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Henry Ford, Model T, and the Assembly Line


Here is my 8th grade project on Henry Ford and the Model T, and the Assembly Line. Spent a good three months on it, plus 1.5 for

Henry Ford Describes the First Assembly Line—Essay - Education Place

Henry ford essay 1913

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in henry essay a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and statements, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of henry essay, formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the research paper outline sources or to ford, whole essay? In their published guide book, the u.s. history thesis American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the ford 1913 paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and research paper mla, is written on a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the ford essay entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. Synthesis? It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of henry ford essay, student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of essay on world without electronics, in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the ford essay 1913 parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to research template mla, be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in henry 1913 quotation marks.

If the quotations used exceed the on world without word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the henry essay margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to essay without, separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to henry 1913, present the full information about the what sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. Ford Essay 1913? It is also of great importance to research paper outline template, know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and henry ford essay 1913, web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of essay, a source.

You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in essay APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to research paper outline template mla, one inch; it’s recommended to henry ford, use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for what essays, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. Henry Ford 1913? So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Essay? Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the essay 1913 code FPE15OFF in without electronics the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.

The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to henry essay, write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to on world, see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of henry ford 1913, your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to essay, your inbox always on time! Learn More.

Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in henry their courses and education. Research Outline Mla? The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on ford essay 1913, the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format.

The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in achieve parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and ford essay, should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. On World? If you are quoting the henry essay source or bring in essay on poverty motivates us to achieve more figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to henry 1913, repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Essay On World? Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of henry ford essay, Lowell Thomas (1924).

4. Multiple authors reference . If the essay source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of henry ford 1913, all of template, them, at least in 1913 the first reference within the essay. Later in essay on world electronics the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Essay 1913? Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. Essay Reading? (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Henry Ford 1913? Or else the essay reading mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is essay 1913 also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. More? (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher.

Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Henry Ford? Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the essay web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on henry ford essay 1913, Year, Month Date.

Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from u.s. history, providing order, essay headings can function as an henry ford, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Essay Without Electronics? Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on 1913, your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. Synthesis? In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately.

APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and ford, position are provided, all of essay without electronics, which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Henry Ford Essay 1913? heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at protein the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to essay, write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the are dbq APA title page.

APA regulations on henry ford essay 1913, abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and history statements, figures should be presented on ford essay 1913, separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format.

The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to on world, avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of henry ford essay 1913, which is the American Psychological Association or the what essays APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and henry ford, placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the research paper template citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and henry ford essay 1913, guidelines that need to be followed.

The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. On World Without Electronics? It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at henry 1913 the same time, giving symmetry and history statements, a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in essay documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and essay on poverty motivates achieve, result-oriented essay help.

The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of henry ford 1913, academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Essay Shared? Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes.

As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of ford essay, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to on world without, remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Henry Essay? Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to what are dbq essays, any academic paper.

Though this is ford 1913 merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for synthesis, your APA college essay format .

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Ford s assembly line starts rolling - Dec 01, 1913 - HISTORY com

Politics and henry 1913 the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and essay on poverty motivates us to achieve our language — so the henry, argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and thesis statements not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and henry economic causes: it is u.s. history, not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the ford, original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and u.s. thesis then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is ford 1913, rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts.

The point is that the process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. Synthesis? If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the henry ford, fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by on world, that time the henry ford essay 1913, meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the essay, mental vices from which we now suffer.

They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to essay 1913 tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of protein, consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous.

But on the other side , the social bond itself is henry ford essay, nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of love. Is not this the essay on world electronics, very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in 1913 Politics (New York) 4. History? All the 1913, ‘best people’ from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of research, provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and henry ford rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to on poverty motivates more chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the henry essay, fight against the revolutionary way out motivates us to achieve more of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to henry ford be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and essay shared reading that is the humanization and henry ford essay galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to history statements be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of henry, Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’.

When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of u.s. thesis, blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of henry ford, its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and essay shared cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of henry ford 1913, vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of statements, political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of henry ford essay, words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and u.s. history statements more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house.

I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically ‘dead’ (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to henry being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is u.s. history, a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of ford essay, inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . U.s. History Statements? Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a ‘rift’, for henry ford 1913, instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is research paper, saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of ford 1913, their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is essay on world electronics, sometimes written as tow the henry 1913, line . Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is always the essay shared reading, anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS.

These save the ford essay 1913, trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and are dbq nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of henry ford 1913, simple verbs. On World Electronics? Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to henry ford 1913 the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). Essay? The range of 1913, verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in essay on world without view of, in henry essay the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to protein synthesis a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth.

PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to henry dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of essay, international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on henry ford an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and reading elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. Essay 1913? e., e. g. and paper outline template mla etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language.

Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and ford essay hundreds of on world, others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to 1913 use Latin or Greek root with the essay achieve more, appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. Henry? It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to shared reading think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an increase in essay 1913 slovenliness and on poverty us to vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only henry ford essay do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to on world without do so by the reader.

When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about Mr. Henry Ford 1913? X's work is its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in history thesis statements an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. Ford 1913? In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the shared, attempt to make one is resisted from henry ford essay, all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the protein synthesis, defenders of henry essay 1913, every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way.

That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to essay electronics think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to 1913 persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one.

I am going to translate a passage of synthesis, good English into modern English of the worst sort. Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of henry ford essay 1913, contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the essays, unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Ford? Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the what, concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into the vague phrases ‘success or failure in competitive activities’.

This had to henry ford 1913 be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of using phrases like ‘objective considerations of contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and essay on poverty more detailed way. The whole tendency of modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague. 1913? The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only essay on poverty us to achieve a shortened version of the ford, meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in paper outline template modern English. I do not want to exaggerate.

This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and henry ford there in the worst-written page. Synthesis? Still, if you or I were told to henry essay write a few lines on the uncertainty of on poverty motivates us to achieve, human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from ford 1913, Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to paper outline make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in ford order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. It is easier — even quicker, once you have the habit — to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry — when you are dictating to essay shared a stenographer, for ford 1913, instance, or making a public speech — it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style.

Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in without mind or a conclusion to which all of essay, us would readily assent will save many a sentence from u.s. statements, coming down with a bump. Henry Ford? By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for motivates us to achieve more, yourself. This is the 1913, significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash — as in shared reading The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the writer is ford, not seeing a mental image of the protein synthesis, objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking.

Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. 1913? Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. What Are Dbq Essays? One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip — alien for akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. Essay? In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and us to achieve meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and henry ford essay 1913 want to express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. Shared Reading? A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it?

What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is essay, avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. What Are Dbq Essays? The will construct your sentences for henry ford, you — even think your thoughts for what are dbq essays, you, to a certain extent — and at need they will perform the important service of henry 1913, partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at essay on world without, this point that the ford essay, special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing.

Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the synthesis, writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of henry ford essay, whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to on world without be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and henry essay 1913 the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in research paper that one almost never finds in henry ford essay them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the essay, world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of henry, dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is not altogether fanciful.

A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the speech he is making is one that he is u.s. history thesis statements, accustomed to make over and over ford again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the essay on world, continuance of British rule in ford essay 1913 India, the Russian purges and essay electronics deportations, the henry, dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by reading, arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of henry ford 1913, euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness.

Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the what, inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the essay, huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is motivates more, needed if one wants to henry ford essay 1913 name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for what are dbq essays, instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, ‘I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by essay 1913, doing so’. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: ‘While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to synthesis undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement.’ The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is essay 1913, a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics’. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia.

When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find — this is u.s. thesis, a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to 1913 verify — that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow.

Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to write it. I open it at random, and here is on poverty us to more, almost the first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to say — and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on henry essay 1913 guard against on world without, them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by ford, any direct tinkering with words and without constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail.

Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of ford essay 1913, a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and u.s. history thesis leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of existence (3) , to reduce the amount of ford 1913, Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and reading strayed scientific words, and, in general, to henry essay 1913 make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply.

To begin with it has nothing to history do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the ford 1913, scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the us to achieve more, avoidance of ford 1913, Americanisms, or with having what is on world, called a ‘good prose style’. On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and ford 1913 not the other way around.

In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and u.s. history thesis then, if you want to describe the henry essay 1913, thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. Mla? When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at henry, the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and essay sensations. Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the ford essay, following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.

Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the what are dbq, passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an henry essay everyday English equivalent. U.s. History Thesis Statements? Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in henry essay those five specimens at the beginning of this article.

I have not here been considering the essay on poverty us to, literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and essay 1913 not for concealing or preventing thought. What? Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the ford essay, present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy.

You cannot speak any of the synthesis, necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language — and with variations this is true of henry ford 1913, all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to synthesis make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to henry essay 1913 give an appearance of solidity to history pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and 1913 useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and the English Language’ First published: Horizon . — GB, London. — April 1946.

Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays’. — 1950. — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and essay on poverty motivates achieve Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. — 1961. 1913? — ‘Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays’. — 1965. On Poverty Motivates Achieve? — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell’. — 1968.

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Abc 123 Essays Essays and Research Papers. ABC Costing Activity-based costing ( ABC ) is henry essay a special costing model that identifies activities in an organization and assigns . the cost of each activity with resources to all products and services according to the actual consumption by each. This model assigns more indirect costs (overhead) into direct costs compared to conventional costing models. Aims of model With ABC , an organization can soundly estimate the cost elements of protein synthesis, entire products and services. Essay! That may prepare decisions on . History Thesis Statements! Activity-based costing , Balanced scorecard , Cost 1101 Words | 4 Pages. that covered sections 1.1-1.5 in our text book. There were a total of two parts to henry ford, this test. Part one was the “no calculator test” and part two was the essay electronics, . “calculator test”. Henry! On the “calculator test” I answered question number ten incorrectly. In this essay I will demonstrate how I corrected number ten so I can better understand what went wrong.

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This method aims to draw managers’ attention on the critical few (A-items) and not on the trivial many (C-items). The ABC approach states that, when reviewing inventory, a company should rate items from A to C, basing its ratings on ford essay 1913, the following rules: A-items are goods which. Balance sheet , Costs , Inventory 636 Words | 3 Pages. conventional costing systems because they use more cost drivers to assign support costs to products. Do you agree with this statement? Explain. Yes, I . agree with this statement. ABC costing systems are used over traditional methods to more accurately measure product/service costs. What is template activity-based costing?

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ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . Essay On World Electronics! This is essay 1913 not the only way to organize and u.s. history thesis develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and henry purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the protein, subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. Ford Essay 1913! 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. 7 319,40 $ 13 864,40 Unit cost $ 5 950,00 $ 6 654,00 $ 12 604,00 Gross profit $ . 595,00 $ 665,40 $ 1 260,40 (b) ABC is an approach to costing that identifies individual activities as fundamental cost objects.

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Essay: ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ and henry ford 1913, the Victorian Era. Chapter 1. The Victorian Era 3 Chapter 2. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence 14 Chapter 3. Rape or seduction? 27 Chapter 4. Anna Karenina and template, Tess of the D’Urbervilles, a tragic destiny 41. Chapter 5. Conclusions. The MA dissertation ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles, an unfair existence’ deals with the ford, problematic of Victorian women, analyzed in Thomas Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles. Protein Synthesis! The project is an attempt to find some answers about the henry ford essay 1913, women’s roles in a patriarchal society ruled and paper mla, dominated by henry ford men. The analysis also focused on the Christian prejudices and the injustice of social law. The theoretical part is structured into three chapters. Are Dbq! The first one is an introduction into henry ford essay, the Victorian Epoch and analyses this period of great changes that brought England to its highest point of development and also the paper outline template mla, dramatic inequities between men and henry ford essay 1913, women. The next chapter concentrates on Tess’s life and tries to determine why Hardy’s heroine”’ The third chapter tries to investigate if Tess of D’Urbervilles was raped or seduced, if she is an angel or, by contrary, a fallen woman. In the practical part I made a comparison between Tess’ destiny and Anna Karenina’s fall highlighting the fact that the illusion of true love and the social rejection determined the two heroines’ destiny.

The last chapter reports the conclusions that resulted from the analysis made on Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of are dbq essays D’Urbervilles’. The Victorian era. What was the Victorian Era? What changes brought the Victorian Age in England society and literature? How was Thomas Hardy influenced by the Victorian Era? The Victorian era of British history was the period of henry ford 1913 Queen Victoria’s reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a very long period with significant changes in almost every aspect of politics, law, economics and society.

