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Literature Reviews: Common Errors Made When Conducting a Literature Review
The distinction between a systematic literature review and a literature review can often be confusing. This video distinguishes
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La razon de mi vida y “Eva Peron en la hoguera”: entre el relato y la voz. En el presente trabajo se analizan ciertos temas y construcciones que se desarrollan en La razon de mi vida (1951) para luego observar el quiebre y desmontaje, variacion y reescritura que despliega Leonidas Lamborghini en su poema “Eva Peron en la hoguera” (1972). Literature. A traves de tres aspectos de La razon de mi vida analizamos el conglomerado de la figura Eva: el genero textual, el genero sexual y los componentes miticos y religiosos. Art Higher Essay. Luego se advierten los modos de operar del procedimiento lamborghiniano de reescritura, la eleccion y el descarte que el poeta opera sobre cada seccion de La razon de mi vida : descomposicion, ruptura, y composicion de una nueva figura de Eva. 1 Vale plantear el primer problema que se presenta al trabajar con este material: ?escribio Eva Duart (. Literature. ) 2 Consultado el 19 de octubre 2012 en: http://lema.rae.es/drae/?val=icono . Essay Meditations. 3 Nina Gerassi-Navarro, “Las tres Evas: de la historia al mito en cinemascope”, p. Literature Review Of Research. 98. Art Higher Essay. 4 Andres Avellaneda, “Evita: cuerpo y cadaver de la literatura”, p. Of Research. 102. 1 Analizaremos en principio ciertos temas y construcciones que se desarrollan en La razon de mi vida (1951) para luego observar el quiebre y desmontaje, variacion y reescritura que despliega Leonidas Lamborghini en su poema “Eva Peron en la hoguera” (1972). Meditations. Tomamos La razon de mi vida como mito arquetipico donde se escribe el icono Evita , y no la persona Eva Duarte 1 : construccion, conglomerado y cruce de diversos discursos que son recuperados y tramados en la escritura (desde dos figuras: agente-Eva escribe y objeto-Eva se escribe). Literature. Segun el diccionario de la Real Academia Espanola, un icono es un “s igno que mantiene una relacion de semejanza con el objeto representado” 2 , en este caso habria una creacion doble: el icono y el objeto representado, para reemplazar luego al objeto por su representacion o significacion. Past Act Essay Prompts. Segun Nina Gerassi-Navarro, Evita es “un corpus construido por la misma Evita”, no tenemos mas que “un rompecabezas con piezas intercambiables que va armandose y rearmandose sin poder formar una version definitiva ni ofrecer un retrato mas completo” 3 . Literature Of Research. En La razon de mi vida se ofrecen caracteres de representacion, que luego seran tomados con valor positivo o negativo, a la vez que elaborados simbolicamente. In English. Por eso, al dia de hoy seguimos ten(d)iendo miradas, como si de la realidad no tuvieramos mas que versiones, relatos, formas de apropiacion, y como si no hubiera nada mas alla de lo inmediatamente visible del mito. Literature Of Research. ?A que responden estos telones, estos juegos de luces que proyectan una u otra imagen en el escenario? ?Puede oirse la vibracion de los procesos sociales y politicos del momento de produccion en cada construccion de la figura de Eva? ?Sera su figura, como dice Andres Avellaneda, “condensacion de estrategias retoricas en que se apoyan practicas de significacion ideologica” 4 ? Y por ultimo, ?se puede trabajar la figura de Eva Duarte sin dar una imagen definitiva y acabada, sin construir un relato que responda a intereses politicos? ?Se puede exponer dicha figura, mas alla de su representacion, sin intentar lo imposible, es decir salir de ella?
2 Comencemos por apuntar algunas de las claves de sentido entramadas en la construccion que Eva hace de Evita en La razon de mi vida. Eva de folletin: los generos textuales. 5 Paola Cortes Rocca y Martin Kohan, Imagenes de vida, relatos de muerte. Essay Descartes Meditations. Eva Peron: cuerpo y politic (. Literature Of Research. ) 6 Eva Peron, La razon de mi vida , p. Culture. 120. Of Research. 7 Ibid , p. Diploma In English Distance. 15. 3 La razon de mi vida esta atravesada por ciertos generos textuales que no ingenuamente responden o encarnan expectativas y formas de interpretar la realidad de una clase social o momento historico, horizontes de recepcion afines a formas textuales y viceversa. Of Research. Siguiendo el analisis que Maria del Carmen Sillato propone del texto como espacio de auto-representacion melodramatica, veremos que este despliega caracteristicas del genero melodrama tanto en el lenguaje como en la estructura. Art Higher Essay. Ambos apuntan a una construccion de “Evita”, en tanto el texto se designa como autorretrato. Literature. Del mismo modo Paola Cortes Rocca y Martin Kohan analizan la iconografia de Evita: el folletin (forma de melodrama) como genero que modela la narracion de su vida atribuye al amor una funcion de transformacion social, “como en el caso de Cenicienta o de Grace Kelly” 5 . Persuasive Essay In 3rd. El componente melodramatico como vehiculo de expresion construye un yo (voz narradora) fuertemente sensible, subjetividad del corazon que resulta facil espejo del lector.
Por esto el tono del discurso es testimonial y emotivo, siendo las emociones el unico factor rector de los actos. Literature Of Research. Los sentimientos juegan como motor de escritura (“aspiro a que donde quiera se lea este libro se conozcan los sentimientos de mi corazon agradecido” 6 ), a la vez que motor de vida de Eva Duarte, (“siempre he actuado en mi vida mas bien impulsada y guiada por mis sentimientos” 7 ). Essay Person. Es decir, no hay nada que entender ni interpretar sino sentir . 8 “Una de las caracteristicas que se destacan en la estetica melodramatica es la conformacion de una (. Of Research. ) 9 “[…] todo esto seria absurdo como es el azar si fuese cierto lo que mis supercriticos afirman […]. On World Without. (. Literature. ) 10 “[…] contrapone su experiencia tan temprana a las acusaciones de aquellos supercriticos […]. Person. La uni (. Review Of Research. ) 11 “Le recoupement d’une organisation textuelle (d’une pratique semiotique) donnee avec les enonces (s (. In 3rd Person. ) 12 “Esta increible capacidad de sentir es, segun Evita, pertinente al genero femenino. Literature Review Of Research. Si aceptamos co (. In Creative In English Distance. ) 4 Por otro lado, el melodrama asienta su estructura dramatica en series de oposiciones 8 . Review Of Research. El texto se autodefine desde la oposicion: es una defensa a los “supercriticos” 9 (instala como origen de escritura la primera pareja de opuestos Eva-supercriticos). Past Act Essay. La representacion maniquea del mundo donde el bien y el mal son el binomio basico que configura la realidad, es otro rasgo del melodrama que La razon… encarna en todo su desarrollo. Literature Of Research. Esta primera polaridad es la optica a traves de la cual su pasado es referido, el cual aparece unicamente a traves de la palabra ajena (“lo que ellos dicen” 10 ), y de este modo se diferencia de su accion en el presente, tema del resto del texto. Of Scotland. Luego apareceran series paralelas de significantes que reflejan y extienden esta primera oposicion de los buenos y los malos: los pobres/los ricos, la patria/los anti patria, estar adentro/estar afuera, lo alto/lo bajo, ecos a su vez de la serie opositiva que se construye en el campo politico: clase trabajadora-oligarquia, donde Eva funciona como ideologema 11 que condensa el protagonismo de las grandes masas en el peronismo. Of Research. Dentro de la serie de oposiciones que estructuran el texto y la figura de Eva hay una a la que se le anade la exaltacion de sentimientos (otro rasgo central del melodrama): la razon/la pasion. Essay Meditations. En la eleccion del polo del sentir como motor y unico legitimador de las acciones de Eva, se construye la cualidad de una desbordante capacidad de sentir que propone que Eva sea oida desde el sentimiento mas que desde el pensamiento 12 . 13 “Junto a los recursos que hacen que este texto se inscriba por su lenguaje dentro de los margenes d (. Literature Review Of Research. ) 14 “[…] ligado a la victima por amor o parentesco.
Es, por lo generoso y sensible, la contrafigura del (. Essay In 3rd Person. ) 5 Otro de los rasgos del melodrama que La razon… encarna es la eleccion de personajes 13 : Evita misma como victima heroica, salvada por Peron, justiciero y padre protector, heroe tradicional 14 , enfrentado al enemigo traidor, la oligarquia, el capitalismo o el comunismo. Literature. De este modo la figura de Eva como victima inocente logra identificarse progresivamente con el pueblo, dupla que intercambiara significantes en todo el texto para armar un conglomerado de sentido en el cual se puede leer este mini-relato: Eva (y el pueblo) son salvados por Peron (el heroe), padre protector de ambos, pues ella ha sido redimida por Peron y el pueblo tambien lo sera. Diploma Writing. Los personajes encarnan asi las series de oposiciones que estructuran el texto, donde un juego de espejos presenta, representa, refleja y reproduce cada rol, cada figura. 15 Paola Cortes Rocca y Martin Kohan, cit., p. Literature Review Of Research. 32. 6 En sintesis, vemos como la eleccion de un genero (y sus rasgos formales) opera tambien en la construccion de la figura de Evita.
Sobre todo en un texto donde cada procedimiento es explotado en su capacidad significante para fijar la persona –el personaje– de Eva Peron meses antes de su muerte. Persuasive In 3rd. Ademas aloja un dialogo con discursos y tipos sociales (la bastarda, el ascenso social, el viaje a la capital) donde la autobiografia testimonial en tono melodramatico pone en escena la revancha imaginaria de los pobres, dando a pensar que la fortuna esta al alcance de cualquiera: cualquiera puede ser Evita, a la vez que Evita es unica (“la multiplicidad de sentidos remarca lo excepcional de este yo y, a la vez, su poder emblematico posibilita la identificacion” 15 ). 16 “Se hacian eco [ciertos ensayos hagiograficos publicados en Argentina cuando Peron estaba en el pod (. Review Of Research. ) 7 En la construccion de Evita se legitiman presupuestos genericos de ‘lo femenino’, lo cual expresa tipos y roles sociales como ‘la esposa fiel’, ‘la madre’, ‘la mujer sensible y debil’, ‘la martir de la sociedad’ 16 . Persuasive Person. En esta maquinaria de figuras que se retroalimentan al construirse, la esposa fiel es funcional a la exaltacion de la figura de Peron, engrandecimiento que es debilidad de Eva y conforma la dupla pasion-razon que corresponde a la division generica. Literature. Eva aparece como instrumento y complemento, como resonancia y herramienta. Act Essay. En este sentido, la mujer no aparece emancipada de lo masculino para intervenir en politica y se mantiene la imagen tradicional de la mujer en su identidad politica que necesita al hombre. Review. Por eso condena al movimiento feminista: por alejarse de la naturaleza de la mujer, de la entrega total a un hombre.
En esta linea se construye a la mujer como extremadamente sensible, guiada por sus emociones mas que por su razon, ‘virtud femenina’ que Evita encarna en todo su esplendor. In Creative In English. El texto utiliza la primera persona del plural para designar a ‘las mujeres’, grupo con el que Eva se identifica, o mejor dicho, es en su totalidad (Eva es todas las mujeres ). 8 Los tipos sociales femeninos que nombramos son legitimados por Eva Duarte a la vez que legitiman su actividad politica, la reinsertan en la mecanica del hogar y de la familia. Literature Review Of Research. Podriamos decir entonces que hiperbolizan su figura politica: no vicepresidenta sino la madre peronista, la abanderada de los humildes, la esposa fiel a Peron. Act Essay Prompts. No representacion parlamentaria sino matrimonio e hijos (pueblo) en un mismo hogar (la nacion). Literature. Debido a esto La razon… utiliza terminos de la vida conyugal para referirse a esta familia hiperbolizada: 17 La razon de mi vida , cit. Descartes. , p.68 y p.74. […] los problemas del pueblo llegan al conductor todos los dias, durante el almuerzo o la cena, en las tardes apacibles de los sabados, en los domingos largos y tranquilos y llegan por mi voz leal y franca […]. Literature. Asi el pueblo puede estar seguro de que entre el y su gobierno no habra divorcio posible. Essay. Porque, en este caso argentino, para divorciarse de su pueblo, el Jefe de Gobierno debera empezar por divorciarse ?de su propia mujer!
[…] me siento madre de todos los pibes y de todos los debiles y humildes de mi tierra. Review. 17. 9 La maternidad es otro de los simbolos a traves de los que Eva se construye generando un espejo para toda la sociedad: el modelo de ‘la Madre Peronista’ (valga la paradoja, la madre sin hijos) es reproducido en cada hogar. 18 Lujosas para diferenciarse de las obras de “accion social” construidas anteriormente: “mis hogares (. Essay. ) 10 Otro frente de conformacion de la iconografia de Eva son sus obras. Literature. Como dice Anahi Ballent, en torno de la figura de Eva Peron se configuro uno de los conjuntos arquitectonicos mas relevantes desde el punto de vista de los significados politicos y sociales, ya que este fue un sector de produccion que se vinculo directamente con su figura, (y con los rasgos que se vienen destacando en La razon… ). Culture Of Scotland Dissertation. Por ejemplo, el chalet californiano ( el modelo de vida confortable puesto al alcance de las familias de obreros y empleados por los planes de vivienda social del Estado ), como cualquiera de las construcciones de la Fundacion 18 , se relacionaban con imagenes domesticas, las cuales extienden esta imagen de Eva como madre, esposa, mujer domestica, sencilla, accesible: 19 Anahi Ballent, “El kitsch inolvidable: imagenes en torno a Eva Peron”, p. Review. 168.
[…] en tal pasaje de referencias –del hospital a la casa– la figura de la madre sustituia a la del Estado. Descartes Meditations. Lujo, convencionalismo y domesticidad, entonces, tres caracteristicas en las cuales se condensaba el sentido politico de esta arquitectura. Literature Of Research. 19. 11 La arquitectura peronista y la figura de Evita hacen referencia a los mismos valores sociales. Essay. El mito politico tiene una alta impronta estetica. Review Of Research. Es un sistema de relojeria de produccion de representaciones. 12 La razon de mi vida tiene connotaciones religiosas tal vez inspiradas por el catolicismo de ciertos grupos espanoles nacionalistas (con los que los circulos peronistas mantenian relaciones –el exilio de Peron en Madrid (1955-1972) puede ser un dato de esto, asi como la posible escritura del texto por el periodista espanol Manuel Penella da Silva–). Descartes. El texto mismo introduce el tema religioso como otro eje que juega en la construccion: se compara a Peron con Cristo (estar con el es “volar alto cerca de Dios” 20 ) y al momento politico social con la participacion de las clases bajas en Belen. […] basta verlo a Peron para creer en el. Literature Review Of Research. Ellos lo vieron y creyeron.
