be trusted, it will be sufficient to enclose Porcius in brackets. Orellius. 104 Ex tui animi sententia tu uxorem habes? The words ex animi sen-teniia had two significations: they were used by the censors in putting questions in the sense of “truly, sincerely;” but they were used in common conversation in the sense of “to a person’s satisfaction.” From the ambiguity of the phrase proceeds the joke. 107 Verba relata contrarie. Which the Greeks call antitheta, when contrariis opponuntur contraria.

Cic. Or. Essays Politics! 50. 108 Villam in Tiburte habes, cortem in Palatio. Cora or chors meant a coop, pen, or moveable sheep-fold.

Schutz and Strebaeus, therefore, suppose that Glaucia intended to making designate the introduction death, companions of Metellus as cattle, for which he had a pen on the Palatine. 112 Antonius impudicos hominis mores insectatur, cum Cassandrae ab Aiace post expugnatam Troiam vim illatam fuisse constet. Ellendt. 113 Of Magius nothing is known. Ellendt. 114 The grandfather of the essay on decision, orator, as is clearly shown by Corradus in Quaest. Ernesti. 115 Sub Novis. Understand Tabernis argentariis. See P. Fabr. College Essay Project! ad Quaest. Essay! Acad. iv.

22; Drakenborch ad Liv. xxvi. 27; xliv. Against Death! 17. Ernesti. 116 Quintus Metellus Macedonicus, as Plutarch relates in his treatise De Fortuna Romanwum, had four sons, whose abilities were in proportion to their ages, the making, youngest being the least gifted. Proust. 117 The same anecdote is noticed by Cicero, De Senect. c. 4; and Livy speaks of the occurrence at some length, xxvi. 25. But that the Marcus Livius there mentioned had not the cognomen of Salinator, but of Macatus, is shown by essays politics, P. Wesseling, Obss. ii. 5; and there seems little doubt that Cicero made a mistake here, as in some other places. On Decision! Ellendt.

118 We may suppose, says Strebaeus, the woman to have been deformed, and some one to have asked the man, “What relation is that woman to you? your sister?” When the essays politics, man answered, “My wife,” the questioner would exclaim, “And yet, how like you she is! I should have taken her for your sister;” wittily indicating the deformity of the man. 119 The joke, says Schutz, is in on decision the word never, as if it were possible that a man might die several times. 120 A reflection, says Turnebus, on the extraordinary size and magnificence of the building. 121 Which Scaurus required to very short essay in india be produced on the trial. 122 Texts vary greatly in this passage. I adhere strictly to that of Orellius. “It appears,” says Pearce, “that Scaevola was accused of extortion, as Cicero says in his Brutus, and in the first book De Finibus, and that Albucius, to prove the accusation, brought forward some writing of Granius, who, when judgment was given in favour of Scaevola, did not understand that it was at the same time given against his own writing.”

123 He is called the essay on decision making, elder, because he had a brother of the emerson experience essay, same name, the father of Publius Clodius, the enemy of Cicero. Proust. 124 A species of ridicule expressed in a pithy sentence. The example produced requires that we should explain the Cincian law. Essay! This cannot be done better than in the words of surfing essay, Dr. Essay Making! Middleton. Essays Politics! The business of pleading, says he, though a profession of all others the most laborious, yet was not among the essay on decision making, Romans mercenary, or undertaken for any pay; for it was illegal to emerson experience take money, or to accept even a present for it; but the richest, the greatest, and the noblest of Rome freely offered their talents to the service of their citizens, as the common guardians and essay on decision protectors of the innocent and distressed.

This was an institution as old as Romulus, who assigned the patronage of the people to the patricians or senators, without fee or reward; but in succeeding ages, when, through the avarice of the nobles, it had become a custom for all clients to make annual presents to their patrons, by which the body of the citizens was made tributary as it were to the senate, M. Cincius, a tribune, published a law prohibiting all senators to take money or gifts on any account, and especially for pleading causes. This Cincian law was made in the year of essay, Rome 549; and essay on decision recommended to the people, as Cicero tells us, (De Senect. 4,) by Quintus Fabius Maximus, in the extremity of essay, his age. Caius Cento was one of the orators who opposed it. Livy, xxxiv. 4, gives us the reason for passing this law, “Quid legem Cinciam de donis et muneribus, nisi quia vectigalis iam et stipendiaria plebs esse senatui caeperat? “It is also mentioned by Tacitus, Annal. xi. Making! 5: “Consurgunt patres legemque Cinciam flagitant, qua cavetur antiquitus ne quis ob causam orandam pecuniam donumve accipiat.” We also find from the same author, (xi. College Essay Project! 7,) that this law was not well observed in Cicero’s time: “prompta sibi exempla quantis mercedibus P. Clodius aut C. Curio concionari soliti sint;” so the emperor Claudius confined the fees to be allowed not to exceed a certain sum, which amounted to 801.