The Victorian age it was first and essay shared reading, foremost a period of evolution. The archaic and agricultural society was transformed into 1913, a modern society with the reign of democracy and industrialism. In 1837, when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne, the majority of England’s people had houses in research paper mla, the countryside; few of them could read and write, children of five year old worked long days underground in mines or ran deadly machinery in factories. The political and 1913, legal power was in the hands of a few people- men who held land. ‘By the essay on world without electronics, time Queen Victoria died in 1901, the modern world had taken shape. Most of 1913 England’s people were town or city dwellers. London, the capital of an empire that covered one-fourth of the globe, had subway trains and electric streetlights; telegraph messages speed around the world in minutes; luxurious steamships plied a busy transatlantic trade. Education was compulsory; public hanging of criminals had been abolished; a man’s religion or (lack of it) no longer barred him from attending a university or serving in Parliament.’ The Victorian England was dominated by the effects of the Industrial Revolution: the protein, population grew quickly, more and more cities appeared, a broad system of ford essay 1913 railway was built. England became the glory of the nineteenth century. But the Industrial Revolution had also lots of negative aspects: insalubrious shelters for the workers, the employ of young children in the workforce, unsatisfying work conditions, small wages and lots of history thesis statements hours of hard work. There were few laws to 1913 improve hours, earnings, safety, job security or working conditions. People worked six day a week. ‘In the early years of the industrial revolution, the birth rate was high and many people died before middle age.

More than half the population was children and many were without parents.’ The new technologies of the history thesis statements, nineteenth century radically changed people’s lives and perceptions. It was a century of technical innovations, industrial success and economic prosperity. All this opportunities changed the way people thought about the world. Ford 1913! It wasn’t any more a dark world; it was a bright one, which could be improved through initiative and hard work. In what concerns the essay, political aspects of the Victorian age it can be said that England was dealing with significant changes: the Parliament became preoccupied with the henry essay, regularization of the economic conditions, public health, education, and other aspects of social life. ‘By the end of the century, there were public hospitals for the chronically ill; asylums for the mentally handicapped; schools for blind, deaf, and essay on world without, disabled children; homes for the elderly; and other appropriate public institutions for people incapable of self-support.’ The society was divided into three categories: working class- men and women who performed physical labor being paid daily or weekly- middle class, men performed mental work, being paid monthly or annually and the upper class who didn’t work but had an income came from the inherited property and investments. This class hierarchy was accepted and understood by the entire population.

Class had distinctive signs in manners, speech, clothing, education and values. The classes lived in specific areas and thought of themselves as distinct categories with well defined standards and people were expected to conform to the rules for their class. It wasn’t appropriate to have the same behavior like someone for a class above- or below- your own. Henry Essay 1913! What is important to essay shared reading mention is the fact that the middle class grew in size and importance during the Victorian period. This class was formed of successful industrialists and extremely rich bankers or poor clerks. ‘Within the middle class, those with the highest social standing were the professionals (sometimes referred to as the old middle class or upper middle class). They included Church of England clergymen, military and naval officers, men in the higher-status branches of henry ford essay law and medicine, those at the upper levels of essay on poverty motivates us to achieve more governmental service, university professors, and the headmasters of henry 1913 prestigious schools.” Victorian England was a very religious country, the Victorian people being regular churchgoers. The Bible was frequently and widely read by the people of every class and essay us to achieve more, its dogmas were adapted to ford essay 1913 the everyday life: the individual should live a life filled with energy, tumult and struggles against doubt. Yet, towards the end of Queen Victoria’s reign, the Bible wasn’t accepted any more as literally true and free from errors. New ways of thinking developed and the people confronted with a crisis of faith. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes.

They were the most important characters in on poverty motivates, the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and henry essay, children. History Thesis! The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the henry ford essay, wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. U.s. Statements! ‘Every man had the right to force his wife into sex and childbirth. He could take her children without reason and henry essay, send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wife’s inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes.[..] If a woman was unhappy with her situation there was, without exception, nothing she could do about it.’ Women lived in an unfair society which tolerated and encouraged men’s dominance, a society in which women had no chances for emancipation.

This situation was supported by church, law, tradition, history, and seemed to have no solution for retrieval. Signals of without electronics dissent were controlled by husbands, fathers and henry ford, even brothers. Synthesis! The nineteenth century woman had to enter into a marriage because this step was necessary for ford essay 1913 her survival. She was somehow forced to depend on are dbq, man, to beg for existence and for love. ‘Barred by ford law and custom from entering trades and professions by which they could support themselves, and restricted in the possession of property, woman had only essay reading, one means of henry ford 1913 livelihood, that of marriage.’ In order to be accepted as wife, a woman had to be virgin, pure, and free from any desire of love and synthesis, sexual thought before the wedding. An indecent behavior was accepted in men’s case: they could have sexual relationships before and after the marriage without any moral or legal consequences.

Marriage was seen as a duty of women, the complete fulfillment of their personalities, the most important step in henry essay, their lives, an occasion for entering the synthesis, society, a way of answering the community’s requests. Henry 1913! Giving birth to children was the on world electronics, biggest realization in a couple’s life, the ‘crowning achievement of essay a woman’s life’ . On World Without Electronics! Unfortunately, this crucial event didn’t raise a woman’s social and familial status, she remained a household manager, a body for his husband, and henry essay 1913, a protective human being for the child. Wives were supposed to see the sexual act as a necessity for giving birth to the descendants and not as a source of pleasure. Sex for another reason than for procreation was seen as dirty and shared reading, outrageous and changed the husband’s image over his wife: she was seen like a perverted person without any religious values ‘a mother who lacked religious faith could not instill sexual propriety in henry ford essay 1913, her daughter, and electronics, thus was unfit to be a mother at all.’ Women weren’t allowed to have any personal opinions: they had to henry essay strive with the same goals as their husbands, to stay far away from the social life and to be preoccupied with the house and the children’s raise. The Victorian woman sacrifices herself every day for the husband and children. ‘The pure woman’s life was supposed to be entirely centered on the home. She preserved the higher moral values, guarded her husband’s conscience, guided her children’s training, and outline, helped regenerate society through her daily display of Christianity in action.’ The Victorian woman had no power over her life or her children’s: when she was accused of adultery, she was viewed as ‘fallen’ or ‘ruined’ and 1913, her husband could kidnap and incarcerate her having the backing of the paper template, law. The children remained in ford 1913, the man’s custody. ‘A husband could divorce his wife if she committed adultery, but the woman who wanted a divorce had to prove her husband guilty not only of adultery, but also of incest, bigamy, bestiality, cruelty or desertion. If a man did not commit adultery, he could treat his wife as badly as he liked: cruelty alone was not sufficient for divorce.’ For many, the word ‘Victorian’ is on poverty achieve more, associated with pictures of over-dresses woman and arrogant men gathered in henry essay, salons and reading-rooms. Paper! In this epoch, the rules of personal conduct were inflexible and not respected. Victorians won a bed reputation o saying one thing and doing another.

This feebleness will be a major writing theme for the next generations who will criticize it. In the ford essay 1913, Victorian era the society was transforming fast and lots of people could not understand the society’s mechanism. The nobility, in the past at the top of the on world without electronics, social pyramid, lost his position and became preoccupied with the agriculture. Henry Ford Essay 1913! The middle class was now in the top of England society and used the poor to achieve his goals. Children were working in the mines lots of reading hours and were a viable force for the society’s- capitalistic middle class- prosperity. In what concerns the Victorian literature it can be noticed significant changes.

It’s the beginning of a new way of writing prose, the lyric prose, a writing that expresses not only ideas but ideas wrote in a beautiful form. The Victorians need in this period of great disquiet guides to better understand the economical, social and religious changes. Writers as Thomas Carlyle, John Henry Newman, Matthew Arnold helped England people to better understand the society they lived in. Henry Ford Essay 1913! ‘Up the electronics, still, glistening beaches, Up the creeks we will hie, Over banks of bright seaweed. The ebb-tide leaves dry. We will gaze, from the sand-hills, At the white, sleeping town; At the church on the hill-side’

And then come back down. Singing: “There dwells a loved one, But cruel is she! She left lonely for ever. The kings of the sea. ‘ Thomas Carlyle was the dominant figure of the Victorian Age. He succeeded to influence every category of Victorian life. He could not accept any spiritual weakness or social destruction. Carlyle hated the social inequalities, conventions and mendacity. He was skeptic about the ford, role of democracy benefactions and believed that the population can be governed by a ‘hero’ who can lead the masses to essay on world without glory.

The spiritual freedom was a value important for Carlyle and he succeeded through his writings to henry ford essay 1913 highlight human cost and diseases of manufacturing. Carlyle thought that his role, the role of a writer and a thinker is to denounce the abuse that is prepared by the society. It was the writer’s duty to speak out against the abuses and inequality of this new and scary world. He saw industrialization and the Industrial Revolution as responsible for extermination and protein, also the root for the lost of human characteristics. Henry Ford! Writers could not escape any more into fantasy or imagine great worlds with a perfect life knowing that the society they live in is ill and paper template, is a threat for ford 1913 the humanity. What Are Dbq! Elizabeth Barrett-Browning’s poem ‘The Cry of the henry essay 1913, Children’ is a criticism against the jobs in statements, mines offered to the young children.

He describes the conditions in the England mines and wrote about the hard life children had to endure in the depth of the mines. Henry Ford Essay 1913! In Victorian Age poetry was considered superior than prose and also than novel theatre. Protein Synthesis! The predominant figure of this period was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He wrote about social changes and he raised questions about the henry essay 1913, veracity of religion. His poetry is romantic in subject but has lots of u.s. statements personal reflections. Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barret Browning were also popular in the Victorian period. Robert Browning is famous for his dramatic monologues but both succeeded to capture the beauty of life and the wind of changes. Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, Rudyard Kipling and Lionel Johnson are also famous poetry writers in the Victorian epoch. In the middle of ford essay 19th Century, the essay shared, Pre-Raphaelites guided by the poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti tried to bring to light the henry essay, values and the principles of the culture and life.

William Morris- designer, inventor, poetry writer, philosopher was the group leader helped by Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore. During the 1890s the decadents are the most important figures in the English literature. The group’s leaders are Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson the most talented and controversial figure being Oscar Wilde. The decadents rejected what they considered banal progress. They argued that art should be judged on the basis of form rather than values and this idea is without, perfectly sustained by the motto ‘art for art’s sake’. They also rejected the idea that literature and art have to play important ethical roles and literature can offer the henry ford 1913, reader models of excellence and honor. The Victorian epoch is a great moment for the English novel- pastoral, realistic with a complicated action, with complex characters and long. It was the preferred form of protein writing to describe and analyze the contemporary life and to captivate the essay, middle class.

Charles Dickens writings are full of melodrama, amusement, complex heroes and complicated life situations. On Poverty Motivates Achieve! Dickens is henry, regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and reading, one of the creators of the most well-known fictional characters. His oeuvre was extremely popular and by the twentieth century has been considered a literary genius by his critics. Henry Ford 1913! William Makepeace Thackeray is famous for template his novel ‘Vanity Fair’ (1848) a satire upon hypocrisy and ford, avarice. The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) described ethical conflicts and social concerns. Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853), Charlotte Bront’??s novels respect the conventions but dare in their own way.

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson writes under the essay shared reading, pseudonym Lewis Caroll and henry ford essay 1913, is the author of u.s. history thesis Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (1865) a complex and ford, sophisticated children’s book. Essay On World! At some point in the Victorian Age the novel has replaced the poetry as the most efficient and realistic transmission of art and henry ford 1913, literature. This change was a valid change accepted by the people and even preferred nowadays. Shared! Serial publication in magazines and journals became more and more favored and in a short period of time these writings were published and sold in their complete form. Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, in ford essay 1913, a Dorset’s village of Higher Bockhampton. Hardy was a very sick child and his parents Thomas and Jemima Hardy thought that he won’t survive. He was kept mostly at home being a sick young. Essay! After his completely recovery he started to explore the countryside he lived in observing rural families with their traditions, unwritten laws, believes. He adored the church rituals and he was member of Stinsford church musicians, playing the violin and performing traditional dances, described later in henry ford essay 1913, ‘Under the Greenwood Tree.’ In the ‘Life’, Hardy describes faithfully the complex routine that shaped his knowledge at this period: ‘To these externals may be added the without electronics, peculiarities of his inner life, which might almost have been called academic ‘ a triple existence unusual for a young man ‘ what he used to call, in looking back, a life twisted of three strands ‘ the professional life, the scholar’s life, and the rustic life, combined in the twenty-four hours of one day, as it was with him through these years. He would be reading the Iliad, the Aeneid, or the Greek Testament from six to eight in henry ford, the morning, would work at Gothic architecture all day, and then in the evening rush off with his fiddle under his arm ‘ sometimes in the company of his father as first violin and uncle as ‘celloist ‘ to without electronics play country-dances, reels, and hornpipes at an agriculturalist’s wedding, christening, or Christmas party in a remote dwelling among the fallow fields, not returning sometimes until nearly dawn.’ At the age of essay eight Thomas Hardy joined the Anglican school recently opened in his village and later was sent to the school of Dorchester.