Se repitio aqui el caso de Belen, hace dos mil anos, los primeros en creer fueron los humildes, no los ricos, ni los sabios, ni los poderosos. On World Without Electronics. 21. La Nochebuena es de los pobres, de los humildes, de los descamisados desde que Cristo, despreciado por los ricos que le cerraron todas las puertas, fue a nacer en un establo […]. Literature Of Research. ?Que tiene de raro que Peron solo luche por la felicidad de los descamisados? 22. 23 “Yo lo vi aparecer desde el mirador de mi vieja inquietud interior”, ibid. Persuasive. , p. Review Of Research. 31.
24 “Mas que creerlo por un razonamiento, ‘senti’ que era verdad”, ibid. Prompts. , p. Literature. 17. Persuasive Essay Person. 25 “Estos no se conforman sino con la gloria. Review Of Research. Aspiran ya el aire de siglo siguiente, que ha de cantar (. In Creative In English Distance Learning. ) 26 Entre otras: “mi rebeldia intima” ( ibid. Review. , p. Descartes. 22); “intima tristeza” (p. Literature Of Research. 23); “mi vieja inquietud in culture of scotland (. Review. ) 27 Ibid. Essay Descartes Meditations. , p. Review Of Research. 18, 21. Diploma In Creative Learning. El subrayado es mio. 13 Entre los procedimientos que interactuan en la construccion de Evita, podemos llamar la atencion sobre los terminos que responden al discurso profundamente catolico. Review. Por ejemplo: la mision que se tiene que cumplir, el hecho de ser la elegida , la devocion , la aparicion 23 , la revelacion , el martirio en la entrega, el encuentro con el amado, la redencion por un milagro de amor, el acceso a la verdad por el sentir y no por la via de la razon 24 , el tiempo eterno de lo divino (de Peron 25 ), la insistencia de un espacio de lo intimo, lo profundo y lo inexplicable 26 . Descartes. Se utilizan pronombres, deicticos o alusiones a lo inexplicable para referirse al sentimiento de Evita frente a la injusticia: “lo unico inexplicable de mi vida”; “siento que estoy expresando aquello ”; “algo rudo pero al mismo tiempo inefable” 27 . 28 “[Las historias de vida] apelan a un publico mas amplio y popular en parte porque en la vida de un (. Of Research. ) 14 Podriamos seguir analizando y detallando procedimientos y operaciones de La razon de mi vida, texto rico en armado representacional, figuras actuantes, personajes y caracteres que se espejan y devuelven significados. Meditations. Fijacion en la letra de la palabra de Eva (palabra que hasta 1951 vivia solo en su voz oral, sus discursos), plasmacion escrita de su construccion iconografica, donde la voz de Eva que tambien es Eva, termina siendo su representacion (“elegi ser Evita”) y su materia (Evita es ya su representacion, lo que despues de su muerte se lleva al extremo).
Todo ello suma la potencia y presencia de la voz de la lider al armado discursivo peronista. Literature Of Research. Tal vez, entonces, por funcionar como la vida de alguien en la que se inscribe la de todo un grupo, es decir, como biografia y auto representacion de las masas populares 28 , La razon… tiene ese grosor especular que funciona en cada una de sus piezas. Past Act Essay. Pero ?que sucede cuando el proceso historico y los procesos sociales que alli se reflejaban se modifican, y necesitan que el mito les devuelva otra imagen? ?Su reelaboracion esta siempre en resonancia con cada momento de produccion, segun coordenadas politicas y sociales? Despues de su muerte, el sujeto representado y su representacion se confunden, se funden (o como dicen Cortes Rocca y Kohan, original y representacion invierten posiciones y es el original quien debe parecerse a la representacion). Literature Of Research. Mito reelaborado y reapropiado desde la obra plastica de Daniel Santoro a la larga lista de peliculas sobre Eva y sobre Peron que incluye tanto la hollywoodense No llores por mi Argentina con Madonna, como tambien la obra maestra de Leonardo Favio ( Peron, Sinfonia de un sentimiento ); ademas de puestas teatrales, obras radiofonicas y musicales, y la amplia produccion critica sobre el tema. Art Higher Essay. Si Eva Peron es un mito en la literatura argentina, es un mito no estatico, un icono modificable, un simbolo vivo; la serie de obras que se apropian su imagen eligen con que elementos jugar. Review Of Research. Ya sea su genero sexual (Copi, Perlongher), su genero textual (Puig), su discurso religioso, los tipos sociales y sus cristalizaciones (Santoro), los sectores enfrentados (Borges), la ficcionalizacion de un personaje (Aira), su dialogo con otros procesos historicos (Walsh, Vinas), etc.
29 Ver Andres Avellaneda, cit. Prompts. , p. Review Of Research. 104. 15 Estara bien decir que Eva construyo su mascara y disfraz a traves de los que queria ser vista y reconocida, ?y no es acaso el trabajo con esa materia representacional lo unico que tenemos? ?No importa mas este trabajo ficcional con la realidad y con el referente que el referente mismo (o el referente es ya la representacion)? ?No sera que podemos ver alli mas capas de lo real, a traves de esa distorsion y elaboracion? (por ejemplo Andres Avellaneda 29 analizara las reelaboraciones del mito peronista, partiendo del topos de la invasion que caracteriza muchas obras literarias alrededor de 1945: Borges, Cortazar, Martinez Estrada). 30 Leonidas Lamborghini, El jugador, el juego , p. On World. 11. 16 Es asi que, persiguiendo la distorsion del modelo, a la luz del poeta Leonidas Lamborghini, nos detendremos en una de estas reapropiaciones de la figura de Eva Peron, que se presenta desarticulada, fuera del relato, como una voz que busca su palabra. Review Of Research. “El Juego del Modelo es el juego de las resonancias creadas por la reescritura del Modelo” 30 . Operaciones de Leonidas Lamborghini en “Eva Peron en la hoguera” 17 “Eva Peron en la hoguera” 31 es un poema largo de Leonidas Lamborghini, donde el autor mismo lo presenta como “reescritura”, un procedimiento o tecnica que en adelante –si bien ya habia tenido prolegomenos en textos pasados del poeta– sera esencial en su obra.
El poema reescribe La razon de mi vida, y la forma en la que Lamborghini reescribe, los modos de operar que este procedimiento supone en su obra, seran determinantes de una nueva o trastocada imagen de Eva. 32 “En estrecha comunion con el Modelo [se lleva a cabo la rescritura], luego de haberlo reescrito seg (. Dissertation. ) 33 Por ejemplo en la ponencia que Lamborghini lee en el Encuentro “La Politica y la Historia en la fic (. Review. ) 34 Ana Porrua, Variaciones vanguardistas. In Creative Writing Distance. La poetica de Leonidas Lamborghini , p. Review Of Research. 42. Essay. 35 Partitas , cit. Review Of Research. , p. Essay. 6. 18 Deciamos que la reescritura pasaria a ser un elemento central de la obra de Leonidas, y vale subrayar esto, dado que la reescritura de La razon… es apenas (y nada menos que, a la vez) la primera de una larga serie en la que, entre otras cosas, Lamborghini revisa y reconstruye (destruyendo sobre todo) discursos constitutivos de la identidad nacional a nivel politico y social – pues la identidad resulta algo por construir cada vez, no esta dada, ni tiene un origen cristalizado, no es emitida una sola vez en el pasado, sino que hay que refundarla con recortes y variaciones y distorsiones del sentido original –: el tango (que seria reescrito en Verme y 11 reescrituras de Discepolo , de 1988), la gauchesca (reescrita veladamente ya en sus primeros libros, pero sobre todo en la “Payada” que tambien aparece en Partitas y en el poema “Los dos sabios”, de Episodios ), la “Marcha Peronista” (reescrita en el poema “El combate”, de Episodios , 1980) y el “Himno Nacional” (reescrito en “Seol”, del mismo libro). Literature Review. Hay algo de indole programatica en el modo en que Lamborghini recorre y opera sobre los discursos politicos e idiosincraticos. Of Scotland. Sus reescrituras son operaciones que quitan solemnidad al Modelo 32 , que lo bajan a una economia corporal, escatologica, humana, y lo limpian de facilismos y mistificaciones. Literature Of Research. En esta clave podremos leer su reescritura, descomposicion y composicion de la imagen de Evita, sin dejar de tener presente tampoco el posicionamiento politico de Lamborghini como peronista.
El poeta habla siempre de “asimilar la distorsion y devolverla multiplicada” 33 como forma de proceder ante las mistificaciones del sistema. In Creative Writing In English. El procedimiento es el de una variacion que distorsiona y desnaturaliza el enunciado original del que la obra parte. Literature. En este sentido Ana Porrua define la variacion como la operacion central de la poetica de Lamborghini donde los textos se producen como –son– transformacion de la palabra (propia o ajena) 34 . Prompts. Tambien podemos leer el hacer de Leonidas Lamborghini como un procedimiento musical que es la improvisacion en la musica, en el jazz por ejemplo. Literature Review Of Research. Cuenta que una vez que fue a una jam sesion y vio como la banda alrededor de un tema armaba y desarmaba ese tema, lo variaba, lo volvia irreconocible y volvia a construirlo, entonces se pregunto como podia hacer eso en literatura, y ahi empezo a pensar en las reescrituras : “[…] equivale a variaciones. Past. Una partita o partida musical es el juego completo que se hace sobre un tema, variandolo y transformandolo, melodica, contrapuntistica y ritmicamente” 35 . 36 “[…] el melodrama le era el medio mas indicado para establecer un vinculo de comunicacion con la cl (. Literature Review. ) 37 Partitas , cit. Persuasive Essay. , p. Of Research. 57. 19 Lo primero que podria llamar la atencion al enfrentarse con “Eva Peron en la hoguera” es que aun trabajando con la misma e identificable materia verbal (mismas palabras) que el Modelo ( La razon de mi vida ) se trata de un texto que uno podria decir que esta en sus antipodas formales.
Un signo de esto podria ser a priori la conversion de un texto prosaico en un poema, lo cual nos aporta un dato sobre la indole de version y subversion que nos ofrecera Leonidas. Essay. Si La razon de mi vida es un texto que ante todo funciona como dispositivo propagandistico del movimiento peronista, como prosecucion de una cultura peronista, y esta construido sobre la forma de la novela melodramatica (la historia de una humilde provinciana que lucha en la ciudad hasta cumplir un destino importante) y sobre una serie de imagenes que provienen de un tardio romanticismo folletinesco (imagenes a su vez muy cristalizadas en el discurso literario argentino del momento), podemos pensar que las imagenes que se construyen alrededor de la figura de Peron desarrollan una retorica particular de la figura del amado. Literature. Todo enmarcado en una prosa llana, directa y comunicativa. Act Essay Prompts. En cambio, el poema de Lamborghini se muestra desde el comienzo como un texto violento, “dificil”, que subvierte las reglas mas tradicionales de sintaxis y ordenamiento, desarma la estructura narrativa folletinesca de “facil lectura” 36 . Review Of Research. Y es aqui donde es preciso remitirse a las operaciones efectuadas por Leonidas Lamborghini sobre el texto de Eva. Persuasive Essay. El poema se vuelve asi un espacio de tension entre la cultura alta y la cultura baja, por ejemplo, al conservar iconos de la cultura popular en el poema (“los reyes magos” 37 ). 20 ?Que es lo que varia, desmonta, quiebra, Lamborghini de La razon… ? Tenemos que pensar en unas imagenes que seran sustituidas o eliminadas y en una estructura homogenea, narrativa, que sera alterada, ya que se cuestiona justamente este modo de narrar a traves de una sintaxis incompleta , de lo que no se dice, de los vacios que evidencian el corte a pesar de la repeticion (configurandose tambien una tension que juega en el poema entre vacio y repeticion). Literature Of Research. Estas repeticiones se suceden con cambios minimos estructurales a traves de los cuales el significado varia como si el texto se escribiera y desescribiera todo el tiempo, o como si estuviera reconociendo y a la vez descartando, identificandose y a la vez creando una nueva identidad sobre unas representaciones previas que proveia el texto firmado por Eva Duarte. Persuasive Essay Person. De este modo inevitablemente se subvierten ciertos nucleos ideologicos y discursos, o son eliminados. Of Research. Al mismo tiempo se deconstruye el discurso peronista y se supera el relato de los acontecimientos como pasado inmovil bajo la forma de la estampa –que quizas era lo que se proponia ser La razon… Porque, como dice Lamborghini, el juego con el Modelo, no ofrece otro modelo sino “una nueva vida para el Modelo liberado de la situacion de Monumento” 38 . 21 En sintesis, se propone construir una voz distinta sin solemnidades ni heroismos, con menos certezas y mas radicalizada, polemizando con el discurso politico contemporaneo. Past Act Essay Prompts. Vale senalar la gran operacion que supone rescatar y resaltar la materialidad de la voz de Eva en el poema y la cadencia propia de la oralidad que lo recorre, ese penetrar la materia del Modelo.
Traer a escena lo que la palabra dice de la palabra: respiracion, tono, jadeo; condensacion oral de Eva. Review Of Research. A traves de, por ejemplo, el uso de la puntuacion privada de su comun valor y funcionalidad, pues no esta para ordenar la sintaxis y hacer mas entendible el texto, sino para acercarse al balbuceo, al ritmo de Evita. Culture Of Scotland Dissertation. De este modo es interpretado por Norma Bacaicoa en la puesta radial de “Eva peron en la hoguera” (1972), donde la puntuacion es respetada a rajatabla para generar ese jadeo de la voz. Literature Review Of Research. Alli tambien el trabajo musical de Dino Saluzzi con el tango (que forma parte de la banda sonora de la lectura radial) dialoga con la propuesta estetica de Lamborghini (reescritura distorsionada de simbolos de la cultura popular y tension entre lo alto y lo bajo), pues opera una deconstruccion de lo ritmico (por ejemplo la inclusion de la marcha militar) y la armonia (disonancias voluntarias). 22 En una lectura simultanea entre La razon de mi vida y “Eva Peron en la hoguera” focalicemos entonces los elementos que elimina o destaca el poeta y que generan otros efectos respecto a los originales. 39 La razon de mi vida , cit. Culture Dissertation. , p. Of Research. 7. Diploma In Creative In English Distance. 40 Partitas , cit. Literature Review Of Research. , p.55. Act Essay. 41 “los punetazos bajo el cielo/los golpes […] sentia bajo el cielo. Literature. arder/en mi: la llama. Diploma In Creative Writing. […] los hu (. Of Research. ) 23 En primer lugar podemos advertir la valoracion de Evita frente a Juan Domingo: el poema rompe la dupla de opuestos lo alto/lo bajo ya que si bien conserva lo alto donde se ubica a Peron, elimina lo bajo como el espacio de Eva. Art Higher Essay. De este modo, el poema elimina la disminucion de Eva como consecuencia del engrandecimiento de Peron, Eva ya no es “nada mas que una humilde mujer” 39 como en La razon… sino solo la mas : “hasta mi: la mas. Review. Una humilde en la bandada” 40 . In 3rd. A su vez, la eliminacion del capitulo 5 de La razon… (“Me resigne a ser victima”), soslaya justamente la construccion de la figura de Eva desde lo debil, lo fragil y lo dependiente de Peron, ademas de eliminar las criticas negativas a la izquierda que aparecen en ese capitulo. Literature. En el resto del poema se mantiene una figura activa de Eva, por ejemplo en las series “golpe”-“latido”-“punetazo”, y “arder”-“la llama”-“la luz” 41 que aparecen en la sexta parte. 42 El 17 de octubre de 1945 se celebro en la Plaza de Mayo una gran movilizacion obrera y sindical par (. Essay Person. ) 43 Partitas, cit., p. Literature Review Of Research. 63-64.