14s. 7d. of our money, “Capiendia pecuniis posuit modum usque ad dena sestertia, quem egressi repetundarum tenerentur.” The Cincian law, says Dr. Taylor, has been well commented upon by several of the moderns, as Ranchinus ii.; Var. vii.; Burgius i.; Elect, xviii.; and Brummerus. B. Turnebus understands the sense of the on decision, repartee to be, that patrons were not to system in india expect thenceforward to live upon gifts from their clients, but must buy whatever they wished to have. 125 He wishes that labour were as easy as ease. 126 Excluding him from the number of the knights, to making whom a horse was given at the public expense. 127 That is says Proust, was so reported by those who wished to favour him.

129 Antonius returns to the point from college, which he had digressed at on decision making, c. 57. 130 Dissimulatum…obruatur. Persuasive In 3rd! The word ante, which is retained by Oreliius, but is wanting in essay on decision making several manuscripts, I leave untranslated. 131 Antonius mentions seven ways by which the indiscretion of the orator may be of prejudice to the cause, to illustrate his last observation: 1. By irritating a witness, who would not have injured his client without provocation. 2. By not giving way when the arguments press too hard upon him, he may lose his cause. 3. By extolling those qualities in his client which ought to be extenuated, he may do mischief. Essay! 4. By throwing invectives upon those who are entitled to essay on decision making the esteem and favour of the judges. Introduction Against Death Penalty! 5. By upbraiding his adversary with the same defects that are in some of the judges; of which Philip’s derision of a dwarfish evidence, before Lucius Aurifex, who was still lower in stature, was an instance mentioned before.

6. He may plead his own cause rather than that of his client; which blame Cicero seems to have incurred in his oration for Publius Sextius, a cause in which he was warmly and specially interested. Whoever has any inclination to read the history of that trial, may find it in Dr. Middleton’s Life of Cicero, vol. ii. Essay On Decision! p. 45, c. 7. Experience Essay! By the use of false or repugnant arguments, or such v are foreign to the usage of the bar and judicial proceedings. B. 132 Quod ministratorem peteres, non adversarium. The ministrator was a witness, from whose evidence Antonius had drawn arguments. Ellendt. Whether by essay on decision, adversarius he meant Antonius or not, is, as Henrichsen says, uncertain. Ellendt thinks that Antonius is not meant.

I have however differed from him, as the context seems t indicate that Antonius is meant. 133 Ut in essay in 3rd quoque eorum minimum putant esse, ita eum primum volunt dicere. “As in each of them they think that there is least, so they wish him to speak first.” 134 Ut in oratore. Schutz conjectures in oratoribus, but he had better, as Ellendt observes, have conjectured ex oratoribus. But the text may be correct. 135 Reperientur…sumentur. These words are plural in Orellius’s text, but Ellendt and others seem rightly to determine that they should be singular. 137 Infrequentibus causis. Infrequens causa is a cause at the pleading of essay on decision making, which few auditors are likely to attend. Ernesti. 138 Faciliora etiam in college project principiis.

Ellendt justly observes that etiam must be corrupt, and that autem should probably be substituted for it. 139 Samnitium. On Decision! A kind of gladiators so called, that fought with Samnite arms. They had their origin among the Campanians. Liv. Very Essay On Dowry System In India! ix. 40. 140 Terence, Andr. Act I. Sc. Essay On Decision Making! 1. 141 Sapiens enim est consilium. These words I regard as a scholium that has crept into the text.

Ernesti. 142 Quid maxima quasi oratori scena videlur concionis. “Because the experience essay, greatest stage, as it were, for an orator, appears [to be that] of a public assembly.” 143 Celeritas. The same word is used in c. 54: hoc quod in celeritate atque dicto est. Schutz conjntured hilaritas. 144 Because words are at the command of the on decision making, practised orator, and, when matter is supplied, easily occur. Ernesti. 145 A man who has been censor, as you have been.

Proust.