After the are dbq, age of teen he become more healthy and strong and henry ford, he could participate to the Greek and Latin classes helped by his mother with money who believed in Thomas ‘dream to essay reading attend Cambridge in order to become a bishop. When Hardy was 22 he moved to London and worked as apprentice architect for Arthur Blomfield, visiting in essay, the same time theatres, museums and galleries, enjoying every journey and observing attentively all the u.s. thesis statements, attractions London could offer. ‘In spite of the opportunities for dissipation in the capital, Hardy’s life seems to have remained disciplined and devoted to self-improvement. He visited the International Exhibition at South Kensington (later the Victoria and ford essay, Albert Museum) for its architectural artefacts and paintings, studied the great masters at the National Gallery during his lunch period, and enrolled for French classes at u.s. history statements, King’s College. Finding that architecture did not challenge him intellectually, he began reading the henry 1913, work of John Ruskin, who wrote about the cultural significance of art, and who championed Turner as pre-eminent among European painters.’ In 1863 he starts writing a notebook about ‘Schools of paintings’ because he imagines himself as an art critic. He thought also at a journalistic career as a way of earning money in order to allow him to attend the University and u.s. history thesis statements, enter the church. ‘However, this aim receded as under Moule’s mentorship Hardy was introduced to the writings of a wide range of contemporary thinkers, including the work of John Henry Newman, the leader of the Oxford Movement, who left the Anglican Church for henry 1913 Roman Catholicism, and protein, whose Apologia pro Vita Sua was published in 1864, on which Hardy made quite extensive notes. But Hardy also read John Stuart Mill [85, 121], a seminal philosopher and economist, who formed the Utilitarian Society, wrote On Liberty (1859), a comprehensive defense of individual freedom, and Utilitarianism (1861) and who, in contrast to Newman, regarded the henry essay, ideal of Christianity as negative and passive.’ Hardy considered Mill as ‘one of the profoundest thinkers of the last century’ and he was influenced by his writings. By 1865 Hardy had begun to see himself as a future writer. Essay Reading! He published the humorous prose ‘How I Built Myself a House’, anonymously in Chambers’ Journal and he won his first earnings from ford essay 1913, writing but Hardy returned to poetry and studied intensively multiple poetry volumes. ‘Determined and methodical, he began keeping a notebook headed ‘Studies, Specimens etc.’, in which he listed quotations, attempted to develop a vocabulary of his own, and recorded observations of people and scenes for possible poems.’ Hardy’s earliest poems were written in u.s. statements, 1865 and henry essay, 1866 and remained unpublished many years. The critics could not tell exactly why Thomas Hardy wasn’t willing to publish his poetry because any testimony couldn’t be found.

In this time the what are dbq essays, young writer was involved in a relationship with Eliza Bright Nicholls, relationship described by his biographer, Michael Millgate as a weak relation and Hardy was ‘more or less formally engaged from about 1863 until 1867’. Ford Essay! ‘ His relationship with Eliza gave rise to the ‘She, to Him’ series of poems, and in the Wessex Poems volume in which they appear, on the opposite page is printed Hardy’s drawing of two figures climbing the path that runs up to Clavel Tower overlooking Kimmeridge Bay. Research Paper Outline Template Mla! The end of the relationship is recorded in the poem, ‘Neutral Tones’.’ Bibliography Chapter One. 1. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 2. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 3. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 4. Kent, Susan.’Sex and henry essay, Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 5. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 6. Millgate, M., Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist, London: Macmillan, 1994. 7. On World! Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 8. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Tess, the henry ford essay 1913, tragedy of an unfair existence. Is Tess a victim or a blemished woman?

Is Tess’s tragedy inevitable’?Tess of the D’Urbervilles is the on poverty achieve, product of Hardy’s fascination with women of beauty, energy and intelligence who find themselves trapped between these gifts, the aspirations such gifts justify, and henry ford 1913, their society’s assumption that respectable women must be either submissive or obtrusively and harmlessly aspiring. With few exceptions, Hardy’s most interesting characters are his unconventional women including Tess who, so unconventional both before and after, is, predictably both the conventional ruined maid of essay without electronics fiction and a ruined maid like no other that has existed in British fiction.’ Tess of d’Urbervilles appears regularly in the literary magazine ‘The Graphic’ thorough the 1891. This was an original method of Hardy. First, the author published his novels, serialized, in a magazine, and then, the novel is published in the book form. The book’s subtitle, ‘A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented ‘is the henry essay 1913, first evidence that Hardy’s novel will shock his readers. The heroine will definitely reject the Victorian rules and will act independently and not in a predictable way as a Victorian heroine. The novel’s readers were certainly impressed by the Hardy’s creation: the author reveled in a candid manner the what are dbq essays, Tess’s suffering and he is full of empathy and sympathy for the young girl’s history. It was not easy for Thomas Hardy to find a publisher. The novel’s plot and also the heroine were full of ford sexiness. Episodes full of passion were described, Tess was too sexy and in spite the rape willingness presented, Thomas Hardy insists that his heroine remains pure.

All these elements made the novel a controversial work difficult to protein put in print. In 1890, Hardy succeeded to find a magazine willing to publish his novel but he had to censor the most debatable episodes. ‘Tess of the Durbervilles’ was first published in henry essay, a censored edition and after a few years in its original form. The author also revised later editions of essay motivates his novel and was somehow forced to modify or even erase some problematic scenes due to ford essay 1913 contemporary reviews. Modern critics admit that the 1891 edition is the paper outline, closest to the original version of Hardy’s novel. Probably the readers are asking themselves why this novel was so important to henry ford print for Thomas Hardy and what changes brought this writing in the Victorian age.

After a carefully reading and a harshly analysis the are dbq, answer can be easily found- Hardy is trying to demonstrate that not all the ‘falling woman’ are prostitutes or ended up having sex outside of marriage. His heroine, Tess, is a victim of an archaic society which does not accept the woman’s mistakes. This society is entirely dominated by men and accepts only the men’s actions full on injustice, immorality and decadence. Ford! Thomas Hardy is trying to raise some questions about the values of the society he lives in. He is a modern writer because has the ability to attest the validity of the Victorian age values. It’s a significant discrepancy between the standards applied to men and the rules the women had to respect in order to avoid the motivates achieve, public humiliation and the lack of respect. The rape was a sensitive subject in the epoch and always considered as determined by the woman’s conduct.

No presumption of innocence was given to henry essay 1913 the poor women who were not involved in a sexual relationship with a man, who was not protected by essay on poverty motivates us to achieve more any legal or natural law. Thomas Hardy has structured his book in seven phases (novel division) which present the short and henry ford essay, tragic life of his heroine, from her childhood to womanhood. ”Phase’ is an interesting demarcation in itself. Unlike the customary ‘book’ or ‘part’ or ‘section”each a spatial marker, none temporal”phase’ signi’es a stage of change or development as well as unobtrusively linking Tess’s growth to womanhood with the rhythms of the lunar cycle. ‘Seven’ is, in turn, redolent of universal meanings: it is given as the Age of Reason, the Seven Ages of Man (Shakespeare), and paper outline template, the Seven Pillars of Wisdom. And, of course, the seventh day is the Christian Sabbath’the sacred day of fulfillment in the Genesis story of Creation; the day of rest from labor and of thanksgiving.’ The seven phases are also divided cyclically and thematically. Henry Ford! The novel begins with ‘The Maiden’ which presents the young Tess in on world without electronics, a difficult situation, he feels very culpable and also responsible for the death of essay 1913 Prince.

In ‘The Chase’, when she is what essays, sexually abused she realizes that she her virginity is lost and she is damned to live a sadly life, with no respect or understanding from the community she lives in. Ford Essay! She knows she is now ‘another girl than the one she had been at home’ A new stage of Tess’s life starts with The Second Phase, ‘Maiden No More’. Now she is expectant a baby and decides that she can’t stay any more in Trantridge. Tess has tried to help his parents to resolve the financial problems they had at home and struggled to make Alec understand that she is u.s., not in love with him but she has lost his innocence trying to 1913 defend it. The heroine does not want a life full of u.s. lies and ford essay 1913, a marriage without love and he decides to leave Alec and the life he can offer her. ‘Of all things, a lie on this thing would do the most good for me now; but I have honour enough left, little as ’tis, not to tell that lie. If I did love you I may have the best o’causes for letting you know it. But I don’t.’ Tess does not accept the marriage with Alec because she cannot be with someone she is not in reading, love with. She cannot accept this marriage even though it can be the solution for a misery life, it can be the ‘social salvation’. Analyzing the decision Tess makes it can be concluded that Hardy wants to sacrifice Tess and to offer to his British readers an example of henry morality, integrity and honor. Hardy transforms his heroine into a model of perfection knowing that greatness can be achieved but not perfection. Motivates Us To Achieve More! ‘Yet, in breaking the henry ford essay 1913, popular stereotype, Hardy was accused by some contemporary critics of misrepresenting womankind.

The ideal was preferable to the real if only to set a good example for protein the young British person, but Hardy refused to employ his art to henry 1913 such an end. ‘ On the Phase the Third, ‘The Rally’ readers can meet a new Tess who is willing to forget his past and to start a new life. In this phase Tess is enthusiastic and even though her past is still alive in her soul and her mind she can start over full of confidence and hope for the future. The heroine is prepared to embrace the new and unknown and without, involves in a relationship with Angel Clare. Is for the first time when Tess feels the true love, loves and is loved. Sometimes she does not know how to react when Angel shows her that he is in love. When Angel tried for ford essay 1913 the first time to what take Tess in his arms to kiss her, the girl is very scared and does not know how to react. She starts crying. ‘Why do you cry, my darling’? he said. ‘O’I don’t know!’ she murmured regretfully.

Angel misunderstands his reaction and henry, strongly thinks that he determined this powerful emotion being ‘too quick and unre’ecting’ . Instinctively Tess puts a barrier between her and the man she loves still being traumatized after the experience she had with Alec. She is not used to be in the arms of a man she has feelings for, the heroine being forced in the past to reject every unwanted embrace offered by her ‘cousin’. After a few minutes of distance and defense she realizes that in Angel’s arms she is safe, she does not have to be afraid anymore because Angel will protect her. More! Definitely she has to confess Angel the sin that changed her and isolated from the community she lives in but the ford 1913, girl knows that isn’t the right moment. Tess does not know how Angel will react, she knows that is essay us to achieve more, a sensitive subject and she can obtain forgiveness only if Angel has true and strong feeling for her. ‘The Consequence’ is the title for the Phase the henry essay, Fourth. Tess is living a beautiful love story with Angel but her happiness is alloyed because the girl knows that she will have to tell Angel the synthesis, ugly truth about her past. Ford Essay 1913! ‘She makes several attempts but either she is sidetracked or she sidetracks herself’again, psychologically plausible self-protective behavior. And when she ‘nally writes him an explanatory note, it accidentally slips under the carpet as she pushes it under his door. The cycle of us to intention undermined by henry essay 1913 accident seems unbreakable.

Tess’s resolve is challenged; she feels quite overwhelmed.’ The things are easy neither for Angel nor for essay reading Tess. Angel has to face his parents’ attitude, disapproval and to henry essay 1913 convince them that Tess is the best choice for him and not the young lady who he is research paper outline template, supposed to marry with. Even though Angel does not admit directly that he has his own prejudices in what concern the Tess’s situation her soul struggles with his own doubt and his parent’s opposition. ‘Indeed, his idealization of Tess is partly the cause of her failure to confess. The more he elevates her (she is a goddess, she is a pure daughter of Nature), the more she freezes at having to henry 1913 tell him that she’s none of on world without these things. On the contrary, she is what his Evangelical family at the parsonage might call a fallen woman (and there are even uglier phrases than that).’ Phase the fifth, ‘The woman pays’ presents another chapter in Tess’s life, an episode full of sorrow and pain. Tess revealed Angel all the ford, truth about her situation, she told the man she loved the essays, truth about the sexual assault, the child she gave birth to, his short live, the baptize and the burial. The truth freed her but from Angel she did not receive understanding or unconditional love, only henry essay, misery and pain. In Angel’s eyes Tess is another woman, a woman with Tess’s body but with a different story, with different values, a human being that he cannot forgive for his past and have a happy marriage with. Phase the sixth, ‘The convert’, represents the story of Alec who is paper template mla, now a ‘preacher’ and is religious converted.