44 “El objeto fundamental del Justicialismo en relacion al movimiento obrero es hacer desaparecer la l (. Past Prompts. ) 45 Partitas , cit., p. Literature Review. 63, 64. Descartes. 46 Ibidem. Literature Review Of Research. 47 “[…] la revolucion yo siempre. Past Act Essay Prompts. creo que naci para/asi: pajaro suelto en un bosque. Literature Review. inmenso/pajaro n (. Art Higher. ) 48 “[…] la revolucion por. Literature Of Research. ese fue. Distance. lo vi desde. Review Of Research. luego: un grito/un dia hay/un momento hay/un maravill (. Act Essay Prompts. ) 24 Entonces, otro quiebre que podemos advertir al interpretar los procedimientos de reescritura de Lamborghini, es la diferenciacion entre el discurso de izquierda que esta detras de “Eva Peron en la hoguera” y el discurso conservador de La razon… Por ejemplo, en el poema, el 17 de octubre 42 aparece a traves de la fuerza revolucionaria y organizada de los obreros: “para mi los organizados. Of Research. los obreros: ?ellos son!/los que sostienen ?ellos son!” 43 . Essay. En esta linea se recortan las criticas al Comunismo y se reintroduce el concepto de lucha de clases que no aparecia en La razon… por el enfasis en la cooperacion entre el trabajo y el capital, como la 3 era posicion justicialista 44 . Literature Review Of Research. Es decir, reaparecen los obreros como clase diferenciada (“si: la clase obrera” 45 ) y las contradicciones sociales no diluidas en esa tercera posicion ni en una sola clase de hombres trabajadores: “no/el equilibrio. Past. no en ese punto: por mi manera. Literature Review Of Research. casi siempre/no lo niego. In Creative Writing In English Distance. mas.” 46 . Of Research. En este sentido la revolucion es lo que se ubica como la unica opcion politica, y la unica que puede encarnarla es Eva, como queda fijado en la serie formada por “pajaro”-“libertad”-“revolucion”-“pajaro no encadenado” 47 . Diploma In Creative In English Distance Learning. El eje de sentido gira hacia la superposicion de los terminos “revolucion” y “maravilloso” 48 , a la que se le anudan significantes como el fuego y el grito, que apuntan a la construccion de la figura de Eva vinculada con la pasion y la fuerza en la lucha. Review Of Research. Si tenemos en cuenta el contexto de conformacion, rescate y lectura del discurso peronista entre el 60 y 70 desde los movimientos revolucionarios, vemos que algo de esto esta presente en el poema. 49 Ibid , p.57. Meditations. 50 La razon de mi vida , cit. Review. , p.41. Dissertation. 51 Partitas , cit. Review. , p.60. Of Scotland. 52 Ibid., p.67. 25 En otras palabras, se exalta en el poema la pasion revolucionaria de Eva. Literature Review. Ya en la segunda parte se crea un espacio potente de lo intimo donde dolor y lucha se consolidan en la sustantivacion: “un fundamental./un que domina desde./un desgarrandome./un en mi corazon/como si me clavase:/intimamente” 49 . Essay Descartes. Eva aparece entonces autonomizada respecto a la figura de Peron, por eso en la parte VI se eliminan las comillas para introducir la voz de Peron y las voces de la pareja se indiferencian: la imagen politica de Evita no necesita de un hombre para actuar. Of Research. Desde este modo se quiebra la idea cristalizada del matrimonio parlamentario (Eva, Peron y el pueblo como sus hijos), y el amor por Peron no se instala como motor del accionar de Eva (“los deberes que impone el amor” 50 ); por el contrario se privilegia la primera persona: “anduve. Diploma In Creative Writing In English Distance Learning. me largue […] sentia […] descendi” 51 . Literature Review. Evita se construye como luchadora que nunca se cansa y resiente pasionalmente las injusticias.
Su arma de lucha es la palabra o el grito (la palabra antes de la palabra): “Por eso: veneno y amargura en mis./por eso: grito hasta. Diploma In Creative. Por eso afonica cuando en mis” 52 . 53 La razon de mi vida , cit. Literature Of Research. , p.43 y Partitas , cit. Of Scotland. , p. Review. 62. Diploma Distance Learning. 54 Ibidem. 26 Podemos observar tambien la eliminacion del discurso religioso, y en consecuencia la conversion laica del discurso. Literature Review Of Research. La nocion de Dios como ordenador de las cosas y los destinos se quita. Essay. En el poema hay cortes donde en el original las palabras se subordinaban a Dios o ‘algo superior’: “gracias a Dios” sera reescrito como “gracias a.” 53 . Of Research. Incluso cuando se lo nombra es para negarlo: “no digo Dios”. Descartes Meditations. Esta elision de lo divino e inexplicable como causas propone a la figura de Eva y de ‘la revolucion’ como fuerzas reales, contingentes e historicas. Literature. Por eso se exaltan los aspectos individuales “mi alma”, “mi vida”, “mi pais”, “mi caso”, “mi pueblo” 54 , (la acumulacion del pronombre personal ‘mi’ enfatiza la autonomia de Eva, y se sustrae a Peron como modo de llegar al pueblo, este ocupando el lugar de Peron). 27 Por ultimo no podemos dejar de mencionar la fragmentacion agramatical, la elipsis y el quiebre de la narratividad de La razon… que el poema opera. On World Electronics. Las palabras toman otro valor morfologico como si cada una ‘sintiera’ no solo el sentimiento sino tambien sus adjetivos, sus circunstanciales. Literature Review Of Research. El lenguaje se potencia en la pluralizacion e intercambio de posibilidades gramaticales a su todo: “mi todo a su todo: a el” 55 . 56 “[…] la estereotipia ya ha cedido. Learning. E pur.
La sensacion de libertad es muy grande”, El jugador, el j (. Review. ) 57 Ibidem. 28 En sintesis, el discurso de Eva se libera 56 del tono mesianico, mistico y religioso: se eliminan las referencias a Dios y la importancia de la religion en la vida cotidiana. Descartes Meditations. De este modo se disuelve la trinidad Peron-Eva-Pueblo a traves de la eliminacion de Evita como madre y esposa y de la figura de Peron. Review. Luego Eva aparece inmersa en la lucha politica y social sin ser la madre de los trabajadores ni la intermediaria entre ellos y el Mesias . Meditations. Se eliminan tambien los nucleos ideologicos conservadores: la familia entendida como celula basica de la sociedad, el catolicismo, el hogar, el rol de la mujer en cristalizaciones del sentido comun (intuicion femenina-logica racional, inferioridad-superioridad). Literature Review. La ruptura con respecto al discurso peronista de La razon… establece una nueva figura de Eva militante a traves de las metaforas del fuego y de la hoguera. Culture Of Scotland. Porque en su inmediatez e inmanencia nos encontramos aqui con la hoguera de las imagenes miticas de Eva, de la figura politica, del producto mediatico, del producto pop, de su estetizacion inerte… Pero habria ahora que empezar de nuevo para pensar si, resplandeciendo entre las llamas, aparece otra figura mitica de esa desmitificacion. Review. ?Es esta voz, su decirse, conformacion de otros, nuevos, discursos? Palabra sin sintesis, aceptacion y rechazo, construccion y deconstruccion, identificacion y desidentificacion de su figura, tension recorrida “por el deseo de alguien que quiere decir su palabra y no tiene como llegar a esa palabra” 57 . Avellaneda , Andres. Act Essay. “Evita: cuerpo y cadaver de la literatura”. Review Of Research. Evita.
Mitos y representaciones . Of Scotland Dissertation. Ed. Review Of Research. Marysa Navarro. Persuasive Essay In 3rd Person. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Economica, 2002. Literature Review Of Research. 101-141. Ballent , Anahi. On World Electronics. “El kitsch inolvidable: imagenes en torno a Eva Peron”. Of Research. Las huellas de la politica. Essay. Vivienda, ciudad, peronismo en Buenos Aires , 1943-1955 . Literature. Buenos Aires: Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, 2005. Diploma In English Distance Learning. 153-184. Barbero , Jesus Martin. Literature Review. De los medios a las mediaciones . Essay. Bogota: Convenio Andres Bello, 2003. Cortes Rocca , Paola y Martin Kohan . Review. Imagenes de vida, relatos de muerte.
Eva Peron: cuerpo y politica . In Creative In English Distance. Rosario: Beatriz Viterbo, 1998. Feinmann , Jose Pablo. Review. “Eva Peron.” Peronismo. Essay Without. Filosofia politica de una obstinacion argentina IV.17, suplemento especial de Pagina/12 (16 de marzo de 2008). Literature Review. Consultado el 12 de octubre 2012: http://www.pagina12.com.ar/especiales/archivo/peronismo_feinmann/CLASE17.pdf. Gerassi-Navarro , Nina. Diploma In English Learning. “Las tres Evas: de la historia al mito en cinemascope.” Evita. Literature. Mitos y representaciones . Diploma In English Distance Learning. Ed. Literature Of Research. Marysa Navarro. Writing Distance Learning. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Economica, 2002.
65-100. Kristeva , Julia. Of Research. ?????????? . Essay. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1969. Lamborghini , Leonidas. Literature Of Research. Partitas . Essay On World. Buenos Aires: Corregidor, 1972. Lamborghini , Leonidas. Literature Of Research. El jugador, el juego . Descartes Meditations. Buenos Aires: Adriana Hidalgo, 2007. Navarro , Marysa. Review Of Research. “La mujer maravilla ha sido siempre argentina y su verdadero nombre es Evita.” Evita. In Creative Writing In English Distance Learning. Mitos y representaciones . Review Of Research. Ed. Diploma In Creative Learning. Marysa Navarro. Literature Review. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Economica, 2002.
11-42. Peron , Eva. Culture Of Scotland. La razon de mi vida . Review Of Research. Buenos Aires: CSEdiciones, 1995. Porrua , Ana. On World Without. Variaciones vanguardistas . Review. La poetica de Leonidas Lamborghini . Culture Of Scotland. Rosario: Beatriz Viterbo, 2001. Sillato , Maria del Carmen. Literature Review Of Research. “ La razon de mi vida de Eva Peron: el texto como espacio de auto-representacion melodramatica.” Canadian Journal of essay, Latin American and of research Caribbean Studies 24.48 (1999): 177-193. 1 Vale plantear el primer problema que se presenta al trabajar con este material: ?escribio Eva Duarte esta biografia?
Se ha afirmado la existencia de un “escritor fantasma” de La razon de mi vida , luego publicada con la autoria de Eva Duarte (entonces Evita). Essay Without. En Peronismo. Review. Filosofia politica de una obstinacion argentina , Jose Pablo Feinmann la atribuye por ejemplo al diplomatico espanol Penella da Silva: “Se sabe que el libro fue escrito por un periodista espanol de nombre Manuel Penella da Silva, a quien posiblemente haya contactado Raul Mende, un tipo muy cercano a Peron”, p. Art Higher Essay. 2 . Literature Of Research. Es decir que cuando hablamos de Eva como agente de la (?auto?)-biografia no es sino refiriendonos a una construccion textual que tal vez no corresponda a la persona Eva Duarte. 3 Nina Gerassi-Navarro, “Las tres Evas: de la historia al mito en cinemascope”, p. Culture. 98. 4 Andres Avellaneda, “Evita: cuerpo y cadaver de la literatura”, p. Literature Review Of Research. 102. 5 Paola Cortes Rocca y Martin Kohan, Imagenes de vida, relatos de muerte. Culture Of Scotland. Eva Peron: cuerpo y politica , p. Of Research. 28. 6 Eva Peron, La razon de mi vida , p. Culture Dissertation. 120. 8 “Una de las caracteristicas que se destacan en la estetica melodramatica es la conformacion de una estructura en base a una serie de oposiciones”, Maria del Carmen Sillato, “ La razon de mi vida de Eva Peron: el texto como espacio de auto-representacion melodramatica”, p. Literature Review Of Research. 182.
9 “[…] todo esto seria absurdo como es el azar si fuese cierto lo que mis supercriticos afirman […]. Act Essay. Yo misma quiero explicarme aqui. Literature Review. Para eso he decidido escribir estos apuntes”, La razon de mi vida , cit. Learning. , p.13. 10 “[…] contrapone su experiencia tan temprana a las acusaciones de aquellos supercriticos […]. Literature Of Research. La unica referencia concreta a aspectos de su pasado, que ella omite y ante los cuales reacciona en las paginas del texto oponiendole su presente compromiso, es la descripcion de la persona que fue segun la pintan sus enemigos”, Maria del Carmen Sillato, cit. On World. , p. Of Research. 178. 11 “Le recoupement d’une organisation textuelle (d’une pratique semiotique) donnee avec les enonces (sequences) qu’elle assimile dans son espace ou auxquels elle renvoie dans l’espace des textes (pratiques semiotiques) exterieurs, sera appele un ideologeme.
L’ideologeme est cette fonction intertextuelle que l’on peut lire ‘materialisee’ aux differents niveaux de la structure de chaque texte, et qui s’etend tout au long de son trajet en lui donnant ses coordonnees historiques et sociales.” Julia Kristeva, ?????????? , p. On World. 52-53. 12 “Esta increible capacidad de sentir es, segun Evita, pertinente al genero femenino. Of Research. Si aceptamos con Andrea Huyssen esa identificacion de la cultura de masa con lo femenino, entonces podemos afirmar que Evita se dirigia a un auditorio que, precisamente por su caracter femenino, era mas proclive a sentir que a intelectualizar”, Maria del Carmen Sillato, cit. Person. , p. Literature Review Of Research. 183, 184. 13 “Junto a los recursos que hacen que este texto se inscriba por su lenguaje dentro de los margenes del genero melodramatico, existen ademas ciertos elementos pertinentes a su estructura y a los actores de esta historia que remiten a la estructura dramatica del melodrama”, ibid, p. Persuasive Essay Person. 184. 14 “[…] ligado a la victima por amor o parentesco. Literature Review. Es, por lo generoso y sensible, la contrafigura del Traidor. Persuasive. Y por lo tanto el que tiene por funcion hacer que la verdad resplandezca”, Jesus Martin Barbero, De los medios a las mediaciones , p. Review Of Research. 130. 15 Paola Cortes Rocca y Martin Kohan, cit., p. Prompts. 32.
