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Der Businessplan gibt Grundern sowie potentiellen Investoren konkrete Antworten darauf, unter welchen Bedingungen und unterschiedlichen Annahmen e ine Geschaftsidee finanziell tragfahig ist. Entsprechend dient der Businessplan zunachst der Sicherheit des Existenzgrunders bzw. Verulamium? des Unternehmers um falsch investierte Zeit, Energie und Geld in essay about love, eine unrentable Geschaftsidee moglichst zu vermeiden. 2. Ukraine Essay? Ein Businessplan erhoht die Erfolgsaussichten einer Existenzgrundung. Essay About? Das Schreiben von eines Businessplans bringt den Grunder dazu, mit hoher Aufmerksamkeit sowohl operative aber auch finanziell, kaufmannische Uberlegungen idealerweise gemeinsam mit einem erfahrenen Berater anzustellen. Bp Case Study Oil Spill? Vermarktungsplanungen sind ebenso wie u.a.
Budgetplanungen oder Liquiditatsplanungen durchzufuhren. Essay About Of Music? Bereits vor der Umsetzung bekommt der potentielle Grunder bzw. Info Posted Thesis? der Unternehmer dadurch einen tiefer gehenden Gesamtuberblick uber die Dimensionen und Erfordernisse seines Geschaftsvorhabens. Love? Somit hilft der Businessplan dabei, ein realistischeres Bild zu erhalten und reduziert die Gefahr unvorbereitet und mit falschen, wesentlich zu optimistischen Erwartungen an den Start zu gehen. Verulamium Coursework? Vielmehr erleichtern die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse im Rahmen des Businessplan erstellen lassens das Treffen von fundierten Entscheidungen und geben gleichzeitig kreative Anregungen bzw. Essay About Love Of Music? und sto?en einen kontinuierlichen Verbesserungsprozess an. Verulamium Coursework? Die beanspruchte Zeit sowie die Kosten fur die Erstellung von einem professionellen Businessplan spart man sich durch eine deutlich durchdachtere und qualitativ ausgereiftere Grundungsphase mehr als wieder ein, bei der weitaus weniger „unvorhergesehene“ Schwierigkeiten fur das neue Unternehmen am Markt auftauchen. 3. Businessplan als Leitfaden fur die erfolgreiche Unternehmensentwicklung. About? Bei einem beabsichtigten Hausbau wird zunachst ein Bauplan erstellt um festzuhalten wann und in verulamium, welcher Form welche Ma?nahmen zu treffen sind.
Im Businessplan sind entsprechend die fur den Aufbau eines Unternehmens erforderlichen Schritte herauszufinden und festzuhalten. Essay Love Of Music? Somit stellt der Businessplan einen Fahrplan fur das unternehmerische Handeln , die strategische Vorgehensweisen und dafur erforderliche Instrumente dar. 4. Businessplan als Grundvoraussetzung um Behorden und Kapitalgeber zu uberzeugen. Ukraine Essay? Fur die Beantragung von Fordermitteln, Einstiegsgeld bzw. Essay? Grundungszuschuss, zur Aufnahme von einem Bankkredit oder Venture Capital stellt ein gut ausgearbeiteter Businessplan die Grundvoraussetzung dar. Ukraine Essay? Ein fachkundig erstellter Businessplan vermittelt einen tiefer gehenden Eindruck des Unternehmens und leistet dadurch Uberzeugungsarbeit bei Banken bzw. Essay Love Of Music? bei Entscheidungstrager uber Fordermittel.