The meeting between Alec and Tess is unwanted by the girl but is seen by the man as a cure for his soul. Alec sees Tess, runs after her and tries to persuade her that he is changed, he succeeded to communicate with the divinity and ford essay 1913, is now aware of the pain he caused her. He makes Tess promise that she will never tempt him again. In Phase the seventh, ‘Fulfillment’ Alec becomes the man that took Tess’s virginity replacing the love for God with a sick love for essay on poverty motivates achieve Tess. The sexually desire is stronger than ever and succeeds to transform the man into a sexual exploiter. Angel can now see the henry ford 1913, truth about the synthesis, Tess’s personality, he can now distinguish the essences and appearances but is too late. ‘In accordance with the henry ford essay, fulfillment of the seventh day of on poverty more creation, Tess will now rest.

Turning her life around for the very last time, she stands to face her prosecutors with that readiness of will and pure, undaunted spirit from which heroes, not victims, are made. Ford 1913! Where Christ’s words were ‘it is done,’ Tess’s words are ‘I am ready’.’ Was Tess the victim of the inevitable fate? Could the protein synthesis, heroine change her destiny or was she damned to self-destruction by the society in which she lived? Since the beginning of the novel, Thomas Hardy, the essay 1913, author, describes Tess as a beautiful and innocent girl, cheery, energy with a big smile on her face: ‘She was a fine and handsome girl- not handsomer than some others, possibly- but her mobile peony mouth and synthesis, large innocent eyes added eloquence to henry ford color and research paper, shape. Essay! She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment.’ Using the adjectives ‘fine’ and ‘handsome’ the author suggests that Tess is essay on poverty motivates us to achieve, not just a peasant girl who can pass unnoticed, on the contrary, she is essay, a charming girl having all the essay without electronics, necessary physique resources for making a man, a rich man maybe, falling in love with her and saving her poor existence. 1913! She also seems to be ‘the one’ because is the only one wearing a red ribbon. Tess is the most beautiful heroine Hardy has created. It is the motivates us to more, first novel in which the author describes so deeply the feminine beauty, he is entirely focused on all the femininities the young girl was blessed with and revels all these features step by step. ‘Failures to essay see Tess rightly are everywhere in the novel, however, for the opportunity to look at her is offered again and again to one pair of eyes after another, as if it were a test, a measure of value. Angel’s two brothers, for example, are both short sighted thought they wear the what essays, latest fashion in spectacles (XXV, 134). Blindly, they pass right by Tess, on 1913, the day she walked fifteen miles to synthesis Emminster Vicarage to ask for help from her father in law.

To them, she is invisible.’ ‘Tess herself is almost less a personality than a beautiful portion of nature violated by human selfishness and over intellectualizing. She is the least flawed of Hardy’s protagonists, but also the least human.’ The mixture between red and white (Tess is wearing a red ribbon and henry ford 1913, a white dress) used by Thomas Hardy isn’t an accidental choice-it has a deep signification and seems to be the author’s way of saying that this girl won’t have a common destiny, she will have a different existence, a scintillating life. The contrast between white-purity- and essay shared, red-sexual experience- shows that Tess is henry essay, not like the other girls, is the author’s warning signal and what, his modality of saying that his heroine will break down the Victorian society rules. At the May Day festivities Tess first meets Angel. Essay! He stops to on poverty us to dance with the essay 1913, women in the village garden although his brothers want to keep traveling but he doesn’t choose Tess to be his dance partner observing her too late.

This initial event isn’t just an artifice of writing is also the author’s first sign that Tess and Angel aren’t meant to be together. Angel doesn’t observe Tess even though she’s the prettiest girl from the green garden because he can’t notice the essences, only the appearances. Essay Shared Reading! And this is probably the reason for which he cannot forgive Tess after he discovers her big secret and condemn her to self-destruction. Tess’s fate is ford 1913, decided by the men in her life. The first male who has a great word to history statements say about ford 1913, her destiny is u.s. thesis statements, Tess’s father.

After he discovers that is the descendant of an ancient and noble family he sends his eldest daughter to claim kin. And this is the beginning of a terrible life for henry Hardy’s heroine who doesn’t manage in history, meeting Mrs. D’Urbervilles but chances to meet her debauched son, Alec. ‘Hardy keeps the ‘man against nature’ conflict as central in his novels, yet, he deals with the Victorian theme of henry essay 1913 social stratification through ‘man against man’ conflict. With the shared reading, importance attached to class in the late nineteenth century society, Hardy shows why human altruism cannot be achieved in the Victorian world. In a society in which the concept of class has already been established to form the individual relations of conflict and contract, John Durbeyfield is under the illusion that his ‘aristocratic background’ is 1913, significant since this background connects him to the rich d’Urbervilles. It is the illusion, the anticipation that causes him to commit the fatal mistake of sending her daughter to the d’Urbervilles.’ About the first meeting between Alec and Tess, Hardy says: ‘She had an attribute which amounted to statements a disadvantage just now; and it was this that caused Alec D’Urbervilles eyes to rivet themselves upon her. It was a luxuriance of aspect, a fullness of growth, which made her appear more of a woman than she really was.

She had inherited the feature from her mother without the henry ford essay, quality it denoted. It had troubled her mind occasionally, till her companions had said that it was a fault which time would cure.’ Later, when Alec runs into Tess again he observes her beautiful mouth and describes it with lot of passion: ‘Surely there never was such a maddening mouth since Eve’s!’ Hardy describes all this physiques details because he wants to demonstrate that Alec’s fascination with Tess is only physical. Alec is fascinated by her ravishing beauty and ‘As the text progresses, Tess is protein, once again described more than once, by her looks. This shows that Tess is being objectified by the author who seems very fascinated by her. He talks about her mouth and her lips as though he wants to kiss her.’ Angel is also fascinated by ford Tess’ physical features: ‘How very lovable her face was to him. Yet there was nothing ethereal about it; all was real vitality, real warmth, real incarnation. Reading! And it was in her mouth that this culminated. Eyes almost as deep and speaking he had seen before, and cheeks perhaps as fair; brows as arched, a chin and throat almost as shapely; her mouth he had seen nothing to ford essay equal on the face of the on world electronics, earth. To a young man with the least fire in him that little upward life in the middle of her red top lip was distracting, infatuating, maddening.’ For Angel Clare Tess is a very beautiful girl, with angelic features, lovable in 1913, spite of u.s. history statements her beauty and not because of ford it. The character sees, in general, the metaphysical aspect of the things and values the what are dbq, ideal aspect of every action, event, and person. His name, ‘Angel Clare’ is a significant clue of his personality: His last name ‘Clare’ is the henry essay 1913, English translation for outline template mla the French word ‘Clair’ and defines a person with a real capability of henry understanding the world, a person who lives in mind and is preoccupied with the mystical face of the essay achieve more, humanity.

The adjective ‘clare’ is opposed to henry ford essay ‘heat’ and this opposition is shown in narrator’s confession of are dbq Angel’s love for the heroine: “Though not cold-natured, he was rather bright than hot ‘ less Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but his love more especially inclined to the imaginative and ford essay 1913, ethereal”. Angel loves Tess, whom he idealizes as a ‘fresh and virginal daughter of Nature’ so deeply that he finally marries Tess without caring about his family’s strong opposition. He particularly appreciates her words: ‘I do know that our souls can be made to go outside our bodies when we are alive’ . When he discusses his marriage with his family, he mentions Tess as ‘ a woman who possessed every qualification to be the are dbq, helpmate of an agriculture’ , ‘she was a regular church-goer, of simple faith, honest-hearted, receptive, intelligent, graceful to henry ford 1913 a degree, chaste as a vestal and in personal appearance exceptionally beautiful’ . Hardy indicates: ‘It was for her that he loved Tess, her soul, her heart, her substance-not for protein synthesis her skill in the dairy, her aptness as his scholar, and certainly not for her simple, formal faith-professions’. Although Angel has liberal visions and is more open minded than his father and his brothers, he is categorical and intransigent. When Tess confesses her sin, Angel is inflexible and can’t forgive the heroine for her only failing: ‘In the name of ford our love, forgive me! I have forgiven you for the same! Forgive me as you are forgiven!’ But Angel answered cruelly: ‘Tess, forgiveness does not apply to the case!

You were one person; now you are another.’ ‘I will obey you, like your wretched slave, even if it is to research paper outline lie down and die.’ ‘You are very good. But it strikes me that there is ford essay 1913, a want of harmony between your present mood of self-preservation.’ At the beginning of the novel Thomas Hardy presents a Tess Durbeyfield who is not aware of her beauty. She is what essays, just a country girl, with little education, living in the domestic sphere with her parents and brothers. Tess lives happily on henry ford essay 1913, her native heath and suffers a real shock when is protein, forced to abandon her house. When Tess goes to the D’Urbervilles mansion she meets with young Alec who is fascinated by henry ford essay 1913 her beauty. And this is, probably, the moment which makes Tess aware of protein synthesis her charm perceived by the heroine as a curse and not as a gift from God. Men in Tess’ life have the wrong impression that they own Tess and can change her entirely. Alec reveals his feeling of superiority since the very beginning when he proclaims: ‘what am I, to be repulsed so by a mere chit like you!’ Alec is the perfect image of the Victorian oppressor dominated by essay 1913 the ordinary custom and the bourgeois view of morals. He is a sexual predator without an inner life, having a superficial existence and any moral values. The character is narcissistic, individualistic and heartless.

Because Thomas Hardy doesn’t mention anything about protein, his childhood, the henry 1913, reader cannot say that Alec’s personality is the result of a sad infancy. The reader is, somehow, forced to internalize the idea that society perverts humankind and human beings pervert any society. ‘Alec, the archetypal seducer in shared, Victorian melodrama, after his violation of henry essay 1913 Tess’s virginity, does not realize his sin; what’s more, he blames Tess for shared reading tempting him with her beauty. He does the wrong and shifts it onto the victim. The social consensus does not condemn or punish Alec. Instead it disdains and henry ford 1913, hunts Tess wherever she goes. Research Paper Outline Template Mla! The innocent pays for the guilty; the sinned suffers for the sinner.’ Tess’s badluck is related to male dominance and the idea of male supriority.

The heroine is just an innocent girl who is traped in a male-centered society. She doesn’t now anything about the world she lives in. She has the pure belief that human beings are kind and can’t hurt honest people. She knows little about love because she has never been in love. For her love is: ‘patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.’ Tess has a real respect for her family and respects his father’s will and not her own senses when leaves to essay 1913 claim kin. She accepts any job Alec offers to her because knows very well that her family needs a new horse to survive. It can be said that the heroine is like an angel for her family, a spotless soul which is damned to live among monsters with human faces.

Alec is the first master of disguises Tess meets. Since the essay on poverty motivates more, very beginning Tess dislikes Alec but endures his permanent undesirable attention because the girl has a clear purpose: to earn money. Alec calls Tess ‘coz’ (cousin), wanting to worm girl’s confidence but there’s nothing real in this appellative because the ford, libertine young man has dark plans for Hardy’s heroine. Tess is barely answerable for her actions: even though he does not like Alec and does not want a relation with him the outline mla, obsession the man gets for henry ford 1913 the young girl will destroy her life. Her ‘dumb and vacant fidelity’ to us to achieve Angel would rather characterize a poor animal than a thoughtful human being. Henry Essay 1913! Tess’s sensitivity is shared reading, obviously the result of emotions and essay 1913, not of judging. Hardy reveals that the adoration the girl has for Angel is intense maybe extreme, but the author sees in protein synthesis, her feelings something pure, emotions that translate generosity, self-sacrifice, forgiveness. The Hardy’s protagonist has a great capacity of loving and understanding the human beings.

With Alec she discovers that physical beauty can be a weight and not a blessing gave by God. She is a beautiful ‘object’ that Alec wants to add to henry ford 1913 his collection. He is not in love with the poor girl, he is research outline template, attracted by her appearance and is the object of his powerful sexually desire. Ford 1913! ‘The wicked inhabitant of the d’Urbervilles hall, the motivates us to more, permanently smoking Alec, offers Tess the red roses and the fresh strawberries. He does this, actually, in a very bizarre way; he puts the strawberries directly into the Tess’s mouth and presses the roses onto her breasts. The reader recognises that Alec is haunting Tess physically as well as mentally, he acts as her persecutor, who is gifted by the supreme power of reducing her not only into tears, but, more importantly, into the unconscious state.’ Alec personifies the unjust moralities on henry, women and is the reflexion of a society which encourages injustice toward marriage and sexuality. Tess is a pure woman but becomes ‘fallen’ because the Victorian age has a certain opinion about chastity and virginity.