16 “Se hacian eco [ciertos ensayos hagiograficos publicados en Argentina cuando Peron estaba en el poder] de la figura iconografica creada por la prensa peronista y que surge en toda su dimension en la autobiografia La razon de mi vida . Review. Una y otra vez es la esposa, amante, abnegada, perfecta, sin par, y simultaneamente, la quintaescencia de lo maternal, pues es la madre ejemplar que se desvive, se sacrifica y se consume por los ninos y los ancianos, por los mas desvalidos y los mas pobres”, Marysa Navarro, “La mujer maravilla ha sido siempre argentina y su verdadero nombre es Evita”, p. Art Higher Essay. 16. 17 La razon de mi vida , cit. Literature Of Research. , p.68 y p.74. 18 Lujosas para diferenciarse de las obras de “accion social” construidas anteriormente: “mis hogares son generosamente ricos… mas aun, quiero excederme en esto. Art Higher Essay. Quiero que sean lujosos. Literature Of Research. Precisamente porque un siglo de asilos miserables no se puede borrar sino con otro siglo de hogares excesivamente lujosos”, ibid. Persuasive In 3rd. , p.168.
El lujo tambien funcionaba como reivindicacion de las clases bajas. Literature Review Of Research. Se cumpliria aqui el axioma de la revancha imaginaria encarnado por el genero folletinesco con el que trabaja La razon… 19 Anahi Ballent, “El kitsch inolvidable: imagenes en torno a Eva Peron”, p. Prompts. 168. 23 “Yo lo vi aparecer desde el mirador de mi vieja inquietud interior”, ibid. Review. , p. On World Without. 31. 24 “Mas que creerlo por un razonamiento, ‘senti’ que era verdad”, ibid. Of Research. , p. Culture Of Scotland. 17. 25 “Estos no se conforman sino con la gloria. Literature Review Of Research. Aspiran ya el aire de siglo siguiente, que ha de cantar sus glorias y viven casi en la eternidad. Culture Dissertation. […] a esta clase de hombres pertenecia el hombre que yo encontre”, ibid. Review. , p. Diploma In Creative Learning. 30. 26 Entre otras: “mi rebeldia intima” ( ibid. Review. , p. Writing Distance Learning. 22); “intima tristeza” (p. Literature Of Research. 23); “mi vieja inquietud interior” (p. Culture. 31). 27 Ibid. Of Research. , p. Diploma In Creative Writing In English Distance Learning. 18, 21.
El subrayado es mio. 28 “[Las historias de vida] apelan a un publico mas amplio y popular en parte porque en la vida de un individuo se inscribe la existencia del grupo o comunidad que la evoca”, Nina Gerassi-Navarro, cit. Review Of Research. , p. Essay Without Electronics. 71. 29 Ver Andres Avellaneda, cit. Of Research. , p. Essay On World. 104. 30 Leonidas Lamborghini, El jugador, el juego , p. Literature. 11. 31 Leonidas Lamborghini, Partitas . 32 “En estrecha comunion con el Modelo [se lleva a cabo la rescritura], luego de haberlo reescrito segun las reglas de mi juego. Of Scotland Dissertation. Comprobe que despide una fragancia, un frescor, una alegria ciertamente contagiosa, desbordante. Literature Review. Es el premio, he pensado, por haber aceptado el peligro de vivir otra vez”, El jugador, el juego , cit. Diploma In English Distance. , p. Literature Review Of Research. 13. 33 Por ejemplo en la ponencia que Lamborghini lee en el Encuentro “La Politica y la Historia en la ficcion argentina”, organizado por la Universidad Nacional de Litoral en 1994. Essay. Consultado el 11 de noviembre de 2012: http://www.literatura.org/Lamborghini/Solicitante2.html . 34 Ana Porrua, Variaciones vanguardistas.
La poetica de Leonidas Lamborghini , p. Literature Of Research. 42. 36 “[…] el melodrama le era el medio mas indicado para establecer un vinculo de comunicacion con la clase obrera […]. Meditations. Al seguir estos modelos, La razon de mi vida se configuro como texto de facil lectura, y no era necesario tener un alto nivel de instruccion para comprenderlo”, Sillato, cit ., p. Review Of Research. 180. 41 “los punetazos bajo el cielo/los golpes […] sentia bajo el cielo. Without Electronics. arder/en mi: la llama. Literature Of Research. […] los humildes que laten generosamente. Act Essay Prompts. descendi. Review. senti arder. Past. una gran que/conservo. Literature. una luz […]”, ibid. Dissertation. , p. Of Research. 59-61. 42 El 17 de octubre de 1945 se celebro en la Plaza de Mayo una gran movilizacion obrera y sindical para exigir la liberacion de Juan Domingo Peron. Essay Meditations. Se recuerda como el Dia de la Lealtad y algunos ubican alli el origen del peronismo. 44 “El objeto fundamental del Justicialismo en relacion al movimiento obrero es hacer desaparecer la lucha de clases y sustituirla por la cooperacion entre el capital y el trabajo”, La razon de mi vida , cit. Literature Review Of Research. , p. Essay In 3rd Person. 97. Review Of Research. La tercera posicion justicialista pretende polemizar tanto con el comunismo como con el capitalismo , asi como superar el espectro politico compuesto por los partidos tradicionales, ubicandose fuera del eje izquierda / derecha . 47 “[…] la revolucion yo siempre. In Creative Learning. creo que naci para/asi: pajaro suelto en un bosque. Literature Of Research. inmenso/pajaro no encadenado […]”, ibid. On World Without. , p. Review Of Research. 69. 48 “[…] la revolucion por. Of Scotland Dissertation. ese fue. Review Of Research. lo vi desde. On World Without. luego: un grito/un dia hay/un momento hay/un maravilloso hay”, ibid , p. Literature Review. 58-59.
56 “[…] la estereotipia ya ha cedido. Art Higher Essay. E pur. Literature Of Research. La sensacion de libertad es muy grande”, El jugador, el juego , cit., p. Essay In 3rd Person. 20. Victoria Coccaro , « La razon de mi vida y “Eva Peron en la hoguera”: entre el relato y la voz », Babel , 26 | 2012, 247-264. Victoria Coccaro , « La razon de mi vida y “Eva Peron en la hoguera”: entre el relato y la voz », Babel [En ligne], 26 | 2012, mis en ligne le 08 mars 2013, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. Literature. URL : http://babel.revues.org/2578 ; DOI : 10.4000/babel.2578. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Polichinelle, patrimoine immateriel de notre temps. L’ethos en poesie 33 | 2016.
Litteratures et arts contemporains : l’hybridite a l’?uvre 32 | 2015. Histoire culturelle des points cardinaux 31 | 2015. The Masculine South 30 | 2014. Paysages mediterraneens – Correspondances poetiques 29 | 2014. Horizons des mondes mediterraneen et atlantique : imaginaires compares 28 | 2013. Le prisme americain 27 | 2013. Actualite(s) de Montherlant 26 | 2012. Renverser la norme : figures de la rupture dans le monde hispanique 25 | 2012. Images de la folie au tournant du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance 24 | 2011. Litterature et cinema 22 | 2010.
La Celestina : etudes croisees 20 | 2009. Ecrire la montagne 19 | 2009. Univers fictionnels dans le monde hispanique 18 | 2008. Du bilinguisme en matiere de poesie 16 | 2007. La mise en recueil des textes medievaux 15 | 2007. Le Moyen Age mis en scene : perspectives contemporaines 13 | 2006. Figures de la disparition dans le monde hispanique et latino-americain 12 | 2005. Regards culturels sur les phenomenes migratoires 8 | 2003.
Le voyage initiatique, decouvertes, rencontres, experiences en montagne (XVII e -XX e siecles) 7 | 2003. Rhetoriques mediterraneennes 6 | 2002. La bibliotheque 1 4 | 2000. Litterature et propheties 3 | 1999. Ecritures heterogenes 2 | 1997. Mere Mediterranee 1 | 1996. ISSN electronique 2263-4746.
Informations Titre : Babel Litteratures plurielles En bref : Revue de litterature comparative et multingue.
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Trends And Fads Essays and Research Papers. COMM/155 Trends VS. Fads Throughout time, humans have evolved by literature review, shaping what they do culturally. They have all followed – . Essay In 3rd. as different groups – a certain guideline of living, creating what one would call culture differences. The different cultures that have popped up everywhere all live different ways, and of research through a popularity contest, their culture evolves. Culture Of Scotland Dissertation. This popularity contest mentioned is about Trends and Fads , which are different things that have helped shape cultural society all over. 1950s , Beat Generation , Beatnik 929 Words | 3 Pages. Fads are generally short-lived.
However, there have been several fads that surmassed incredibly large crowds of followers. These . fads became so large so quick that they entwine with American culture and then spread like wildfire. There are three main factors in how well a fad will do. The first is who is exhibiting the fad . Literature Review. Secondly, how easy the fad is for the populous to duplicate. Art Higher Essay. Last is the change in the environment the fad makes.
These three factors are the of research reason why some fads , such as the. Fads and trends , Livestrong wristband 991 Words | 3 Pages. ?Understanding What You Read – Week 3 Week 3- Chapter 5- Understanding Your Customer 1. Identify demographic trends that are occurring . in the United States, related to culture dissertation, (a) number of literature review, single-person households, (b) median age for culture marriage, (c) birthrate, (d) U.S. population growth, and (e) number of male homemakers. Single person households are showing the greatest increase in numbers and that trend is projected to continue. Birthrate has remained relatively stable in the United States since 1994 growth. Commerce , Data mining , Data warehouse 1415 Words | 6 Pages. Fads are foolish. Although some fads and review of research fashion trends are “harmless” and really don’t seem to harm anything, . there are some which are potentially dangerous and otherwise harmful. In Creative Writing In English Distance. In the literature of research Scarlet Pimpernel, the fad to essay electronics, follow was the Scarlet Pimpernel himself. People enjoyed the of research thrill of following his every move, and anticipating what he would do next. On World Electronics. They could root for either him, or France, and they could guess as to what his next escape would be.
This particular fad wasn’t necessarily bad. Bandwagon effect , Chicago Tribune , Clothing 407 Words | 2 Pages. ? Our Changing Lifestyle: Trends and Fads These days lifestyles seem to change very fast. It is more . than just clothing and literature hairstyles that are in style one year and out of distance, date the literature next; it’s a whole way of living. One year people wear sunglasses on top of their heads and wear jeans and past act essay boots; they drink white wine and eat sushi at Japanese restaurants; for exercise they job several miles a day. However, the next year they notice that everything has changed. Women wear. Culture , Fads and trends , Hamburger 724 Words | 2 Pages. following – Fad , Trend , Megatrend Fad : Basically, a fad is literature review of research, a popular practice or interest followed . only for culture of scotland a short time with exaggerated zeal, angelic, or enthusiasm. A fad happens when we cry Oh, I need that! even if it's not something that ever crossed our mind to review of research, own, have or use before and where it doesn't meet any particular need in our life.
Fads happen in all walks of in 3rd, life but the more ephemeral, transitory and literature of research prone to needing replacement or updates, the diploma more likely it is to be a fad . Fad usually. FAD , Fads and trends , Jeans 514 Words | 2 Pages. markets establishing a one-stop shop for all customers’ needs. Review. 4) Substitutes: Threat of substitutes is high due to buyers’ looking for cheaper alternatives . in essay, other competitive outlets. Also, because Mamp;S focused on essential clothing, and review less on fads or trendy lines, competitors were quicker to persuasive essay, react in literature of research, offering more trendy clothing lines. 5) Competitive Rivalry: Mamp;S has fierce competition from other food, clothing, and home wares retailers; such as supermarkets Tesco, Asda, and J. Sainsbury. Asda , Fads , Fads and trends 659 Words | 2 Pages. days are none other than the modern trends that exist now and ceased to persuasive in 3rd, exist in review, the past. What are trends exactly? According to . Wikipedia: “ trends are behaviors that develop among a large population that last longer than ten years.
These trends usually occur in fashion, business or technology.” Every generation has different trends , and diploma in creative writing in english like changes, trends are not everlasting and they are replaced with newer trends every now and then. For many people, trends might seem insignificant and review of research redundant. Arranged marriage , Facebook , Family 2551 Words | 6 Pages. The Fallacies of on world without, Fad Diets The people will live on. The learning and blundering people will live on. They will be tricked and sold and . again sold.
And go back to review, the nourishing earth for rootholds. ? Carl Sandburg, The People Speak “How did Jennifer Lopez lose 40 pounds after having twin babies? The Dukan Diet is the answer!” or “Jennifer Hudson lost 80 Lbs! Thanks to persuasive in 3rd, Weight Watchers!” ? thumb through any supermarket tabloid or spend only an hour in front of TV and you'll catch a glimpse. Adipose tissue , Dieting , Diets 2511 Words | 7 Pages. Fitness and Trends Survey Overview. ? Fitness and Trend Survey Today The historical overview of the survey was taken back in of research, 2006 gathering . information of meditations, fitness trends . The methodical idea was developed to literature review, show the upcoming results of the past act essay fitness productiveness worldwide in literature of research, annual report. The health and trend fitness survey follows various subdivisions of the business such as corporate, medical, public and commercial areas. The success of the health and meditations fitness trend survey has continued over literature the. Exercise , Health , Health care 933 Words | 3 Pages. NO FAD DIETS Americans are obsessed with dieting.
They willingly try the latest diet appearing in act essay prompts, popular magazines, discussed on review of research, talk shows, . and displayed on the shelves of a local bookstore. The basic premises to in 3rd person, a healthy life seem simple, and Americans are even given specific guidelines- outlined in the food pyramid- as to review, how much of each food group to eat. If this is so, why then, is obesity one of the leading health risks confronting Americans? It may be because the simple and diploma in creative writing in english healthy. Adipose tissue , Crash diet , Dieting 1420 Words | 4 Pages. Management Fads: Only Novel, Not Practical. MANAGEMENT FADS Only novel, not practical HasanKazmi Many organizations are in literature of research, a constant search for a simple solution that can . Art Higher Essay. maximize employee productivity in congruence with greater profits and happy customers.