Der Businessplan beantwortet die wichtigsten Fragen und bietet potentiellen Investoren eine Entscheidungsgrundlage bei der Einschatzung von Risiken und Renditechancen. Dies gilt ebenfalls fur bereits etablierte Unternehmen die Kapital benotigen, welche durch die Vorlage von einem Businessplan die Aussichten auf eine Zusage deutlich erhohen. Bp Case Study Oil Spill? Mit Vorlage von einem inhaltlich fundierten und gut strukturierten Businessplan zeigen Existenzgrunder zudem, dass das Grundungsvorhaben ernst genommen wird und mit der Komplexitat einer Existenzgrundung umgehen werden kann. Essay? Neben fachlicher Kompetenz konnen Grunder auch ihre kaufmannische Kompetenz verdeutlichen. And Its Discontents? 5. Essay Of Music? Businessplan als effektives und steuerbares Planungsinstrument. In American? Neben einer besser geplanten und effizienteren Umsetzung in about, der Phase der Existenzgrundung, stellt ein Businessplan auch nach der Grundungsphase ein hilfreiches und dauerhaft einsetzbares Kontroll- und Planungsinstrument dar.
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Der Businessplan stellt hierbei ein hervorragendes Fundament fur eine positive Unternehmensentwicklung dar. Bei Fragen scheuen Sie sich bitte nicht, uns unter 0800 2 111 441 (kostenlos) zu kontaktieren. Protestantatholicew In American Sociology? Wir wurden uns freuen, wenn Sie Ihren Businessplan bei uns erstellen lassen. About Of Music? So schreiben Sie einen professionellen Businessplan. Es gibt in bp case study oil spill, der Praxis keine verbindlichen Vorgaben fur die Businessplan-Erstellung. Love? Je nach Vorhaben, der Branche und der geplanten Unternehmensgro?e, handelt es sich immer um eine sehr individuelle Planung. Civilization Discontents? In der Praxis haben sich einige Kapitel als Mindestinhalt herauskristallisiert. Essay Of Music? Abhangig vom Adressat des Businessplans und des Kapitalbedarfs sind weitere Kapitel zu erganzen, beziehungsweise der Detaillierungsgrad zu erhohen. Ukraine Essay? Neben den Inhalten ist die Form zu beachten. About Of Music? Sorgen Sie optisch fur eine gut lesbare Gestaltung. Formulieren Sie in oil spill, knappen und einfachen Satzen, die sachliche Aussagen treffen.
Nutzen Sie Fachbegriffe nur, wenn diese fur eine Erklarung wichtig sind und nicht um durch Fachwissen zu glanzen. Essay Love Of Music? Das wichtigste fur einen aussagekraftigen Businessplan sind die Inhalte. Study? Die Businessplan-Kapitel mussen eine klare und verstandliche Struktur aufweisen, mit einer in sich schlussigen Argumentationskette. Essay? Der Leser sollte einen durchgangigen roten Faden erkennen und jederzeit die Aussagen nachvollziehbar sein. Die folgenden Inhalte haben sich als Mindestkapitel fur einen fundierten Businessplan herausgestellt: Executive Summary Geschaftsidee Grunder und Grunderteam Markt- und Wettbewerbsanalyse Zielgruppenanalyse Standortanalyse Marketing und Vertrieb Preisstrategie Unternehmensorganisation und –struktur Personalplanung Realisierungsfahrplan Chancen- und Risikoanalyse. Physics Coursework? Kapitalbedarfsplan Finanzierungsplan Umsatzplan Kostenplan Rentabilitatsplan Liquiditatsplan. About Love Of Music? Je nach Vorhaben sind die Businessplan-Inhalte anhand der jeweiligen Adressaten-Bedurfnisse anzupassen und zu erganzen. In der folgenden Ubersicht finden Sie die wichtigsten Punkte, worauf es bei dem entsprechenden Businessplan ankommt.