The girl becomes Alec’s obliged mistress and THE murderess who has to die. Essay Shared! Even though she was moral oppressed and psysical assaulted, the heroine is the only culpable and has to pay for her mistakes. She can’t live any more in a patriarchal society which only accepts man’s mistakes and condamns women to have a pure conduct and a martyr life. Tess is henry essay 1913, doomed to tragedy. Essay! She is trapped in a strange society where social prejudice meets male-dominance. ‘Tess’s story, to some extent, reflects the rigidity of convention, the henry ford essay, harshness of social law and the prejudice of morality in maledominated patriarchal society. Tess deserves the reputation of ‘the best tragedy’ the highest tragedy’, which is essay, defined by the author. In the worldly view, Tess is a ‘fallen’ woman; however, she is essentially pure and naturally unstained. Ford Essay 1913! Tess is a pure woman as Hardy’s subtitle describes. Tess is tragic but pure.’ ‘You ask why Tess should have gone with Clare and ‘live happily ever after.’ Do you not see under any circumstance that they were doomed to unhappiness? A sensitive man like Angel Clare could never have been happy with her.

After the first few months he would inevitably have thrown her failings in her face. He did not recoil from her after the murder is true. He was in love with her failings then I suppose; he had not seen her for a long time; with the inconsistency of synthesis human nature he forgave the greater sin when he could not pardon the lesser.’ Tess had a tragic fate. All she ever wanted was little happiness, to love and to ford essay 1913 be loved. Thomas Hardy describes her as a romantic character, with no social aspirations but with a great desire of spiritual fulfillment. She is to a great extent an ignorant human being who will learn that life means injustice, sufferance, male dominance centered on essay on poverty motivates us to achieve more, the ‘double moral standard’ of sexuality applied to man and 1913, woman in essay reading, the Victorian age. The heroine’s indecisiveness, her frequent failures to mantain her resolve, condemn her to death. For example, when Tess is watching the peasants of Tantridge dance, she is offered a walk home from essay 1913, Alec but refuses, a decision she will review later. Essay On World Without! Because she is essay, raped by Alec, Tess swears she may never marry, confessing the dairymaids she won’t accept Angel’s proposal ‘as I should refuse any man’ , but she marries Angel. Motivates! When Alec offers to make her his wife she refuse the proposal, before consenting to essay 1913 become his mistress.

Tess’ final uncertain decision is related to Angel Clare: when he comes to essay on world without take her home with him the girl immediately refuse and advice him to ‘keep away’ because is ‘Too late! Too late!’ but, in henry essay, the end, she murders Alec and runs to embrace her husband. Essay On World! Tess can’t keep her promises and every time she does not truly mean what she says. Bibliography Chapter Two. 1. Blathway, Taymond, A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in 1913, Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 4. Ertu??rul, Ko. Protein! ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of henry ford essay 1913 Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 5. Freeman, J., Studies in are dbq essays, Philology, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 6. Hardy, T., Tess of the 1913, D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983.

7. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the essay reading, D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 9. Rogers, Katharine, The Centennial Review, Vol 19, No. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 10. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and henry 1913, male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDF. RAPE OR SEDUCTION? Was Tess raped or lied and seduced? Is Angel an protein, ‘angel”?Hardy’s odyssey with Tess had involved five different namings: Love, Cis, Sue, Rose-Mary, and Tess. The various overwritings and textual layerings in the manuscript testify to the indecision and lack of single-minded vision in the author.

Equally, the overlaid bowdlerizations testify to media or editorial censorship not only of Tess’s sexuality but also of the ford 1913, controversial issues of illegitimacy and essay us to achieve more, private baptism.’ Tess is a complex character who has an evolutional destiny from her growth to womanhood. Henry Ford 1913! She develops over time and what, according to chance, events, fate, intelligence, risk taking and ford 1913, becomes an example of adaptation. Tess is the object of Alec d’Uberville’s shameful purposes. He uses all the essays, methods to seduce the innocent and naive girl: he compliments her excessively, he helps her family in order to win her appreciation, and the man is annoyed when Tess nonetheless continues to reject him. And because Alec knows very well how to henry ford manipulate people around him he succeds to make the poor and ignorant Tess feel unsure about what’s wrong and what’s right. The heroine has deep rooted moral precepts in her poor education. Even though she has little school instruction, she knows that is very important to remain poor and chaste in order to be accepted in a society ruled by males. And the girl succeeds to achieve this objective until one fatal night when, through Alec’s stratagem, they are lost together in a forest and the man rapes Tess changing her life forever. About this episode of a significant meaning for the entire novel Hardy does not go into detail but rather, he reflects: ‘why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousand years of analytical philosophy have failed to history statements explain to our sense of order.’ Tess becomes pregnant by Alec in that fatal night and her life will be different from now on. Henry Ford Essay! ‘Eventually, since Hardy is not one for history thesis halfway measures, sorrow turns to violence, and the loss of her virginity leads to Alec’s murder and Tess’s death on the gallows. Even without knowledge of the dire consequences Alec’s pursuit of Tess had, however, we can judge Alex’s character to be frivolous, insensitive, and ford essay 1913, selfish. The question here, however, is whether he is also a rapist.’ We do not know what exactly happened under the tree.

It is very probably that Alec, while Tess slept, took the opportunity to abuse her. And the research paper outline template mla, fragile girl was unable to defend herself because a girl can’t measure her force with a man’s force. But is also possible that, given Tess’ tiredness and henry ford 1913, disorientation, he could persuade the poor girl to agree to have sex with him. Alec, possibly, used once more his tricky words he had been using for the past months and succeded to convince Tess that she loved him and the scene under the tree was just the essay, expression of that love. ‘This is a question of fact’ insofar as fictional narratives have facts’to which we cannot know the answer. The issue here, however, is whether it makes any difference. […] If physical force or the threat of physical force is used to get a woman to agree to have sex, that is rape. If psychological force is used, can that also be rape”?We define verbal sexual coercion as a woman’s consenting to unwanted sexual activity because of a man’s verbal arguments, not including verbal threats of physical force. Men use many types of verbal coercion to obtain sex: threatening to end the relationship or to find someone else to satisfy their sexual needs; telling a woman that her refusal to have sex was changing the essay, way they felt about her; asserting that ‘everybody does it’ or questioning the essays, woman’s sexuality . . . making the henry essay, woman feel guilty; . . . calling a woman a name angrily and pushing her away when she would not have sex; and threatening to do bodily self-harm.’ Although the young Tess is dependent economically on Alec and has another social position- she is a country girl without money and with little education- she has resisted his flirting. The girl was honest with Alec telling him she disliked his way of are dbq essays watching her, his advances, the gifts offered to her family, the ford essay, attention she didn’t require. U.s. History Thesis Statements! She has real moral values and cannot be bought with words or with money. She wants to fall in love with a real gentleman who is able to be patient, to conquer her, in time, with nice gestures and to appreciate and value her. But sometimes she is indecisive in giving an henry ford essay, answer to research paper outline template mla his proposal to treat her as a lover.

She says: ‘ I don’t know- I wish-how can I say yes or no when-” . Is that a flirt, an ford essay, unconsciously encouraging? It tranlates fear caused by his economic and social power or young Tess has feeling for Alec but she is essay on world electronics, not aware of 1913 them? The writer gives few clues about this situation causing the reader a great confusion. History! He doesn’t know what to believe about the poor girl, he can’t find her guily for the situation but has doubt about her moral integrity. Is she an angel or a seductive and indecisive woman? Is she in henry ford 1913, love with the ‘bastardly’ womanizer, the man with his crude, full lips, his bold eye and his dark moustache? The weather conditions work against Tess. The fatal night is a foggy one. Alec loses his way in such circumstances and the moonlights appear only when he returns to Tess who is sleeping, there, in the wood.

Is Tess less rational because she is u.s. history statements, sleepy and she cannot defend her physical integrity? The reader knows very well Alec’s personality and can drop the sad conclusion that the man took sexual advantage of her. ‘Hardy takes for granted that Tess becomes the essay, target of the victimization simply because she is ‘still alive’ and ‘of the synthesis, female sex.’ Alec puts himself into the position of the wild hunter, who waits till everybody stops dancing to catch Tess and seize his power over henry essay 1913, her. The following atmosphere resembles the tranquillize state caused by taking some sleeping pills. Alec with Tess on the same horse passes through the Chase. Tess, feeling tired after the day’s work, quickly disappears in the state of the unconsciousness in the moment when she falls asleep.’ Rather than describe the sexual scene, Thomas Hardy talks about its inevitability, brutality and irrationality : ‘Why it was that upon reading this beautiful feminine tissues, sensitive as gossamer and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to henry ford 1913 receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousands years of synthesis analytical philosophy have failed to henry explain to essay motivates achieve more our sense of order.’ The meaning of this paragraph is crystal clear: sometimes people cannot control the ford, fate. Some people are born to suffer, the universe has strange plans for essay electronics them. They can fight against ford the destiny but that is a short battle, with no victory.

Hardy uses a fatalistic expression to state the essay without, way destiny functions: ‘ It was to essay be!’ but he rejects the essay on world electronics, idea that children are punished for the mistakes of essay their ancestors ‘ is scorned by average human nature’. When Tess’s mother presents her daughter the idea about getting Alec to marry her, the heroine is essay, offended: ‘She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to henry 1913 adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile, had suddenly despised and disliked him, and u.s. history, had run away. That was all.’ The Victorian society is cruel with the girl who can’t do nothing to change her fate and has to face the social rejection. Henry Ford Essay! She is seen now as an immoral woman, a sinner who must be punished. She seems to be culpable for breaking society’s rules and religion’s conventions. But Hardy doesn’t agree and says: ‘ It was they that were out of harmony with the actual world, not she. Thesis! Walking among the henry ford essay 1913, sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon paper outline template mla herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence.

But all the while, she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism, she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an ford 1913, accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ Throughout the research paper, entire book Hardy speaks about the ford essay, two types of law: natural versus social/religious. Natural laws are known as ‘a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law.’ ‘Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ According to the natural laws, what happened to Tess is ‘natural’, in are dbq, synchronism with the nature and shouldn’t be regarded as a mistake which leads to the total social rejection.

Hardy associates the social law with convention and focuses on the riguros Victorian sexual convention which he describes as unnatural and essay 1913, oppressive. According to the natural laws, Tess is essay electronics, a pure woman. She remain pure because although her body is ford essay, blotched, her soul continues to be pure. On Poverty Motivates More! But, is ford essay, Hardy’s claim valid? If his argument is valid then Alec cannot be accused of rape because, according to these natural laws, the man, as an alpha male, made everything possible to preserve his species. In conclusion, Hardy’s argument can’t be valid.

Besides the social rejection, Tess’ loss of virginity ‘changed her from simple girl to complex woman. Symbols of reflectiveness passed into her face and a note of tragedy at times into her voice. Her eyes grew larger and on world without electronics, more eloquent. She became what would have been called a fine creature; her aspect was fair and arresting; her souls that of a woman whom the turbulent experiences of the last year or two had quite failed to demoralize. But for the world’s opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education.’ The inevitable meeting between Tess and Alec is predicted from the earliest chapters of Phase the henry ford 1913, First. Hardy gives clues about the paper outline template mla, imminent encounter using symbols and ford 1913, symbolic events: the colors red and white, the on poverty us to, virgins’dance, Alec’s giving Tess strawberries and the death of Prince. Henry 1913! This is the author’s way of preparing the reader for the terrible event which will change Tess’ life forver. Hardy describes the protein synthesis, moment very carrefully: ‘Tess!’ said d’Urberville. There was no answer.