In search for of research the ‘quick fix’, popular administrative ideas and essay descartes meditations trends of one organization are embraced religiously by others – becoming a fad . Like fashion trends , fads also have a life cycle where it enjoys a period of literature review of research, fame and subsequently becomes supplanted. To figure out. Bandwagon effect , Management , Management by objectives 932 Words | 3 Pages. Fad Diets: Enter The Zone The way we eat, or what experts recommend we should eat, can be as much a fad as the clothes we . wear or the way we style our hair. More carbs or less carbs, the truth is Americans today have just been getting fatter. To keep up with the trends , more and more fad diets have come about in the last few years, making promises of successful weight loss. The Zone diet is no exception, In the Zone you'll enjoy optimal body function: Freedom from hunger, greater energy and. Adipose tissue , Dieting , Glucose 768 Words | 3 Pages. Why Do Fashion Trends Change But Repeat Themselves? In today’s society, we have a general tendency to follow fashion that have been imparted . on us especially by the media, but it is without, like we are repeating a cycle even though fashion trends change quite often they tend to recycle couple years later so why do we keep up?
Fashion generally refers to popular style or practice especially in of research, dress or behavior. Fashion trends are known as a “ fad ” or a craze just for persuasive essay a certain amount of literature review, time until something. A Brief History of Time , Change , Fashion 938 Words | 3 Pages. ? FAD DIETS; HEALTHY OR TRENDY? Introduction: Obesity is a rapidly increasing problem in the United States. In response to this issue . Art Higher. several fad diets have surfaced and become popular and trendy across the of research nation. Are these diets the best solution to obesity? Would you consider these diets to past, be healthy solutions?
Task: You, together with 4 other classmates will form a team with a researcher, a writer, an editor, an artist, and a publisher. Your first task will be to choose a fad diet. Atkins diet , Dieting , Diets 967 Words | 5 Pages. Fad Diets: Look Before You Leap Food Insight, March 1, 2000 No, says Diane Quagliani, RD, a spokesperson for The . American Dietetic Association. Fad diets are a short-term, quick-fix approach to review of research, weight loss that don't work over the long haul. These diets tend to over-promise results but don't deliver. Persuasive. Food choices are often monotonous, and caloric intake may be very restricted, so that once the novelty wears off, so does the literature review motivation to continue. Art Higher. Even the. Adipose tissue , Carbohydrate , Dieting 1685 Words | 7 Pages.
American Fashion Fads of the Twentieth Century. Fashion Fads of the Twentieth Century A fad , or craze, becomes popular in a culture relatively quickly, but also loses its . popularity dramatically. Literature Of Research. A fad that remains for past prompts a significant amount of time typically loses its significance in current popular culture as it evolves and becomes accepted into a society's everyday culture. In the past hundred years, fashion fads have been characterized by politics, popular movies, music and famous celebrities. Most fads just wither and quickly fad away, but. Cold War , Fashion , Hairstyle 1694 Words | 5 Pages. ?Nikko Bituin Prof. Zuromski ENC1102, Assign. #14 22 Mar. 2012 The Fad To Be Healthy A big part of my early life was filled with sadness. Of Research. I . cannot express fully how some days, I had that thought of not continuing life.
It is a very sad fact about past, me and I thought I would never let go of literature, that feeling, but that was not the case. At the ripe age of nineteen in diploma writing in english, 2011, I was considered an obese American weighing in at 310 pounds. My blood pressure was high and literature of research everything about essay on world, me was unhealthy. Not just. Adolescence , Atkins diet , Dieting 2094 Words | 7 Pages. be our generations newest pastime,along side already popular sports such as football and baseball. With video games becoming more and more popular it only . makes sense that people watching others play them is also getting more popular. Literature Review. Esports are a trend because they are able to past act essay, appeal to literature, large audiences, they can evolve with the times, and they have a passionate and essay descartes smart people helping them move forward. Ever since video games were invented humans have been playing them against each other and. Ancient Olympic Games , France , Game 1839 Words | 5 Pages. Fitness: Is It a Fad or a Lifestyle?
Fitness ' The New Mantra Is it a Fad or a Lifestyle Fitness is suddenly a new buzzword.Everybody is talking about keeping . themselves fit .It has caught the of research fancy of the people of all ages ,shapes and sizes .Our neighbourhoods have seen a mushrooming of gymnasiums and spas. Earlier they were seen only in five star hotels but now can be seen at descartes meditations every street end or a part of literature review, every society .It has become customary for essay every society to have a ‘gym’ also .This phenomenon can be partly attributed. Fitness , Introduction , Market 732 Words | 3 Pages. TRENDS IN INTERIOR DESIGN Just like fashion and our dressing, the modern Kenyan home is a far cry from what it was in the previous century. . Some of the trends of literature, previous decades had taken such firm root and it seemed they were here to stay but as the saying goes here today gone tomorrow. The 70’s This period saw homes reflect colonial homes in decor and style. Furniture was roughly hewn and unrefined made by graduates of missionary carpentry schools. Essay In 3rd Person. Furnishings were largely utilitarian.
British Columbia Interior , Color , Home 790 Words | 3 Pages. Meeting and Event Marketing Trends. SMGT 1163 – Course Project Marketing Event Trends Gravatt, Frankye Event and literature of research experiential marketing is playing a critical role in the . rapidly evolving media and marketing industry. The key trends noted in Event Track 2012 were: * Event and Experiential Marketing is a strong growth industry – expecting budgets to grow by 7.8% and descartes meditations brands that measure their event programs are seeing a higher increase in budgets (12.5% vs. 4.8% in those that don’t measure) * Event Marketing is Effective . Customer , Customer service , Inbound marketing 919 Words | 3 Pages. Keeping the Skull… Alive. Fashion has way of review, recycling and reinventing itself, and of scotland dissertation like many fashion trends , there is a rich history in how . the symbol of the skull has continued to renew itself in mainstream fashion. Whether you incorporate the skull in an outfit to express a gothic look or a classy style, or whether you chose to wear the skull stitched on review, the back of a cashmere sweater or embellished in funky jewelry, it is of scotland, evident that the skull is a symbol in fashion that is attractive to a. Fashion , Fashion blog , Fashion journalism 1760 Words | 5 Pages.
? Trend catogram It calls on a trend forecaster to create a map that visually and texturally represents the trend . in a way that: Identifies the innovators of the trend (the ‘who’) Names the trend (the ‘what’) Assesses the current impact of the of research trend within society (the ‘where’) Reveals the drivers or influences underpinning it (the ‘why’) Examine the consequences of this impact in the long and of scotland dissertation short-term, based on the experts’ comments and findings (the ‘when’) Identifies and articulates. 705 Words | 3 Pages. ?Educational Leadership Trends Today’s school principals, assistant principals and administratorsface a quickly-changing educational . environment. Keeping up with the latest educational trends is an important aspect of effective leadership. Just as professionals in literature, every industry must anticipate what’s coming next to stay ahead of the competition, principals must study educational trends and art higher keep their skills and knowledge updated. It’s clear: when the principal falls behind, students are more likely. A Great Way to Care , Education , Education reform 999 Words | 3 Pages. Trends in review, the Hospitality Industry Nowadays trends are everywhere. You can find them in every industry and they play a huge . role. The retro trend in clothing, the SUV trend in the car industry, but nowhere else are trends more important than in writing learning, the hospitality industry. But what exactly is literature review of research, a trend ? A trend describes usually the time measurable course of a development into a certain quantitative and/or qualitative direction.
In economics, trends are changes of the essay behavior of the society. Literature Review Of Research. In marketing. Golf , Hospitality industry , Hotel 1486 Words | 4 Pages. purpose of culture, this study is to examine trends in the prominence of four widely recognized schools of scientific psychology, and which, if any, is literature of research, . most prominent (Robins, Gosling, Craik, 1999). II.
Introduction Yes. The introduction indicates the importance of how psychologists should evaluate trends in diploma in creative writing distance, the prominence of literature of research, four schools of culture, psychology empirically not intuitively. Nine sources are cited in the introduction. Many contentions and literature declarations have evaluated trends intuitively as to which psychological. American Psychological Association , Clinical psychology , Cognition 775 Words | 3 Pages.
There is a new trend amongst Asians and that is following and watching football, commonly called soccer in the United States. Essay On World Without Electronics. This . Literature Review Of Research. trend could be capitalized by providing products like football gear, equipment, T-shirts, cups and food that showcases the football culture in some way. Although this craze is happening mostly in Asian countries, we can also capitalize on this trend globally. For example, many U.S. cities have high concentrations of Asians in places commonly called “China Town.” This. American football , Asian American , Association football 989 Words | 3 Pages. BCOM March 23, 2011 Ms.
Mary Doe Trends in Marketing By: Anonymous Dear Ms. Of Scotland Dissertation. Mary Doe, You asked me to write a report covering my . current trends in literature review of research, my field of essay descartes meditations, study. The following report that you requested will cover current trends in the field of literature of research, marketing. I spent many hours researching and preparing this report. I found some main trends involving mobile marketing, green marketing, and in creative writing learning social media marketing. I hope that the report is accurate to what you have asked of me. Literature Of Research. I hope you. Advertising , Facebook , Marketing 891 Words | 4 Pages. Trend projection method is a classical method of on world without, business forecasting. Literature Of Research. This method is essentially concerned with the essay study of literature review, movement of . Descartes Meditations. variable through time.
The use of literature review of research, this method requires a long and reliable time series data. The trend projection method is art higher, used under the assumption that the factors responsible for literature review the past trends in variables to be projected (e.g. sales and demand) will continue to play their part in future in the same manner and to the same extend as they did in the past in. Fischer projection , Forecasting , Future 594 Words | 3 Pages. product cost is the cost of goods and the amount of past prompts, operating expenses. What sets Trends Fashion apart from other retail locations is its . Literature. unique consignor/consignee retail strategy, which allows them to cover the essay cost of obtaining the goods plus the expenses related to operating the business. The wide range of products offered by Trend requires an efficient pricing strategy in terms of pricing lines and pricing ranges.
Trend is of research, able to diploma in creative in english distance, calculate a selling price on used clothing no matter what item it. Asset , Balance sheet , Consignment 2082 Words | 7 Pages. head: TRENDS PAPER Trends Paper University of Phoenix Introduction to Popular American Culture SOC 105 Sep 06, 2007 . Trends Paper There are many trends in the world, but they vary from country to country. Literature Of Research. Trends have a tendency to change within time, but there is always something called popular trends those are the trends that people tend to follow. This paper will observe a few trends in essay, the American Culture, which will include social, political, religious, and personal trends . Some. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Iraq War , Laptop 814 Words | 3 Pages. Trends in Human Resources As any professional knows, there is no way to stay the same and stay ahead of the literature review competition. Staying stagnant . will almost always lead to act essay, failure and literature of research it is often the easiest way to kill a business and to of scotland dissertation, kill employee productivity. As with cars, fashion, and pop culture, business too has trends ; what’s hot this year can easily fizzle out by literature review, next year. Political environments and past many other external factors play a role in literature review, what trends are hot in business and human resources. Employment , Human resource management , Human resources 1143 Words | 4 Pages.
The Most Recent Trends and Emerging Values in Human Resource Management: Comparative Analysis Rima Cesyniene Vilniaus universitetas . Sauletekio al. 9, LT-01513, Vilnius The article deals with the complexity of human resource management in the context of business globalization. The global trends in human resource management are shaped by competitiveness, downsizing, outsourcing, more diverse work force and an ageing population. On the contrary, the cultural differences significantly affect. Business , Culture , Globalization 695 Words | 3 Pages. ?Mukbang: Let’s Eat! In increasingly virtual South Korea, the latest bizarre fad is descartes meditations, watching someone eat online. Review. The fad . called, “mukbang,” roughly translates to “eating broadcasts,” where online channels live-stream people eating enormous servings of food while chatting away to those who are watching. In Creative Writing In English Learning. Korean viewers are so enthralled to be watching strangers binge eating that the live-streamers consuming calories in front of webcams are becoming minor celebrities in Korean society.
Rachel Ahn. Eating , Food , Korea 1141 Words | 3 Pages. We latch onto literature of research, fads in fashion, pop culture, technology, and, yes, fads in food. Food fads are interwoven with . Diploma In Creative Writing In English. people's lifestyles, trends , and desires. In all forms, fads are usually ideas that enjoy a quick popularity and review soon disappear. Some fads , however, may actually become trends that develop into accepted style, indicating where society is moving. Fads in food are not a new occurrence. Act Essay Prompts. Ancient Roman recipes document demand for literature review fattened snails and dormice as popular appetizers. During the 1700s.
Bran , Oat , Oatmeal 631 Words | 2 Pages. discusses some of the media affects on girls. In Creative Writing Learning. All of these sources deal with the literature review trend of girls trying to become the perfect image. In English Learning. During . the process of idealizing the review of research perfect image, many girls suffer psychological problems with themselves and essay without electronics their own body image. Literature Review Of Research. Since the times when artists inaccurately drew their models to create a more appeasing painting, the essay descartes meditations media has always touched up women.
This trend is demonstrated from literature review of research, paintings, magazines, fairy tales, and act essay prompts television. Literature. Shows like. Brothers Grimm , Cinderella , English-language films 1194 Words | 3 Pages. HCA/240 Disease Trends and the Delivery of Health Care Services This research project will discuss how demographics disease . Essay Descartes. trends affect the delivery of health care. Literature Review Of Research. We will begin with the current age of the essay person United States Population and how changes will and our occurring within the next 10-20 years. Second, we will identify factors that support our environment and of research the demographic trends that are changing. Art Higher Essay. We will provide examples of relevant disease and how the aging trend will increase. Cancer , Epidemiology , Health care 1154 Words | 4 Pages. Trends and Conditions Paper Crustal Cobar, Stephanie Blanks, Kenneth Jones, Roy Stittiams, Rochelle Woods MKT/ 431 November 12, 2012 Bernie . Literature Review Of Research. Cerasaro | | | | Restaurants Without Severs The business proposal presented is an innovative delivery system for customer convenience, quality, and enhances trends of this current target market. We are presenting industry trends , choses in servicing details, and trending opportunities, which uses a conveyer system to deliver food, and beverages.
Belt , Commercial item transport and distribution , Conveyor belt 1062 Words | 3 Pages. radical change. Because of the first wave of working women making their way into American society, Victorian styles were suddenly unfashionable and the skirt . and blouse combination became more accepted. The advancing feminine cause influenced many trends . Women, and on world without their desire to literature review of research, conform with and in creative in english learning show that they could do the same job as men, brought about such as the Gibson Girl, with her hourglass figure, her expertly upswept hair, and her unquestionable upper-class air, was everything American. Adolescence , Afro , Clothing 1663 Words | 5 Pages. Trends in Fundraising As is the case in of research, any industry, fundraising and philanthropy are continually going through new trends . . These trends are spawned as 1) a response to cultural pressures, 2) developed freely in the minds of industry leaders, or 3) borrowed from diploma in creative writing in english distance learning, other industries and adapted. Today there are two major trends and a myriad of minor applications (mini- trends ), that are a direct response to the major trends in review of research, donation giving.
Both of these major trends are born from a response to essay without electronics, heightened. Accountable Fundraising , Donation , History of the literature review Internet 1140 Words | 4 Pages. Criminal Justice Trends Paper In this paper I will be evaluating past, present, and future trends pertaining to descartes, the corrections . system. There are many different trends that correctional facilities have used in the past and these trends have continued on to modern day and maybe will continue on into the future. As part of my evaluation I will identify and review analyze past, current and future issues facing the corrections system today and also I will discuss the essay in 3rd person budgetary and managerial impact that future. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 996 Words | 3 Pages. Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation Heather Kyzer CJA 394: Contemporary Issues and Futures in Criminal Justice June 3, 2013 David Sicilian . II Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation There is no question that crime has had and continues to hinder society. The criminal justice system is an intricate part of society and is essential that this system remains capable of adequately dealing with the latest crime trends . It was the of research establishment of the consistency with the Social Commission that the.
Crime , Crime in the United States , Criminal justice 2470 Words | 7 Pages. ? Trend Analysis Assignment 2 by Group 4 Academic Writing WRIT001/Term 2 – 2013/2014 I . Prompts. declare that this Assignment is literature review of research, my original work and all information obtained from other sources has been cited accordingly. Persuasive In 3rd Person. Turnitin 21 February 2013 Similarity Signature and Date Assignment Word Count: Index 702 Course Instructor: % The Centre of Disease Control and review the Journal. Fast food , Fast Food Nation , Food 892 Words | 4 Pages. Global Trends Debra Elliott University of Phoenix Strategic Topics in Global Business Management/GBM/489 Dr.
Joanne Nesbitt March 22, 2009 . Global Trends Globalization trends contribute a significant impact toward society and the development of specific markets. The entire world continues to experience the process of globalization and the effect on the country and in 3rd society. No matter if the country is seen as developed or developing, by keeping apprised of trends in any market will affect. Economic development , Economic growth , Economic system 2053 Words | 5 Pages. Running head: VALUE CHAIN ISSUES Issues and Trends in the Global Value Chain Darryn Urueta University of Phoenix ISCOM 383 Pamela . Harris December 5, 2011 Issues and Trends in the Global Value Chain Global trends are changing on a seemingly daily basis. Global economies are weakening and review some companies are discouraged by the condition of terror threats that are occurring. Culture Of Scotland. These threats are changing the of research spending behavior of the average customer.
Not only is the customer not purchasing. Business process , International trade , Lean manufacturing 1478 Words | 5 Pages. ?Trads aren’t Fads The word tradition makes everyone think of different things but the true meaning is something that has been established and . carried out through time. Author T.S. Eliot once said, “A tradition without intelligence is not worth having.” A tradition is without, not something people should create without thought, rather it should hold value and of research meaning; no one should take part in persuasive person, a tradition that lacks good reason because it is a waste of one’s time. T.S. Eliot’s quote says a lot about how. Atlantic Ocean , Cognition , Critical thinking 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Disease Trends Warren Gregory HCA 240 May 18, 2013 Marnie Bingham The healthcare industry today has many challenges; two major . challenges are the increasing aged population and the extreme obesity problem. Both of these problems have been evident for a long time and have been trending up for literature review decades.
The aging population has some unique problems and special care will be needed to take care of them, such as increased fall risk and monitoring for patients with Alzheimer’s. The same. Bacteria , Diabetes mellitus , Genetically modified organism 1896 Words | 5 Pages. Corrections Trend Evaluation Bebe Washington CJA/394 February 15, 2012 UOP Corrections Trend Evaluation In this paper the . objectives that will be addressed are past, present and future trends of corrections. Also, analyze current and future issues facing prisons and essay prison administrators as well as the roles and issues of alternate correction systems as a developing trend . In today’s society the jails and prison pretty much function with the review of research same protocol. In the past the history of the. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 888 Words | 3 Pages. Question: John is a manager of a university,Tom is a college student.They are talking about the new trends of logistics areas.The useful . words which may be involved in the dialog are as follows.Please try to design the dialog. J(John) T(Tom) T: Hello Mr.Jonh,these days I have read some books on the the trends of logistics in prompts, the future.But I found that articles about the literature review field is not as enough as I expected.
I think the problem has an important significance for the future development. Logistics , Management , Recycling 1324 Words | 4 Pages. ? Team C Week 5 Assignment -Democratic Trends that Influences Human Services BSHS/305 03/10/2014 Sarah Bragg It . is inevitable for things to change. The trends in American change daily. Essay On World Electronics. There are various factors that influence change. Review. There are many political and economic events and trends that effect the human services field. One of the events that have affected the U.S. is the on world electronics recession.
The recession has caused a trickle down affect. There has also issue with financial. Demography , Federal government of the United States , Health care 1596 Words | 9 Pages. Running Head: Assignment 1: Trends in the Workplace Assignment 1: Trends in the Workplace . HRM 500 HR Management Foundations January 25, 2014 1 Running Head: Assignment 1: Trends in the Workplace 2 Abstract According to the text, there are a number of key trends in review, the workplace that have significant influences on organizations. HR professionals play a key role in helping organizations respond to evolving trends , comply with federal and state regulations, and manage workplace flexibility. Employment , Equal Employment Opportunity Commission , Human resource management 1724 Words | 8 Pages. ? Trends paper Bshs/ 305 Joanne Bazarian Trends paper With the on world without electronics changing of the literature of research times, Human Services will have to . deal with the change equation to in english, deliver a more effective and costly way to review, provide care to these individuals. With the changes in economy, this organization will have to grow to become more mature organization.
Bring with it subtle move so everyone can transition into a new fit, so that way it does not feel like all or nothing move. Culture. Change is the most effective way to continue. Change , Economics , Health 1092 Words | 6 Pages. The Impact of Social Trends upon Recruitment in Davidsons Contents INTRODUCTION 3 KEY SOCIAL TRENDS AND THEIR IMPACT ON . SOCIAL TRENDS 4 RECOMMENDATIONS 6 FUTURE CHALLENGES 7 CONCLUSION 8 REFERENCES 9 INTRODUCTION Questions have been raised about the difficulties faced in recruiting full time staff for of research minimal jobs. Without Electronics. Davidsons have failed to tackle this problem even after putting in practice new strategies in order to motivate, recruit and retain employees working fulltime, such. Full-time , Population , Population ageing 2759 Words | 7 Pages. cautious with the review of research bands they sign. Writing Learning. The audience the of research music is targeted towards is art higher essay, changing the product.
Being a musician now is very different than what it . was in the 50’s. The music industry is still being changed by economic, technological, and social trends . The modification of the microphone isn’t the only technological change in the music industry in literature review of research, the past 60 years. Amplification of art higher, guitars, bases, etc. has improved greatly. This is used in many, many genres; Rock, Blues, Alternative, etc. Keyboards. Dance music , Music , Pixies 731 Words | 3 Pages. socio-cultural, political-legal, and international trends ; the task environment contents the relevant forces at the level of individual, which . directly affect the organization’s activities such as customers, competitors, suppliers, regulators, strategic allies(Kew, p.1,2005). Literature Of Research. In the view of strategic management at industrial level, hospitality managers should consider current specific trends occurred in the macro environment. Firstly, economic trends always play the major role in every business’ development.
Complementors , Decision making , Environment 1230 Words | 5 Pages. Eco/365 Trends in Consumption Patters. Trends in Consumption Patterns: The Meat Industry ECO/365 July 1, 2013 Trends come and writing distance learning go. Literature Review Of Research. It is a fact that . people’s wants and desires change on almost a daily basis. Culture Of Scotland. In the realm of consumer patterns it may be a little more difficult to follow the literature of research changing trends simply because the economy changes just a rapidly as a person’s mind does. Just how much society buys and how frequent will depend on multiple factors that not only have an impact on each one by itself, but the factors also.
Beef , Economics , Livestock 1141 Words | 3 Pages. Trends Paper Duane Bell, Carla Downceroux, and Sara Petry BSHS/305 March 17, 2014 Lori Robertson Trends Paper It is . essential for the human service provider to adapt to the changing environment of art higher, human services in this country and around the world. The 21st century has brought changes in institutional and community based services, in rural areas, industry and literature of research the military, technology, managed care, and international development, and accommodating new human service trends . Essay Descartes. Trend changes. 21st century , Computer , Department of review, Health Services 1357 Words | 4 Pages. Disease Trends and the Delivery of Healthcare Services Kathryn Tolliver-Jackson HCA/240 August 9, 2013 Jerrica Ampadu Demographics and . disease trends are likely to influence health care delivery services in the future for many reasons. For example, it could be because of age, obesity, or the future.
During this essay I will be discussing how age composition of the without electronics U.S population and literature of research how it will change within the culture dissertation next twenty years, I will identify factors that support this trend , how obesity. Atherosclerosis , Cancer , Diabetes mellitus 1579 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Trends in literature review of research, lodging industry in past, general 1.1. Sustainability In recent years, environment friendly, “going green” has affected many hotels . in the way they are designed, built or refurbished and review of research operated. The market of of scotland dissertation, environmentally concerned consumers is growing and it is literature review of research, important to cater to their needs. (Kapiki, 2012) In addition, going green is seen as means of giving back to past act essay prompts, the community and environment as well as reducing operational cost.
For example, 59% of respondents from a survey. Hotel , Hotel chains , Hotels 913 Words | 3 Pages.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. Literature Review Of Research? note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on essay lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Literature Review Of Research? Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Act Essay? Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and of research, in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for meditations, European clients in of research, Paris. A native of art higher essay, Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College.
Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in review of research, Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of culture of scotland, their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the review of research, printer and reading only what he can in meditations, the time it takes to walk back to his office.
You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to of research, the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. Of Scotland Dissertation? 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to literature of research, jump off the essay, page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. Literature Review? 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job.
Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. Diploma In Creative Writing? But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and literature review of research, some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from essay on world college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Review Of Research? Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the diploma in english, underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of literature review of research, $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well.
And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. In Creative Writing? Be sure all information is review up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from past your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in literature review, French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies).
Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. Persuasive Essay In 3rd? If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and of research, memberships/affiliations so long as you are an essay in 3rd person, active and not just passive participant in literature, these organizations. Remember the art higher, essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for of research, the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. Persuasive In 3rd Person? In the case of literature review, a tie, I’d go with work experience first.
9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Writing In English? Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of literature of research, you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on essay the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the literature of research, same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully.
Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. Meditations? And another friend. And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Literature Review? Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. Act Essay Prompts? 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are.
You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at of research your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of past act essay prompts, you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen.
If I can see it, so can the literature of research, recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at descartes the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on review of research the right-hand sidebar. Essay On World Electronics? I’m not asking you to stop using social media. Literature Review? But if you are indiscriminate about art higher your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to review, getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right.
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WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Literature Of Research? Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Associates In This City Just Got Their Raises. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. In Creative Writing In English Distance Learning? A Brand New Email Screw-Up For Abbe Lowell. The Ugliest Law Schools In America. Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Lawyer Burnout And The Finish Line Problem. Of Research? Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting.
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Reviewing the Literature: A Short Guide for Research Students
Essay on Tourism: Meaning, Origin and Types | Ecotourism. Read this article to learn about the review meaning, origin and types of tourism. Tourism is the act or travel for past predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, supporting the massive industry of tourism to cater the tourist needs of transportation, accommodation, food, entertainment, recreation, health and social contact. The Austrian economist, Hermann Von Schullard, in 1910, gave the literature review earliest definition of tourism. He defined it as “sum of total operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or a region”. Hunziker and Krapf, in 1942, defined tourism as “the totality of the relationship and phenomenon arising from the travel and culture, stay of strangers, provided that the of research stay does not imply the establishment of a permanent residence and is not connected with remunerative activities. The Tourism Society of England, in 1976, defined tourism as “the temporary, short-term movement of dissertation, people to destination outside the literature review places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination.” It includes movements for all purposes. The International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, in 1981, defined tourism in descartes, terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the literature home environment. Before people experience tourism, they usually need disposable income, leisure time and tourism infrastructure such as transport and accommodation.
Individually, sufficient health, money, and inclination to travel are conditions. In the beginning, travel was the status symbol for the elite who have access to large amounts of income. With a combination of act essay, different factors that have come in the process with passage of of research, time, the elite traveler has transformed into a mass tourist. The term ‘tourism’ invokes fantastic images of the places and wildlife seen by the tourist. Such images are seductive and the hidden thing in essay, this is big business. This is a “leisure” industry and is the world’s largest, accounting for 10.4 percent of the World Gross Domestic Produce and over 11 percent of both consumption spending and capital investment.
Tourism is indeed a vital component of the economy of of research, any country, especially in a developing country like ours. Art Higher Essay? Tourism is an excellent revenue earner and a most significant source of foreign exchange. Tourism originated with the medieval pilgrimage and it was undertaken primarily for religious reasons. The term pilgrimage is primarily used in religion and spirituality of review of research, a long journey or search of art higher essay, great moral significance. It is also a journey to a sacred place or shrine of importance to a person’s beliefs and faith. Literature? A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim. Medieval pilgrimages refer to travels made by Egyptians to South America 1000 B.C., travels by Kumarjib and others to China in 100 B.C., Fa Hiel, Hiuen Tsang, I-Tsing to India in 400-600 A.D., discovery of America in.
1000 A.D. by Leif Norweigean Ericsson, and essay, travel by Macro Polo to China. Pilgrimages were undertaken by Christians primarily to visit holy places of Christianity such as sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and review, resurrection of Jesus. Surviving descriptions of such Christian pilgrimages to act essay prompts the Holy Land of Jesus date from the review 4 th century and descartes, church fathers encouraged pilgrimages. Pilgrimages were also made by Christians to Rome and other sites associated with the Apostles, Saints and Christian martyrs as well as to of research places where there have been alleged apparitions of the Virgin Mary. In the early stages of tourism history, means of travel included foot, animal or by ship or boat.
The simplest being foot, proved strenuous, and horseback improved travel easy. Camels, donkeys, bullocks and elephants were also used while traveling. When using animals as transport, it made the trip both expensive and allowed the past act essay prompts traveler to carry more supplies for literature review trade or for other purposes. Early sea vessels varied from dug out tree trunks to the complex Roman galleys. Upper classes often traveled around the Mediterranean basin. During the rule of Alexander the Great, 700,000 tourists visited what is now a part of Turkey. Well built and past prompts, organized road favoured tourism during his rule. While on the journey, tourist groups had the ability to change a team of literature review of research, horses, stay at rest houses, and refreshments were available along the of scotland dissertation trip. During this period, the roads were crowded. Alexander traveled to India and found the literature road systems and facilities well arranged. During the same period, pleasure travel has begun in China and culture of scotland dissertation, Japan.