The obscurity was now so great that he could see absolutely nothing but a pale nebulousness at his feet, which represented the white muslin figure he had left upon the dead leaves. Henry Ford Essay! Everything else was blackness alike. D’Urberville stooped; and heard a gentle regular breathing. He knelt, and bent lower, till her breath warmed his face, and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers. She was sleeping soundly, and upon her eyelashes there lingered tears.’ Analysing the description, William A. Davis, Jr. observes that the agression upon Tess begins without any verbal communication between Alec and Tess. The heroine is asleep and doesn’t give an answer to Alec’s accost. ‘The silence ruled everywhere around’ says Hardy. The physical contact is at first kind and essay motivates us to more, caressing ‘her breath warmed his face , and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers’ and 1913, this affirmation is followed with the statement that the heroine ‘was sleeping soundly’ . ‘Subsequent descriptive details- the narrator mentions Tess’ absent ‘guardian angel’ , the research paper outline, ‘coarse pattern’ about to be traced upon Tess, ‘the possibility of a retribution lurking in the present catastrophe’ , and ford essay, the certainty that Tess’ ‘mailed ancestors rollicking home from a fray had dealt the same measure even more ruthlessly towards peasant girls of her time’ – all suggest the violent nature of without Alec assault. To an alert Victorian reader, however, these details would have confirmed rather than introduced the idea of rape. The rape of Tess actually begins with the passage that describe Tess’ sleep and henry, her lack of verbal response- the passage, in reading, short, that establishes her lack of consent to Alec’s advances.’ ‘Rape is the offence of having unlawful and carnal knowledge of a woman by henry ford essay force, and against her will.’ Mews’ Digest of English Case Law further explains that: ‘to constitute rape, it is not necessary that the what essays, connection with the woman should be had against her will; it is sufficient if it is henry 1913, without her consent.’ And also the are dbq, law specifies that: ‘If the ford essay 1913, woman is asleep, when the connection takes place, she is incapable of consent, and although no violence is on world, used, the henry ford essay, pisoner may be convicted of rape, if he knew that she was asleep.’ Because Alec does not receive any answer to his address, the reader can say that Tess is not a conscious woman in that crucial moment under the tree. She doesn’t communicate with Alec because she is asleep and the reader can assume that Alec knows that the heroine is sleeping because he hears her breathing and receives no answer to his accost.

Hardy intentionally introduces that episode full of signification at synthesis, the beginning of the woods scene: he tries, in a subtle manner, to inoculate to his readers the idea that Tess is henry ford essay 1913, raped and not seduced. The girl isn’t awake, her consciousness is completely or partially lost. U.s. History Thesis Statements! This sleep is crucial for henry the poor girl because does not allow her to return to history her former condition and henry essay, brings her to a new stage- the girl is obliged to research outline mla start a new chapter in her poor existence. With the beginning of Phase the ford essay, Second Hardy gives another signification to the scene under the essay on poverty us to achieve, tree: he seems to replace the idea of rape with the idea of 1913 seduction: Tess isn’t any more a victim of Alec’s desire, she is an accomplice in a romantic relationship of several months’ duration. ‘In his personal comments on the novel, Hardy tended to emphasize the seduction rather than the sexual assault that prededes it. Without Electronics! For example, in a letter written in 1891 to thank Thomas Macquoid for his praise of the serial Tess, Hardy refers to the seduction (but not the rape) of henry ford 1913 Tess in essay, the forthcoming volume edition: ?? Clare’s character [in the serial] suffers owing to ford essay 1913 a mock mariage having been substituted for the seduction pure #038; simple of the original MS.- which I did for the sake of the Young Girl. The true reading will be restored in the volumes.

Thus, Hardy saw seduction as a major part of the true reading of Tess.’ Why does Thomas Hardy offer few details about the scene under the tree? The reader cannot tell for sure the reason why , but he can draw the conclusion that this is an artifice of writing used by research paper template the author to maintain his readers’ curiosity about ford essay 1913, Tess’ sexuality and purity. In his readers’ mind will be a fight between two thoughts: Tess is an innocent young girl raped by what a beast; Tess is not a pure girl, she fell in love with Alec, had a sexual relationship with the man and deserves everything that happened to her. ‘As I have suggested, Hardy’s writing (and rewriting) of the first of these events- the assault upon Tess in Phase the First- grew out of his knowledge of English rape law. 1913! The legal premise that a sleeping woman is incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse was routinely upheld in Victorian courts. A sleeping woman’s purity- purity in the sense that she cannot consent to a sexual relationship and her will cannot be known- is beyond question in the eyes of the law; therefore Hardy turns his attention from rape to seduction and to the more complicated question of Tess’ purity as an apparently consenting woman.’ Alec is a dishonest character, he knows how to manipulate Tess, to play with her mind. When the girl discover that they are lost in the forest she says: ‘ How can you be so treacherous?….just when I’ve been putting such trust in you’ . Before Alec goes to try to find a way of leaving the essay on world without electronics, wood, he makes ‘a sort of couch or nest for her’ with dead leaves, checking that they are dry. Henry Ford Essay 1913! He also tells the u.s. thesis statements, girl that he has bought a new horse for her father and her siblings have now toys to play with.

Alec covers her ‘tenderly’ with his coat and henry ford essay, goes to find the way. What can the reader notice now is the fact that the entire forest is wrapped in fog. The fog has a deep signification in this episode and what are dbq essays, translate the fact that Tess is absorbed into the natural environment. Fog symbolizes confusion, danger, and ford, the unseen. But here, in the phase two, Maiden no more, the reader can find important clues about the seduction and not the rape of u.s. thesis Tess. The heroine admits that ‘her eyes were a little dazed’ by Alec and that the tragic event was a moment of vulnerability. And this is the first sign that Tess agreed to be involved in a sexual relationship.

She accuses Alec for seducing her and not for an sexual assault. Writing about Tess’s drama, Ellen Rooney says that if the reader has no declaration about truth from Tess herself, he cannot precisely say whether or not she is sexual assaulted or seduced. But even though Tess never tells her story entirely, the henry essay 1913, reader has her thoughts on what she lived with Alec: ‘She had never wholly cared for him, she did not care for him now. Essay Motivates Us To Achieve! She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. That was all. Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and ford, ashes to her, and even for her name’s sake she scarcely wished to marry him.’ ‘Temporarily blinded by his ardent manners’ the heroine’had been stirred to confused surrender awhile.’ From Tess’ declaration the reader can draw the conclusion that for a little period of time the paper outline template mla, girl was superficially attracted to Alec and sexually stirred by him. She never ‘wholly’ loved the man and this is ford essay 1913, a strong reason to believe that the heroine could not have consented to have sexual relations with him. Essay On World! When leaving Alec’s house Tess confesses that she now ‘loathe (s) and henry essay, hate (s) herself for (her) weakness’. But why the girl hates herself and blames her for paper template her weakness if she was raped and not seduced? Why doesn’t she hate Alec for his cruelty?

When Tess says that she ‘succumbed to adroit advantages Alec took of her helplessness’ , William Davis argues that she refers to the sexual assault of her while she slept. Because a sleeping woman cannot consent to henry 1913 sexual relation, under the Victorian Law this was rape. And surely Thomas Hardy knew about this law and wrote this scene under the influence of such law. To conform Hardy’s intentions to Victorian law on rape, Davis argues that what the author calls ‘seduction pure #038; simple’ was rape followed by seduction. Thomas Hardy does not offer much information about the tragic event from that night but he argues that his heroine was very tired that night: ‘She was inexpressibly weary. She had risen at five o’clock every morning of that week, had been on foot the essay electronics, whole of each day, and on this evening had, in addition, walked the three miles to ford essay Chaseborough, waited three hours for her neighbours without eating or drinking, her impatience to synthesis start them preventing either; she had then walked a mile of the way home, and had undergone the excitement of the quarrel, till, with the slow progress of their steed, it was now nearly one o’clock. Only once, however, was she overcome by actual drowsiness. In that moment of oblivion her head sank gently against him.’ Tess of D’Urberville felt offended when Alec tried to take her in his arms.

The girl knows that she is not safe, alone, with this man in the woods but she can do nothing to change this situation: ‘D’Urberville stopped the ford, horse, withdrew his feet from the stirrups, turned sideways on the saddle, and enclosed her waist with his arm to protein synthesis support her. This immediately put her on the defensive, and with one of those sudden impulses of reprisal to which she was liable she gave him a little push from her. Essay! In his ticklish position he nearly lost his balance and u.s. statements, only just avoided rolling over into the road, the horse, though a powerful one, being fortunately the quietest he rode.’ Alec D’Urbervilles, the henry, master of what are dbq tricks, embraces Tess although he knows very well that the girl has no feeling for him. He isn’t dissapointed that Tess doesn’t love him because Alec doesn’t look for love, he wants to take Tess’ virginity. ‘He settled the matter by clasping his arm round her as he desired’ and Tess expressed no further negative. Thus they sidled slowly onward till it struck her they had been advancing for an unconscionable time’ far longer than was usually occupied by the short journey from essay, Chaseborough, even at this walking pace, and that they were no longer on hard road, but in a mere trackway.’ After Tess’s fall Hardy asks himself: ‘But, might some say, where was Tess’s guardian angel? where was the research outline, Providence of ford 1913 her simple faith? Perhaps, like that other god of whom the ironical Tishbite spoke, he was talking, or he was pursuing, or he was in a journey, or he was sleeping and not to be awaked. Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the protein synthesis, coarse appropriates the finer thus, the henry, wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the essay shared, man […]’ Due to Tess’s first fall, her sexual experience with Alec, the girl is seen as a fallen woman who must be despised and discredited wherever she goes.

When she comes back to Marlott she is gossiped and indirect attacked. In the essay 1913, church ‘the people who had turned their heads turned them again as the service proceeded; and at last observing her they whispered to each other.’ She knows what the people were talking about and feels so hurt that she takes the decision she won’t go to on world without electronics church anymore. Ford Essay! Working in her village, on a field, to earn her living Tess still cannot escape from the rumor about her sexual relation with Alec and her child is the real proof of that sin. She is essay motivates us to, really unhappy in her village and thinks ‘she might be happy in some nook which had no memories. To escape the past and all that appertained thereto was to annihilate it; and to do that she would have to ford essay 1913 get away.’ Under the great social pressure Tess is forced to leave her house and to essays try to start a new life somewhere else. She resembles with the rabbits, hares, rats, mice and snakes ‘retreating inwards as into a fastness, unaware of the ephemeral nature of their refuge and of the doom that awaited them later.’ ‘She cannot escape the censure and condemnation, which company her like her own shadow. She is hunted everywhere. Hardy’s poem, Tess’s Lament vividly portrays the henry 1913, dilemma Tess is plunged in. I would that folk forgot me quite, Forgot me quite! I would that I could shrink from sight,

And no more see the sun. Would it were time to say farewell, To claim my nook, to need my knell, Time for them all to stand and tell. When Tess meets Angel Clare the heroine has a certain sexual experience.

The love story lived with Angel, the essay shared reading, love confessions they make to each other, the certainty in 1913, Angel’s confessions, all these good things in her life determine Tess to accept Angel’s proposal without a better prudence and understanding of the facts. The heroine proved that she is capable of sustaining herself, she is fearless and self-determined. She can live without being married, she can feed herself just with love and he can live respectiong only the natural laws. Paper Outline Template! ‘Culture alone insists on marriage just as society insists on virginity and henry, the church insists on the subordination of the woman in matrimony.’ In the bridal night, when Angel confesses his sins Tess has an synthesis, innocent belief that she will be forgiven. She also has a dishonorable past but she is willing to forgive the man she loves and to live free in a happily marriage. Her mother does not agree with her decision of confessing Angel his past because she is a woman with experience and knows that in a society dominated by men, in 1913, a patriarchal society she will be found guilty. ‘Despite her obsessive fear of Angel’s learning her history, Tess is unrealistically unable to predict his response when he does’improbably na??ve in her jubilation that her transgression is ‘just the same’ as his’. She will not use sex to research outline win Angel over henry essay, during their honeymoon, although the essay shared, narrator tells us that it might have worked.’ Garson tries to determine if Tess is ford, characterized by lack of achieve competence or honesty taken to extreme.

She decides that Tess could act completely different this action having another end but Hardy does not want a happy end for his heroine, he wants to prove that Tess acts having in mind her own moral values and not the society’s. Angel confesses to henry essay 1913 Tess his sin, his ‘dissipation with a stranger’ and after listening with great attention the girl concludes that her fall is not bigger than Angel’s mistake and he can obtain forgiveness. ‘It can hardly be more serious, dearest,’ says Angel, condescendingly, smilingly. ‘It cannot’O no, it cannot!’ She jumped up joyfully at the hope. ‘No, it cannot be more serious, certainly,’ she cried. ‘I will tell you now.’ She sat down again. Their hands were still joined. The ashes under the grate were lit by the ‘ re vertically, like a torrid waste. Her imagination beheld a Last Day luridness in this red- coaled glow, which fell on essay on poverty motivates, his face and hand, and on hers, peering into the loose hair about her brow, and ‘ ring the delicate skin underneath. According to Rosemarie Morgan (Student Companion to Thomas Hardy, p.93) in a later version for the 1912 Wessex Edition Hardy writes out Tess’s words. After the statement ‘No, it cannot be more serious,’ he adds, ‘because ’tis just the henry 1913, same!’ Saying these words she tries to convince herself and what essays, the man she is in love with that she ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’ be condemned by him because their situation is ‘just the same’. The repetitions prove that Tess is making a considerable effort to convince Angel and to convince herself that her mistake is ford, not bigger than his.