In Europe, pilgrimages created a variety of tourist aspects that still exist – bringing back souvenirs, obtaining credit with foreign banks and making use of space available on existing forms of transport. Pilgrimages of one sort or another are still important in modern tourism. In 16 th century, it became fashionable in England to undertake grand tours, especially by young gentlemen from wealthy backgrounds. The sons of nobility and gentry were sent upon an extended tour of Europe as an educational experience. The 18 th century was the golden age of the grand tours and many of the fashionable visitors were painted at Rome by of research, Pompeo Batoni. The modern equivalent of grand tours is the phenomenon of the backpackers on cultural holidays. Health tourism has existed almost throughout the history of tourism but it became important only in the 18 th century. In England, it was associated with spas, places with health giving mineral waters, treating diseases from gout to liver disorders and without, bronchitis. Britain was the home of seaside holiday.
People followed in the steps of Royalty in traveling to the coast. Literature Review Of Research? At that time, doctors argued the benefits of bathing in sea water. Later, sea bathing was popularized and past, became a widespread practice. Tourism as leisure travel was a British invention due to sociological factors. Britain was the first European country to of research industrialize ushering in the Industrial Revolution from 1760s, and the industrial society was the first society to offer time for act essay leisure to a growing number of people. Initially, this did not apply to the working masses but it applied only to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. Mass travel began only review of research after the improvements in technology that allowed the transport of large number of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest. Then onwards, greater number of electronics, people began to enjoy the benefits of leisure time. Thomas Cook was the father of modern mass tourism because he organized the first package tour on 5 th July 1841 in history. He arranged railway concessions, rail tickets and food for the travel.
He saw the potential of a convenient leisure travel and organized package holiday tours in Europe. Others followed him soon and review of research, the result is that tourist industry developed rapidly. Initially, it was supported by the growing middle classes and later other classes of the society also availed mass tourism. The spread of railway network in the 19 th century gave a boost to mass tourism within Europe. Essay? For a century, domestic tourism was the norm with foreign travel reserved for the rich or the culturally curious. In other countries, similar processes of mass tourism occurred at a slower rate, given that 19 th century Britain was ahead of any other nation in the world in the process of industrialization. The real age of international mass travel began with the growth of air travel after World War II (1939-1945). In the immediate post-war period, there was a surplus of transport aircrafts and a number of ex-military pilots ready to fly them to European destinations.
Cheap air travel and literature review, tour package were responsible for the development of international mass tourism. With industrial development and a rise in the standard of living conditions, tourists began to have higher levels of disposable income and greater leisure time. Further, they are better educated and tend to have more sophisticated tastes. With these conditions, mass tourism has rapidly grown. Outdoor recreation grew explosively from the culture dissertation end of World War II until the 1970s in review of research, different parts of the world, especially in the United States of America. President John F. Kennedy of the United States of America stated, “Travel has become one of the great forces for peace and culture of scotland dissertation, understanding in literature review, our time. As people move throughout the world and learn each other’s customs and to appreciate the descartes meditations qualities of individuals of each nation, we are building a level of international understanding which can sharply improve the atmosphere for world peace”. The United States of America—as a large continental country with vast and diverse natural resources—has a long tradition of tourism on public and private lands and waters from coast to review coast. The demand for essay tourism has increased many fold due to increased levels of of research, disposable income and leisure time. Americans spend billions of dollars annually. An estimated 900 million visitors per year take up tours to national forests, parks, monuments, historic sites, recreation areas, protected areas, wildlife refuge reserves and management areas on federal lands.
A number of variables have been identified as important in planning, developing and maintaining successful tourism operations. The most important are supply and demand, marketing, accessibility, travel and accommodation costs, transportation challenges, local infrastructure, carrying capacity, seasonal issues, community support for persuasive essay person and dependency on review of research, tourism. Past Prompts? In other developed countries also, tourism finds an importance place and is an integral part of the economy. World Tourism Organization has been celebrating 27 th September as World Tourism Day since 1980. The purpose of this day is to display awareness that tourism is vital to literature review the international community and to show how it affects the social, cultural, political and economic values worldwide, and, in the process, promote global tourism. Each year, there is a new theme, and a host country as a partner of World Tourism Organization for celebrating World Tourism Day. Themes of World Tourism Day, since 1980, are given below and each theme has a special significance and contribution in the promotion of tourism with social, economic and environmental well-being of the past people: 1980 Tourism’s contribution to the preservation of cultural heritage and to peace and mutual understanding. 1981 Tourism and of research, the quality of life. 1982 Pride in travel: good guests and diploma in creative distance learning, good hosts.
1983 Travel and holidays are a right but also a responsibility for all. 1984 Tourism for literature of research international understanding, peace and in creative in english distance, cooperation. 1985 Youth Tourism: cultural and historical heritage for peace and literature of research, friendship. 1986 Tourism: a vital force for world peace. 1987 Tourism for essay meditations development. 1988 Tourism: education for all. 1989 The free movement of tourists creates one world.
1990 Tourism – an literature review unrecognized industry, a service to be realized. 1991 Communication, information and education: power lines of tourism development. 1992 Tourism – a factor of of scotland, growing social and economic solidarity and literature review, of encounter between people. 1993 Tourism development and environmental protection – towards a lasting harmony. 1994 Quality staff, quality tourism. 1995 WTO – serving world tourism for twenty years (1976-1995)
1996 Tourism – a factor of tolerance and act essay, peace. 1997 Tourism – a leading activity of the twenty-first century for job creation and environmental protection. 1998 Public-private sector partnership – the key to literature of research tourism development and promotion. 1999 Tourism – preserving world heritage for culture the new millennium. 2000 Technology and nature – two challenges for tourism at the dawn of the literature review of research twenty- first century. 2001 Tourism – a tool for peace and dialogue among civilizations. 2002 Ecotourism, the key to sustainable development. 2003 Tourism – a driving force for poverty alleviation, job creation and past act essay prompts, social harmony. 2004 Sport and tourism – two living forces for mutual understanding, culture and the development of societies. 2005 Travel and transport – from the imaginary of Jules Verne to the reality of the 21 st century. 2006 Tourism enriches.
2007 Tourism opens doors for women. Therefore, tourism is an effective tool for understanding nature, civilizations, traditions, improving knowledge, environmental education, poverty alleviation, job creation, and social harmony, and, in the process, contributing to sustainable development. It is also called traditional tourism. It involves different leisure activities by tourists such as picnicking, cooking in the open and disposing of refuse along with polythene bags, throwing away un-extinguished cigarette butts, painting their names on review, rocks or carving them on tree trunks, collecting plant or insect specimens for their records, disorderly and drunken behaviour, nudism, photographing indigenous people without their consent, particularly when they are naked or semi-naked, film-shooting camps in sanctuaries, forest reserves and parks, playing loud music, unauthorized hunting, etc. Tourists carry out these activities ignoring the sanctity of local environment, biodiversity and indigenous people; these are quite unethical activities.
Conventional tours in organized way speed up the art higher essay process of of research, environmental degradation. Economic benefits from this tourism are often superficial and inconsistent, and can damage local cultures and environments. In most of the countries, conventional tourism brings about economic injustices. Essay? National and local economies do not benefit from travelers’ visits and money. The intensity of of research, negative impacts of conventional tourism depends on the number of essay descartes, visitors and the level of use of the tourist centers. Negative impacts occur when the level of literature of research, visitor use is greater than the environment’s ability to cope with this use within the acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses potential threats to many natural areas around the world.
It can put enormous pressure on an area and distance learning, lead to of research impacts such as soil erosion, increased pollution, discharges into the sea, natural habitat loss, increased pressure on endangered species and heightened vulnerability to forest fires. It often puts a strain on water resources, and art higher essay, it can force local populations to compete for the use of critical resources. Therefore, it has more of a negative impact by ignoring the sanctity of local environment, biodiversity and indigenous people. The ‘mass’ component of this tourism derives from the profile of the customers participating in the trips conducted by self and by tour operators, the nature of marketing strategies pursued by tour operators, the spatial proximity of ecotourism zones to areas of mass tourist concentration, and review of research, the multiple ways in which business is conducted through traditional mass tourism networks such as tour operators, travel agents, and airlines. It is in 3rd, a recent global phenomenon, which encourages a flow of people between national and review, territorial bonders—and is the writing distance fastest growing industry in the world today. Religious places, historical places, beaches, palm trees, mountains, hills and other places are centers, which promote mass tourism. This industry has considerable impacts on community-based natural resource management and, thus, on livelihood security of review of research, rural or urban women and men in local communities. Mass tourism allows creation of new jobs and halts emigration.
It leads to changes in essay descartes meditations, local communities, introducing them to literature of research new consumption models and lifestyles—often undermining local traditions and diploma learning, social frameworks. Mass tourism is review of research, one of the main drivers of environmental degradation. Land-based mass tourism shows dramatic environmental consequences. Development of hotels and past act essay, related facilities induces changes in geomorphology, hydrology, increased strain on water resources and food supply. Mass tourism increases demand for local services such as water, sewer, solid waste, fuel, power, roads and medical services. Of Research? It causes destruction of fragile habitats such as coral reefs and mangroves, increases pressure on a variety of species, and essay descartes meditations, introduces serious pollution problems through the production of sewage and solid waste in course of time. Wildlife viewing can bring about stress for the animals and alter their natural behaviour when tourists come too close. Wildlife watching activities have a degrading effect on review of research, habitat as they often are accompanied by the noise and commotion created by tourists as they chase wild animals. This puts high pressure on animal habits and behaviours and tends to essay electronics bring about behavioural changes. In some cases, animals become so disturbed that they neglect their young or fail to mate. This tourism frequently induces poorly planned, land-intensive development.
Mass tourism places a great pressure on natural resources. Fresh water is literature, one of the most critical natural resources. This tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, lawns, ornamental gardens, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortage and degradation of water supplies as well as generating a greater volume of act essay, wastewater. Golf course maintenance can also deplete freshwater resources because it requires an enormous amount of water every day. Literature? If the water comes from wells, over-pumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater. Golf resorts are more often situated in essay, or near protected areas or areas where resources are limited, exacerbating their impacts. An average golf course in a tropical country needs 1,500 kg of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides per year and uses as much water as 60,000 rural villagers! The tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food and other raw materials that may already be in short supply.
Greater extraction and literature review of research, transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Art Higher? Increased construction of tourism and recreational facilities increase the pressure on minerals, fossil fuels, fertile soil, forests, wetlands, wildlife resources and scenic landscapes. Forests often suffer negative impacts in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing. Transport by air, road and rail increases continuously in response to the rising number of review, tourists and act essay, their greater mobility. Transport emissions and emissions from energy production and literature review, use are linked to acid rain, global warming and photochemical pollution. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts at the global level, especially from carbon dioxide emissions related to transportation energy use. Noise pollution from cars, buses and other modes of culture dissertation, transportation is review, another problem to modern life. In addition to causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for art higher essay humans, it causes distress to wildlife, especially in sensitive areas. Waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major threat to natural environment – rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and review, shoreline and cause the death of persuasive essay person, marine animals.
In mountain areas, trekking tourists leave behind a great deal of waste in the form of garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus. Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities increases sewage pollution. Wastewater pollutes seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to of research coral reefs because it stimulates the art higher essay growth of algae, which cover the review of research filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Change in salinity and siltation can have wide-ranging impacts on coastal environments.
Sewage pollution can threaten the health of human and past act essay, animals. Large, dominating resorts of desperate design can look out of literature review of research, place in any natural environment and may clash with the indigenous structural design. A lack of land-use planning and building regulations in diploma in english distance, many destinations facilitated sprawling developments along coastlines, valleys and scenic routes. The sprawl includes tourism facilities themselves and review, supporting infrastructure such as roads, employee housing, parking, services and waste disposal. This contributes to aesthetic pollution. Attractive landscape sites such as sandy beaches, lakes, riversides, mountain tops and slopes, are often transitional zones, characterized by species-rich ecosystems. Typical physical impacts of tourism include the degradation of such ecosystems.
The ecosystems most threatened with degradation are ecologically fragile areas such as alpine regions, rain forests, wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds. The threats to and pressures on these ecosystems are often severe because such places are very attractive to both tourists and developers. In forest areas, tourists using the same trail over and over again trample the vegetation and soil, eventually causing damage that can lead to essay loss of biodiversity and other impacts. Trampling impacts on vegetation include breakage and bruising of stems, reduced plant vigour and reduced regeneration, loss of ground cover and change in species composition. Its impacts on soil include loss of organic matter, reduction in soil macro-porosity, decrease in air and water permeability, increase in run-off and accelerated erosion. Experience with uncontrolled and irresponsible mass tourism produced negative effects such as degradation of literature review of research, most of the ecologically sound natural areas in most of the countries. This form of tourism pushed the degradation or damage of natural areas beyond their ecological and social carrying capacities. A segment of rural tourism is referred to as nature-based tourism or recreation-based tourism. It attracts people interested in visiting natural areas.
The concept of protecting wild lands for their inherent natural beauty, cultural and biological significance was realized. In effect, certain natural areas were protected and this is the essence of nature-based tourism. Valentine (1992) defined nature-based tourism as “primarily concerned with the diploma in creative in english learning direct enjoyment of some relatively undisturbed phenomenon of nature”. Nature-based tourism that is ecologically sustainable and is based on relatively undisturbed natural areas is non-damaging and non-degrading, and contributes directly to the continued protection and management of literature, protected areas, and is subject to an adequate and appropriate management regime. The motivations of this tourism include the persuasive in 3rd desire to get back in touch with nature, a desire to escape the pressures of everyday life, seeing wildlife before it is literature, too late and specific interests and activities such as trekking, bird watching, canyoning, white-water rafting, etc.
Valentine (1992) identified three major dimensions pertaining to experience, style and location. The experience in descartes meditations, this tourism varies in nature dependency, intensity of interaction, social context and duration. Different styles are associated with different levels of infrastructure support, group size and review, type, cultural interaction factor, willingness to pay and length of visit. Locations vary in terms of accessibility, development contribution, ownership and contribution. Some debatable points arise in nature-based tourism. Does a drive through a forest area qualify as nature-based?
If one does wander in the forest area, how long must this wander be for the individual to be considered a nature-based tourist? Does walking through regenerated forest areas or swimming in slightly polluted or littered lakes or streams, or public beach constitute a nature-based experience? Does a sight-seeing flight to Antarctica qualify as a nature-based experience? Nature-based tourism, in principle is based on natural resources in different forms. This concept essentially speaks about tourism based on the ecology and environment of different natural areas. Past Act Essay Prompts? It also recognizes the need to conserve and manage natural areas for sustaining tourism and, in the process, contributes to the welfare of local communities. Nature-based tourism has been referred to literature of research as ecotourism which, in recent times, is drawing the attention of all people throughout the world.
The most important point of nature-based tourism is that it differs from conventional and mass tourism in which there are no set principles or guidelines to follow while in natural areas so that loss to environment can be minimized. In other words, nature-based tourism is the opposite of earlier types of tourism. It survives only on natural areas while emphasizing the essay on world without electronics need to follow certain principles to minimize environmental impacts and to take steps for literature review of research the conservation and management of areas to continue tourism activities. Therefore, ecotourism is a refined form of nature-based tourism. With increasing appreciation of nature and in english, heightened awareness of declining biodiversity worldwide, nature-based tourism has evolved as a rapidly growing sector of literature review of research, a globally significant industry. A successful nature tourism involves benefits to wildlife and descartes meditations, traditional inhabitants. Setting aside protected areas imposes restrictions on the use of these areas by locals. Review Of Research? When indigenous inhabitants or remote rural communities are denied access to their livelihood with no alternatives available to replace the income lost by the local people who traditionally depended on harvesting forest products, they would attempt to acquire natural resources via unlawful means.
Incidents of poaching and forest encroachment become commonplace and can lead to the breakdown of natural ecosystems. If tourism can provide employment and communities can benefit from activities in protected areas, wildlife, their habitats, and other natural features, the objects of nature tourism can be sustained. Tourism and conservation can then coexist or the two can even be symbiotic. The challenge for developing nature-based tourism is to make it symbiotic with conservation. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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ESFP Personality Type – Extraverted Sensing with Introverted Feeling. ESFP Personality Type – Extraverted Sensing with Introverted Feeling. The ESFP personality type (as outlined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Assessment, or MBTI® Test) is the Extraverted Sensing with Introverted Feeling type. Those exhibiting the ESFP type preference have a thirst for adventure and an overwhelming adoration for their lives, finding happiness in the material world around them, as well as in experiences. Literature Of Research. They are attentive, matter-of-fact, efficient, eloquent, spirited, and perceptive. In a work environment, Myers-Briggs® test ESFP types are apt at persuasive essay in 3rd person finding out-of-the-box solutions to of research, meet the prompts needs of the company and their peers, and their success in their careers is often seen most in literature situations with others.
Find themselves in past the role of pacifist, doing whatever it takes to find solutions that will make themselves and literature others happy Adept at communicating with others in essay a way that is constructive and beneficial for themselves and their employer. This also makes them exceptional group members Oftentimes have a good idea of what others are thinking and feeling, allowing them to read the feelings of others and adapt that information to the situation they are in Their enjoyment for spontaneity and new experiences helps them delve straight into new projects, even if they aren’t sure where to begin at review first Motivational and inspiring, helping them get people moving and working together in moments of past act essay prompts great stress or emergency. Literature Review. This also helps them react promptly to the needs of their peers Their excitement and culture energy in their everyday lives makes others want to work with them. World-Learners, Taking Life Lessons to Heart. “Image courtesy of review samarttiw / FreeDigitalPhotos.net”. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test -assessed ESFP types are world-learners, with a large majority of their expansive knowledge being formulated by their environment and culture of scotland their experiences with the literature review of research world around them. Because of this preference, this personality type learns much more efficiently through doing as opposed to culture of scotland, through traditional learning methods or reading.
With a carpe diem mentality and a thirst for excitement, those with an of research MBTI Test ESFP type work toward completing assignments in the most enjoyable way possible. They are versatile, cooperative, pleasant, and carefree. When it comes to making decisions or forming opinions, the ESFP personality type first and in english foremost consider their personal emotions, beliefs and sensibilities. This also helps them relate and commiserate with others. Myers Briggs-assessed ESFP types also enjoy people-watching, gaining knowledge from their observations.
Positivity Flows Through the ESFP. Individuals with the ESFP type preference are thoughtful, positive, compassionate, understanding, and often make good confidantes and friends. Their peers find them to be inventive, amicable, convivial and literature joyous, bringing light and excitement to every room they enter. An ESFP types genuine interest in the well-being, happiness, and culture lives of others makes them enjoyable to be around, both in their personal lives and in a professional atmosphere. Occasionally, the ESFP personality types inclination to live in the moment can have negative effects on their work and relationships. Because of their desire to seize the day, Myers-Briggs test ESFP types can get so caught up in the moment that they feel as though nothing is holding them down and keeping them grounded. This can also affect their decision-making skills, disabling them from realizing the literature of research long-term consequences of these decisions and actions, especially when it comes to essay electronics, something that affects their senses. ESFP types are often driven by their pleasure principle, and their sensual desires can take precedence over reasoning and logic, which can lead to regrets and danger. Long-term consequences are not something that the ESFP personality type focuses on, and because of that, their spur-of-the-moment decisions can often distract them from literature their long-range wants or needs. Another possible consequence of the preferences exhibited by the MBTI test -assessed ESFP type is that they can become exceedingly spontaneous and unpredictable, keeping them from completing their work without getting sidetracked.
This causes them to often fail at sticking to schedules and due dates, choosing to focus on immediate pleasures as opposed to of scotland dissertation, their duties elsewhere. However, if a Myers-Briggs test ESFP type can balance their spontaneity and thirst for momentary excitement, they can utilize their people skills and jovial natures to create a fun and effective work environment. [Personality type information was referenced from the following publication- (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)] “Image courtesy of photostock / FreeDigitalPhotos.net”. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ESFP personality type thrives in professional environments where they are either using their skills to aid others or where they can utilize their people-person skills. Literature. Common career fields include hospitality, food service, medicine/healthcare, and other occupations that require a personal relationship with others. Diploma Learning. Some examples of literature of research job titles that are common for the Myers-Briggs Test -assessed ESFP personality type are restaurant worker (both front-of-the-house and back-of-the-house), receptionist/secretary/personal assistant, and past medical worker (could include human medicine or animal medicine), such as a nurse or a veterinarian. Interestingly, Myers Briggs test ESFP types are also known for enjoying working outside, such as in a nursery or as a fisher (Allen L. Of Research. Hammer, 1993, CPP Inc.). To become an employee that everyone wants to hire, those with the ESFP type preference can hone in on their people skills and flexibility while still keeping in mind their long-term goals and aspirations. The spontaneous nature associated with the essay on world ESFP type often leaves no time or attention for long-range dreams, both in their careers and personal lives. By taking time to formulate these future goals (five-ten years) and literature of research taking steps to stick to them, you can help yourself think twice before making split-second decisions that may have larger consequences than you originally can see.
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It is based on four-letter type results and can be generated using your reported type or verified type. Further Understanding ESFPs. ESFPs tend to be outgoing and easygoing. Descartes. They live in the moment and of research are exuberant, passionate individuals. They are characterized by flexibility, and prefer to live outside the confines of art higher essay institutional rules and social norms, focusing instead on their own personal satisfaction and making an effort to improve the lives of others.
Meeting new people and review of research having new experiences is the most fulfilling for them, especially since they learn by doing rather than by reflecting . Persuasive In 3rd. With this said, ESFPs are also practical people for the most part, and are highly observant, making decisions based on literature review of research their personal values and the realities of the world around them. They are also keen observers of people, and art higher are able to motivate and review of research mobilize others to accomplish certain goals or work together to complete certain tasks. Others know and love ESFPs for their resourcefulness and past prompts supportiveness, as well as for their fun-loving, playful nature. Literature Of Research. They generally have large groups of friends, and derive a great deal of pleasure and fulfillment from having deep, interactive relationships with others. This joy is contagious, and ESFPs are known for lifting the spirits of those who are around them, encouraging them to make the most out of life. While ESFPs have many strengths, they can sometimes lose sight of their long-term goals. They can be so focused on enjoying the moment, that they do not always consider the future implications of their behavior.
As such, ESFPs should make an effort to consider long-term consequences for their actions, and try to prioritize obligations at times in order to avoid serious situations. With a little support and personal development, ESFPs can be the electronics life of any party and the keystone of any organization. ESFPs’ Learning Style: Adaptive and literature review Responsive. ESFPs are extremely observant. They take in the world around them like sponges, and enjoy being spontaneous and responsive. They have a dispreference for taking too much time to ponder or consider the world around them in a reflective or philosophical manner, and instead prefer to interact with it directly. As a result, they tend to in english learning, be easily bored inside the classroom, which they perceive to be terribly isolated from the real world. However, they do tend to literature of research, be receptive to act essay, group exercises or interactive tasks that are closely related to literature, real-world experiences, though it is important to keep in mind that, group discussions and on world without electronics similar activities that are theoretically oriented even though they are technically social, are not as appealing or engaging to them. Instead, ESFPs especially enjoy “field trips” or opportunities to complete real-world tasks in a simulated environment, or supervised tasks in literature of research the real-world. The more realistic the essay descartes meditations experience, the better it will be for ESFPs.
Learn about The MBTI® ESFP’s Learning, Leadership and Emotional Outlook styles. As such, ESFPs benefit from instructors who are able to develop activities and tasks that are highly social and interactive. Literature Of Research. They enjoy being able to move around and be physically active, and are more open to role playing and other activities that are fun while still having a content objective. They prefer to receive immediate feedback on person their behavior and procedures, and of research appreciate the opportunity to evaluate themselves using rubrics, checklists, or procedural flow charts. Descartes Meditations. In this way, the act of of research evaluating becomes an additional activity from which they can glean even more benefit. When it comes to interacting with their peers, ESFPs generally enjoy hearing anecdotes and real-life stories that connect the information they are learning to the real world. Past. They enjoy working with others to literature review, practice skills, and they may open to having discussions with others providing that these discussions are not overly theoretically focused.
The key to descartes, ESFPs’ learning is to maximize activity—asking and answering questions, completing tasks, moving around in the real world, and evaluating themselves or others, can all be ways of increasing the amount of activity in literature review the environment in which ESFPs are learning. However, ESFPs, like all individuals, benefit from going out of their comfort zone a bit. As such, they should make an effort to without, remain interested and motivated even when the literature of research assignment or task is not particularly interactive. They may be surprised by what they can learn by sitting and reading, or by essay on world, completing a more traditional assignment individually. ESFPs are active and engaging leaders, who take a great deal of time and energy to literature review, ensure that others on person their teams are as excited about the team’s goals as they are themselves. As they set the direction of the review organization, they enjoy brainstorming with members of their team, generating options that will benefit and motivate individual team members while also meeting the organization’s overall objectives. This also contributes to the creation of a fast-paced, high-energy environment, in which they can remain constantly engaged. As they narrow down their choices, ESFPs tend to value simple but practical solutions that will have immediate results.
They have a dispreference for drawn out strategic planning sessions, even though sometimes root causes of essay problems only become apparent after an in-depth analysis. Learn about The MBTI® ESFP’s Learning, Leadership and Emotional Outlook styles. While it may not seem so at first glance, ESFP Myers-Briggs® Types can find it challenging to review, make decisions if they feel that others on art higher essay their team may be uncomfortable with the direction. Literature Review. They tend to value harmony on persuasive essay teams, sometimes to the extent that it can interfere with their functioning as leaders. However, if they make an effort to explain their decisions to those who may disagree, they may be able to maintain the positive, supportive nature of their workplace environment. In general, ESFPs have a knack for literature, being able to inspire others and build a strong rapport seemingly effortlessly. They value relationships, and almost instinctively cultivate close relationships, many of which may contribute in the long term to their own advancement. Art Higher. They should be conscious, though, of their tendency to be drawn to other extremely outgoing individuals, and should make an review of research effort to make sure that even the quieter, more introverted, or more serious members of their teams are still receiving attention and support from them.
Part of ESFPs’ strength as leaders is in the fulfillment they get from identifying other individuals with potential, and working closely with them and coaching them to success. They have strong interpersonal relationships, and essay pay attention to the value of of research seemingly minor acts, like rewarding the art higher completion of milestone tasks or recognizing a job well done. Literature Review Of Research. These kinds of efforts help ESFPs keep their teams motivated. That said, not all of leadership tasks are overly exciting. It is important for ESFPs to remember that oftentimes achieving lofty goals necessitates the essay completion of repetitive, mundane tasks. They need to be careful to value and pay attention to the repetition of successful organized or ingrained processes, and learn the importance of literature setting and meeting deadlines. As they continue to grow and develop as leaders, ESFPs need to take the time and energy to consider more carefully their and their team’s long-term goals, and think about how they can position themselves best in the future.
Balancing fun and excitement with concrete goals and outcomes can be the perfect recipe for success. ESFP MBTI® Types are confident individuals who enjoy working together with others and essay having experiences together. Literature Review. They are highly sensitive to others’ moods and culture needs, and of research are often caring individuals with good intentions, though they may at times have difficulty relating to those who are much quieter or more introverted than they are. ESFPs are also impulsive—they enjoy novelty, and so often direct their impulses towards new outlet or opportunities, sometimes without much consideration of the diploma writing distance impact of their actions on others or on the long-term consequences of their behavior. Because of review their innate positivity and passion for life, ESFPs can sometimes be overwhelmed or discouraged by a critical, hostile, or unsupportive environment. They often do not take kindly to their desires or actions being interpreted as problematic or negative, particularly since they have a preference for persuasive, avoiding any kind of confrontation or argument. On the other hand, ESFPs make an effort to build relationships with others and to find common ground. They tend to value tasks that benefit multiple people, and are often self-sufficient and efficient in achieving those tasks. When it comes to their relationships with others, ESFPs tend to be lively and gregarious, socially at ease, and comfortable in large groups.
They genuinely enjoy the review of research active company of others, and in 3rd person communicate that joy openly and freely. They are patient with others’ values, and are explicit in review of research communicating respect and art higher essay caring even in the midst of discontent and conflict. Review Of Research. This care for others’ positions, opinions, and values, also manifests in their openness to solicit and discuss others’ view points, and in their willingness to attempt to approach situations or challenges using others’ suggestions. Finally, because of their active and large social networks, ESFPs usually have a robust support system, that they both draw on and give back to in times of need. This helps them diffuse stress and prompts retain a positive attitude and outlook in all that they do. Learn More About the MBTI ESFP Personality Type. Explore additional information that delves deeper into literature review of research the ESFP Personality Type by examining various personality and career based subjects: Click on a link below to read more about different MBTI Personality Types. Introduction to Type (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)
Introduction to Type and essay Careers (Allen L. Hammer, 2007, CPP Inc.) Introduction to Type and Leadership (Richmond, S. Of Research. CPP. 2008) Introduction to Type and Learning (Dunning, D. CPP. Essay Electronics. 2008) Introduction To Type® and Emotional Intelligence. (Pearman, R. CPP, 2002)
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