Tess’ belief that Angel will love her and research paper template, will forgive her sin is expressed in some words of a great innocence: ‘I thought, Angel, that you loved me’me, my very self! If it is I you do love, O how can it be that you look and speak so? It frightens me! Having begun to love you, I love you forever’in all changes, in all disgraces, because you are yourself. I ask no more. Then how can you, O my own husband, stop loving me’?

Angel has annihilated the image of woman he was in love with- ”the woman I have been loving is not you’ . Tess is ford essay 1913, scared and terrified; ‘Terror was upon her white face’ and her full and beautiful mouth that once charmed Angel and reminded him of ‘roses filled with snow’ is cursed ‘a round little hole’ ‘Angel, to a far greater extent than Tess, is formed and template, shaped by his past. She, with her rebounding spirits, vibrant sexuality and self-determination, had created herself anew, had risen above her past where Angel is still victim of his. Ford Essay! Significantly, the fallen woman is protein synthesis, rendered dumb, mute, and prone, not by henry ford essay the seducer but by the lawful husband.’ Thomas Hardy’s heroine is not killed by her past but by the man she is married to. Even though her sin is still alive in achieve, her soul, Tess succeeded to forgive herself and to start a new life far away from the henry ford essay, man who raped her and away from the family that did not succeed to protein understand her sorrow and to cure her wounds. In a men’s world, Tess is just a victim who cannot live in a lie and decides to tell all the truth to the man who convinced her to marry him and who will kill her soul slowly and ford 1913, gently. The heroine is punished because she is a woman in a men’s society and essay motivates us to achieve more, is married to a man caught in henry ford 1913, Victorian conventions. How can she be a real human being if the outline mla, men’s world decides to reduce her to an object”?Thus humanity is ford essay 1913, male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an autonomous being’.she is what are dbq, simply what man decrees’.she is defined and differentiated with reference to ford 1913 man and not he with reference to her. She is the incidental, the unessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute- she is the Other.’ Bibliography Chapter Three. 1. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of u.s. history thesis statements Chicago Press.

2. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 3. Ford Essay 1913! Davis, W., Thomas Hardy and thesis statements, the law, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 4. Henry Ford 1913! Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text, Oxford University Press, 1991. 5. Outline! Hardy, T., Tess of the henry essay, D’Urbervilles, edited by shared Juliet Grindle and 1913, Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 6. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 7. Morgan, R., Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy, Routledge London and New York, 2006. 8. Essay! Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2007. 9. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 10. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans.

H. Henry Ford! N. On World Electronics! Parshley, New York, 1953, p. xiv. 11. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’. Anna Karenina and Tess of D’Urberville- a tragic destiny. Anna Karenina is a novel wrote by the russian writer Lev Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1913, 1873 to 1877. Since the novel’s publication, Anna Karenina has been seen as ‘every man’s tragedy’ or considered as a Bovarian banality by any masculinist critical view. Essay On Poverty Us To Achieve! Iuri Lotman, said: ‘ The plot of Anna Karenina reflects, on the one hand a certain narrow object- the life of the heroine…..We can regard the life of the heroine as a reflection of the life of any woman belonging to a certain epoch and a certain social milieu, any woman, any person. Otherwise, the henry ford essay, tragic vicissitudes of her life would only be of local interest.’ Lotman’s affirmation translates once again the idea that men’s problems are more important than the women’s problems. It’s not quite important that a woman is not happy in her marriage, that she does not feel love and affection for essay on poverty motivates achieve the men she lives with, because the most important problems in any society are men’s problems: war, government, etc Once again, also in Anna Karenina as in Tess of D’Urbervilles it can be seen the preoccupation for a society which is dominated by men, is a patriarchal epoch concerned exclusively with men’s situations.

The question regarding the henry, women’s position in society was initially formulated in essay us to, the Victorian England and henry ford, later this preoccupation could be also found among the Russian elite after the translation of Mill’s oeuvre, ‘The subjection of women’ in 1869. Outline Template Mla! The beginning of the nineteenth century did not come with major ideas about henry ford essay 1913, women’s condition and life, but it can be seen as a start of reconsidering the role of women in a society governed by men and which needs a change. Russian woman’s emancipation had been initially treated in literature- the novels of Ivan Turgenev, the oeuvres of Alexander Druzhinin’s ‘Polinka Saks’ (1847), or the Nikolai Nekrasov’s play, ‘Sasha’. Early Russian writings concerning the idea of oppressed women were influenced by the novels of George Sand, whose feminine characters suffer because cannot be free in choosing the man they want to love and to synthesis be happy with. Essay! Anna Karenina is a very beautiful, noble, married woman from research mla, St. Petersburg who lives a life full of bitterness because she is married with a man she does not love and she is in love with a young officer. This passion, these strong feelings will be the reason for his exile from the society she belongs to and will bring her death.

Even though Tess of D’Urbervilles is not a rich woman, on the contrary, is a very poor girl with a family that will sign her death conviction- she is sent to claim kin and she is not advised that out there is a big world and she has to be very careful because men might want to harm her and to take advantages of henry essay her- the both heroines are guided by protein synthesis the same noble feeling and have the genuine belief that a woman can be happy only through love, loving and be loved. The both characters are very beautiful women- Tess is poor but beautiful, she does not have an elitist education but she cannot be seen as a simple peasant girl; Anna Arkadyevna Karenina is a model of beauty and perfection. He has a selective education, she is very intelligent, a big reader of English novels and she also writes books for children. Anna is henry, very elegant and is considered a perfect woman who can make any man fall in love with her. Her life with a cold and paper outline template mla, passionless government official taught her to play the role of cultivated, noble, perfect wife. She is henry essay 1913, also a good hostess and plays all these roles with style and what, refinement. The tragedy of beautiful women comes from the fact that they are considered as a trophy every respectable man must obtain. And if the henry essay 1913, woman is on poverty motivates us to more, married then the battle will be more powerful: the competitor will try to conquer someone’s ‘good’ in order to henry ford essay prove to himself that he has the what are dbq essays, real qualities to win, he is better than the husband and he can really understand the heroine’s needs for ford essay love and support. Anna is essay more, not a simple aristocratic woman who plays the role of the perfect and happy wife who is still in love with her husband, is only preoccupied with the raise of her children and obeys entirely her husband because he is always right. Anna has an ardent spirit and ford essay 1913, is determinate to live her life on her own terms. Research Outline Template Mla! ‘All the girls in the world were divided into two classes: one class included all the girls in the world except her, and they had all the henry essay, usual human feelings and were very ordinary girls; while the are dbq essays, other class ‘ herself alone- had no weaknesses and was superior to henry essay all humanity.’ Tolstoy writes ‘Anna Karenina’ in order to explain the great changes occurring in the Russian society during the late nineteenth century.

The novel presents a battle between the old patriarchal values which characterize the old society, the aristocracy and the new, modern values, the outline template, West values. The landowning aristocracy believe in traditions like servitude, and autocratic government, while the 1913, West brings values like technology, democracy, rationalism. Achieve More! This major theme can be seen in henry ford, the difficulty Levin has with his workers when he tries to introduce a new way of motivates us to farming. His peasants refuse to henry implement the new technology having the strong belief that the traditional Russian way of farming should not be changed. ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ presents the changes brought in essay on world without, the nineteenth century in the Victorian Age, also the importance of social class in England and in henry essay 1913, the same time the outline mla, complication of defining class in the Victorian England. A proof for this affirmation is offered by henry 1913 the fact that Durbeyfields are no longer considered in the Victorian Age as a dominant symbol as it would have been in the Middle Ages. Alec’s father, Simon Stokes was able to use his money and to buy a very important, aristocratic name, being another proof that in the Victorian period money are more important than the origin and family history. In the both novels, ‘Anna Karenina’ and ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles the changes brought in essay shared, the society are presented by the main heroines. Alexei Karenin, the ford, government official with a weak personality is playing the role of an educated and sophisticated man who is capable to forgive his wife for her infidelity and to offer her the chance at a respectful life despite her adventure with the essay achieve more, young officer. What Karenin does not understand is the power of love that can make people to choose the complicated way and not the henry ford essay, simple and known path. Essay Shared Reading! Anna Karenina, like Tess, is not just a simple woman, who can leave in conventionalism, she has another perception of live and she wants to love, to be appreciated as a special woman and not just as wife and mother.

She craves for a life of ardent emotion and noble passions. Karenin’s entire life is characterized by formalism, he knows which his duties are and he respects the professional obligations of his function. Alexei is a very good government official because this role defines him and in fact is the ratio of essay his life- a life without grand passion and u.s. thesis statements, excitement. Anna and Karenin have a marriage of convenience. There’s a big age gap between the two characters and also different ways of ford essay 1913 living and seeing the life and life’s values. Anna craves for are dbq sentimental devotion and sincerity while Alexei is happy with the monotonous work and family life. ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way’ is the henry, first line of the Tolstoy’s novel and reveals the fact that the are dbq essays, novel is concerned with the happiness, is henry ford essay, a declaration for the need of happiness. Is it Anna Karenina happy? Why did the heroine immediately fall in love with Vronsky and renounced to her comfortable and respectful life?

Why is a mother ready to sacrifice her child for a man? These are the questions Tolstoy tries to answer and his explanation is that women are capable of great and powerful feelings. Paper Outline Template! They can live in misery but a domestic one, not a sentimental failure; they can have a conventional marriage but will always crave for the real love and for fervent feelings and when they will meet the love they will be capable of leaving everything for henry that noble feeling. Anna Karenina has an unhappy marriage, her husband does not appreciate her as a woman, he can only see the mother Anna and the wife Anna but not the woman Anna who needs love, appreciation, adventure and history statements, emotion. Anna is ready to defend her love for Vronsky, she can accept the henry, social rejection, the protein, fact that she will never be respected and she will be seen as a sinful women. But that’s the essence: a woman, who has the courage to henry essay love and to openly live with a man that is not her husband, is not captive in research, a formal arrangement that could have offered her protection and could have been the institutionalization of a lie is henry ford 1913, what defines a heroine. Tess of D’Urberville is not an unfaithful married woman, she is just an research paper mla, innocent peasant girl who is convinced that two people that are meant to be together will meet and will live a beautiful love story like in the novels she used to read. She is not a sinful woman because is not her choice to be raped but is considered by the Victorian society as a decadent human being and convicted to henry essay 1913 the social rejection. ‘Anna, Eustacia, [Vye], Tess [Durbeyfield] or Sue [Bridehead] – what was there in their position that was necessarily tragic? Necessarily painful it was, but they were not at war with God, only with Society. Yet they were all cowed by the mere judgement of man upon what are dbq essays them and henry 1913, all the research outline template, while by henry 1913 their own souls they were right.

And the judgement of men killed them, not the judgement of their own souls or the judgement of are dbq Ethernal God. Lev Tolstoy chose to analyze the “woman question” enclosed in a comparison: He puts in opposition Anna’s search for ford essay 1913 sense in shared reading, life with that of Levin, the Tolstoy’s other main character. And Tolstoy chose to do something scandalous for henry ford 1913 his epoch: He converted Anna in an unfaithful woman- a sensitive character. Anna wasn’t miserable because she disobeyed her unbearable, suffocating husband and had to be punished; she was unhappy because she didn’t find, in what are dbq, Tolstoy’s opinion, meaningful love and the life’s signification. Tolstoy’s belief that true love and henry essay 1913, happiness could be accomplished only through a love marriage means represents the essay without electronics, heroine’s drama. Anna finds for a short period of time happiness outside marriage, in Vronsky’s arms but her lack of autonomy and social rejection brought by essay a forbidden relationship causes her sorrow. Tolstoy puts in opposition Anna’s story with the story of Levin, an open-minded man who succeeded in his search for meaning in life by essays choosing a marriage partner he considered his equal rather than his inferior. Tolstoy also presents the hypocrisy that characterizes the nineteenth society, the fact that men could cheat his partners without punishment whereas women could not.

He also highlights the idea that lots of woman had relationships outside the marriage including discreet women who blames Anna for essay her actions similar to synthesis their own. The Victorian controversy of grand importance in ford essay 1913, ‘Tess of D’Urberville’ is also ‘the Woman question’ or how woman should be seen and essay, what roles they should play in society. Many writers thought that woman should stay at home and work in the house, being unable to learn and to work for the society. The Victorian women were meant to be ‘an angel in ford essay, the house’ and also for research outline their husbands and nothing more. If the woman lost her virginity and henry essay 1913, honour, before marriage, she was convicted to live a life full of shame and sorrow. If the on world, husband was unfaithful, the henry ford 1913, society won’t blame him for the sexual behaviour.

R.G. Christian says: ‘It was people not God who threw Anna under the what essays, train’ highlighting the power of the society which can determine the destiny of a human being. Vladimir Nabokov, in his work on Russian literature, characterized Anna as ‘a young, handsome, and fundamentally good woman, and a fundamentally doomed woman.’ Nabokov also protects her role as a foreigner of the society she lives in: ‘[Anna] is a woman with a full, compact, important moral nature: everything about her character is significant and ford essay 1913, striking, and this applied as well to her love. She cannot limit herself as another character in the book, Princess Betsy, does, to an undercover affair. Her truthful and passionate nature makes disguise and secrecy impossible.’ Tolstoy makes Anna almost completely a human being of passion and then allows that passion to kill her. What Are Dbq Essays! After the heroine meets Vronsky, all of her actions are concerned with keeping a loving relationship with him. Anna is henry ford 1913, also ready to renounce to her existence in order to feel and to enjoy the full love. On World Without! Her passion for Vronsky causes a separation between herself and Kitty and ford essay 1913, also between herself and the domestic sphere.

After the social rejection also the position of mother is are dbq essays, soon denied her, and later she is not enough concerned in ford essay, developing a relationship with her daughter and make this relationship essential part of what are dbq her life. Even her outfits limit the character. She wears only black clothing expressing the fact that she is in a profound grief and she seems convicted to ford die for motivates us to achieve more the fact that she was capable to renounce to her family for living the love story of her life. Tess of D’Urberville is not a rich, aristocratic girl, on the contrary, she is put under immense pressure by her family to improve their economic position and reputation. She grows in a small village being protected from the influence of an aristocratic society with decadent values. She is a genuine young girl who wants to have a happy marriage, to love and to be loved. Essay! She is essay electronics, not interested in henry essay, having a certain social position because she believes in love as a way of being happy. On World Without! But the society is cruel with the Thomas Hardy’s heroine and signs her conviction to dead.

Even though she cannot be found guilty because she did not consciously commit a mistake she is blamed by a superficial society which cannot see under the appearances. Anna Karenina is found guilty because she had the courage to admit that her marriage is a formal one and she is not happy. She discovers another Anna when she is with Vronsky and she is very happy. Her guilty is that she refuses to live a love story outside her marriage in henry ford 1913, a society in which the relationships outside a marriage are accepted and formal alliances are protected. Tess of essay on poverty us to more D’Urberville was found guilty because her family couldn’t protect and ford essay 1913, defend herself against a world dominated by men and she had the courage to tell Angel that she was raped and he had a little baby. She did not want to marry with Alec, to have a formal marriage because the hypocrisy dominated in the Victorian society did not affect her perception about does a marriage mean. Essays! Vronsky is a good looking character, rich, and also a charming man who is as willing as Anna is to renounce to his social status and henry essay 1913, professional position for finding the real love. His involvement in his hospital-building project shows a carrying person who wants to protect the weak people. But the Tolstoy’s work also shows a Vronsky with defects and blames.

His strange hair, his mistake in calculating the horse race, his ambitions of achieve more military fame these entire characteristics make a Vronsky human and not a romantic character. Henry 1913! Anna finds Alexei an exceptional man who could make her very happy and could offer her a completely rescue and a burial into a seductive passion. The heroine is very disappointed when she discovers that Vronsky’s passion is protein synthesis, limited and he is just another man and not THE man. The Tolstoy’s choice to give Vronsky the same name as his husband’s suggests that Anna is doomed to repeat the failure of her first relationship. ‘Anna had been preparing herself for ford essay 1913 this meeting, had thought what she would say to him, but she did not succeed in saying anything of it; his passion mastered her. She tried to calm him, to calm herself, but it was too late. His feeling infected her. Her lips trembled so that for a long while she could say nothing.’ Vronsky’s commitment to protein synthesis Anna seems to decrease in ford essay 1913, later chapters of Tolstoy’s novel but the reader cannot be convinced that this is the true situation because he finds out about this wane of us to more devotion from Anna’s confessions which betrays the ford 1913, fear that the man she loves and for what are dbq whom she has sacrificed her marriage and her social position, becoming a mistress, is not any more in love with the heroine. The events related to this episode seem to indicate that Vronsky’s love hasn’t faded: he takes Anna to his country home which is luxurious, elegant, he stays with the heroine and refuses to visit his old friends and even mother, he is henry essay, still fascinated by her beauty and on poverty achieve more, personality. He occasionally misses the old fame and military glory especially when he meets his old comrades but he does not blame Anna for this situation. Vronsky accepts Anna’s paranoia and her whims but for Tolstoy’s main character these proves are not enough, are just signs of duty and not actions indicating true love.

The reader cannot decide is 1913, right in this situation because Vronsky’s thoughts are not exposed. Angel Clare is Tess’ Vronsky, the man full of passion who can kidnap the heroine’s present and can project a whole new world outside the mediocrity of an irrational and hypocritical society. When Tess first meets Angel she realizes that she definitely has seen him before, at the May-dance and he did not choose Tess to be his dance partner. But because the destiny wants to bring together Tess and Angel and also to determine, Tess’ dead conviction, they meet again at the dairy. Protein Synthesis! The love the both characters feel for each other is genuine, pure, without being jealous or proud. ‘It was then, as has been said, that she impressed him most deeply. She was no longer the milkmaid, but a visionary essence of woman- a whole sex condensed into one physical form. He called her Artemis, Demeter, and other fanciful names half teasingly, which she did not like because she did not understand them. ‘Call me Tess’, she would say askance; and he did. In this quote from the novel the reader can clearly see that Angel is in ford essay 1913, love with the image of what are dbq a perfect woman and not exclusively with Tess herself. She is compared with the Greek goddesses and that means that she has to be the ideal of feminine beauty and perfection in order to be loved by Angel. And Tess is not a goddess, she’s a simply peasant young girl who just wants to love and to be loved.

In the critical essay ‘Why women are oppressed’ Anna Jonasdottir says: ‘Man is willing to accept woman as an equal, as a man in skirt, as an angel, a devil, a baby-face, a machine, an instrument, a bosom, a womb, a pair of legs, a servant, an encyclopaedia, an ideal or an obscenity; the only thing he won’t accept her as is a human being, a real human being of the real sex.’ Angel seems to be a character that wants to be surrounded by angels and can’t accept that human beings have a past, made mistakes, he cannot forgive and henry ford, forget even though he asks for forgiveness. He is an example of a fallen angel who couldn’t remain pure and essay on poverty us to achieve more, also failed in henry ford, being a good Christian by confessing Tess his sin. His mistake is also Tess’s mistake but the influence of the Victorian society does not allow him to see clearly and to essay on world electronics only after the longue journey he realizes that ‘the beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in its achievements, but in its aims and impulses; its true story lay, not among things done, but among thinks willed.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles and Anna share also another pattern-fog, haziness, mystery. When Tess of D’Urbervilles is raped, the scene is surrounded by mist and the reader does not exactly knows what to think about this situation: ‘She was silent, and the horse ambled along for henry ford essay 1913 a consider- able distance, till a faint luminous fog, which had hung in the hollows all the evening, became general and enveloped them. It seemed to essay electronics hold the moonlight in suspension, rendering it more pervasive than in clear air. Whether on this account, or from absent-mindedness, or from sleepiness, she did not perceive that they had long ago passed the point at henry essay 1913, which the lane to Trantridge branched from the highway, and protein, that her conductor had not taken the Trantridge track.’ Anna herself speaks of henry a certain haze which in associating it with the purity of first love: “I remember that blue haze, like the haze on research outline mla, the mountains in essay, Switzerland.

That haze which envelops everything at protein synthesis, that blissful time when childhood is just coming to an end and its huge merry circle narrows to a path which one treads gaily yet with dread into life’s corridor” . . . Kitty smiled … “How did she go through it? How I should like to know the whole romance of her life!” she thought, recalling the unromantic exterior of ford Anna’s husband.’ The patter appears again when Kitty realizes the visible sympathy between Anna and Vronsky at the ball and “a mist spread(s) over her soul” Anna and protein, Tess are two heroines who have lots o resemblances but also dissimilarities. Tess of D’Urbervilles is an ford essay, innocent peasant girl who takes care of her family being fascinated with the essay on world electronics, novels she reads. She is not selfish, she does not to marry with an aristocratic men and to ford be part of the aristocratic society. Anna is also intelligent, cultivated, simple, honest, and a devoted mother. But the relationship with Vronsky changes her completely. Tess’s downfall is essay electronics, caused by her lack of education in essay, what concern such a complicated subject for the society she lives in- sexual relationships and essay, it can be said that her trust in men is determined by reading romantic novels and identifying with their heroines in a specifically sensual and innocent way. Anna, on ford 1913, contrary, is unable to read her novel on essay, her train ride home after flirting with Vronsky. “She was too eager to live herself. If she read how the heroine of the novel nursed a sick man, she wanted to be moving about ford essay, a sickroom with noiseless tread herself”.

When she discovers, it is to make an essays, instinctual moral perception: ‘The hero of the henry ford, novel had nearly attained his Englishman’s idea of research mla happiness … and Anna was wishing she could go to the estate with him, when she suddenly felt that he must be feeling ashamed and that she was ashamed for the same reason.’ Anna Karenina and Tess D’Urbervilles are honorable women. Henry Ford Essay 1913! Even though Anna has a sexual relationship outside her marriage she does not accept Karenin’s proposal when he decides that they can stay into a formal marriage and are dbq, forget Anna’s infidelity. The heroine is henry 1913, not ashamed that she has a relationship with Vronsky because this relationship represents her entire life-love, fantasy, eternity, nobles. ‘Alexey Alexandrovitch! What is research mla, it you want of me”?I want you not to meet that man here, and to conduct yourself so that neither the ford essay 1913, world nor the servants can reproach you…not to essay on world see him. That’s not much, I think. And in return you will enjoy all the privileges of a faithful wife without fulfilling her duties. Henry Ford 1913! That’s all I have to say to you.

Now it’s time for me to without go. Henry Ford 1913! I’m not dining at home.’ He got up and moved towards the door. Without! Anna got up too. Bowing in silence, he let her pass before him.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles also refuses Alec’s proposal to be his mistress because she cannot have a relationship with a man she is not in love with, a man who harmed her. ‘Very well,’ he said, laughing; ‘I am sorry to wound you. I did wrong’I admit it.’ He dropped into some little bitterness as he continued: ‘Only you needn’t be so everlastingly flinging it in my face. I am ready to pay to the uttermost farthing. You know you need not work in the fields or the dairies again. You know you may clothe yourself with the best, instead of in the bald plain way you have lately affected, as if you couldn’t get a ribbon more than you earn.’ ‘I have said I will not take anything more from henry ford essay 1913, you, and I will not’I cannot! I SHOULD be your creature to go on us to, doing that, and I won’t.’

Bibliography Chapter four. 1. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 2. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 3. Lotman, Iuri, ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 4. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question, and the Victorian novel’, The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio State University Press, 1993.

5. Nabocov, V. Henry Ford! ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 6. R.G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge 1969. 7. Tolstoy, L. Essays! ‘Anna Karenina’, translated by Louise Shanks #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in henry ford essay 1913, which men found love from their wives and synthesis, children. Henry Ford 1913! The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. Research Paper Outline Template Mla! They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in henry ford essay 1913, the society.

The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. 1. Blathway, Taymond, ‘A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV’. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Synthesis! Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press. 4. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 5. Davis, W., ‘Thomas Hardy and the law’, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 6. Ertu??rul, Ko. Henry Ford! ‘Tess of the what are dbq, D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of henry essay Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 7. Freeman, J., ‘Studies in Philology’, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 8. Reading! Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of essay 1913 Integrity: Woman, Body, Text’, Oxford University Press, 1991.

9. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 10. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. On World! Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 11. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 12. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 13.

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28. Simone de Beauvoir, ‘The Second Sex,’ trans. H. Essay! N. Parshley, New York, 1953. 29. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translation by synthesis Louise Shanks Maude #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. 30. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and henry ford 1913, male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDf. 31. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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