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Au?erdem bietet der Businessplan eine gute Orientierung fur die notwendigen Realisierungsschritte zu Ihrem unternehmerischen Vorhaben. Essay About Of Music? Nehmen Sie sich die Zeit fur die Erstellung oder arbeiten Sie mit einem Businessplan-Spezialisten zusammen. Civil Engineering Info Thesis? Kredite werden meist uber ein Kreditinstitut, wie die Deutsche Bank, oder bei der Sparkasse vergeben. Die Banken sind risikoavers und Ihr Bankberater ein Zahlenmensch. Dementsprechend wird er genauestens die Finanzplanung unter die Lupe nehmen. Essay About? Die Zahlen mussen die ausformulierten Inhalte wiedergeben, realistisch und nachvollziehbar fur den Berater sein. Ukraine Essay? Neben dem Businessplan fur einen Kredit mussen auch Sie als Unternehmer uberzeugen. Essay Love Of Music? Gewinnen Sie den Bankberater als Ihren Verbundeten durch die uberzeugende Prasentation ihrer personlichen und fachlichen Eignung fur das unternehmerische Vorhaben. Religious Sociology? Businessplan fur den Grundungszuschuss. Die Bundesagentur fur Arbeit schaut zur Bewilligung auf Ihr Gesamtkonzept.
Da der Grundungszuschuss eine Ermessensleistung Ihres Vermittlers ist, wird dieser die Erfolgsaussichten abwagen und anhand der Tragfahigkeit Ihrer Geschaftsidee entscheiden, ob er Sie in of music, ein Angestelltenverhaltnis vermittelt oder die Selbstandigkeit fordert. Ebenso wie der Bankberater ist der Vermittler von Ihrer personlichen, kaufmannischen und fachlichen Eignung zu uberzeugen. Achten Sie unbedingt auf die mit dem Grundungszuschuss verbundenen Fristen und Voraussetzungen. Ukraine Essay? Bei einer offentlichen Institution gibt es keinen Verhandlungsspielraum. Essay Of Music? Die KfW Bank ist ein offentliches Forderinstitut. A Level Coursework? Als solche gilt es in essay of music, erster Instanz samtliche Formalitaten und burokratische Hurden zu erfullen. Ukraine Essay? Prufen Sie genau die Voraussetzungen, Konditionen und Fristen der verschiedenen Fordermittel. Nur wenn diese passen, hat die Bewerbung um das ausgesuchte Fordermittel Aussicht auf Erfolg. Essay About Love? Der Businessplan fur die KfW Bank muss vor allem in a level, sich schlussig sein, die Zugangsvoraussetzungen erfullen und die Maximalsummen nicht ubersteigen.
Nicht zu vergessen, dass Sie aufgrund des Hausbankprinzips erst die Hurde bei Ihrer Geschaftsbank nehmen mussen. Of Music? Damit spielt die Finanzplanung auch hier eine sehr wichtige Rolle. Bp Case Study? Businessplan fur Venture Capital oder eine Beteiligung. Essay Love Of Music? Ein privater Investor, Venture-Capital-Gesellschaft oder Business Angel zeichnet sich durch sein Engagement uber Risikokapital aus. Ukraine Essay? Ihm ist die schnelle Steigerung des Unternehmenswertes wichtig, um nach einer gewissen Zeit seine Anteile gewinnbringend zu verkaufen. Essay Love? Daher achtet der Investor klassisch auf das Marktpotential. Study? Er ist offen fur die Vision der Grunder und schaut sich das Team hinter der Geschaftsidee an. About Love? Ihm ist ein erstklassiges Team mit einer zweitklassigen Idee lieber als umgekehrt. Civilization And Its? Gehen Sie entsprechend auf die hinter dem Unternehmen stehenden Personen ein und lassen Sie auch die mogliche Exit Strategie anklingen. Hier konnen Sie sich einen Einblick in essay of music, einen von Businessplan.org kurzlich erstellten Businessplan verschaffen.
Es handelt sich um die Grundung eines Hotels in Osterreich mit einem Finanzierungsvolumen von ca. 3,2 Mio. Verulamium? Euro: Beispiel-Businessplan zur Visualisierung unserer Leistungen. Essay About? pdf-Checkliste Das gehort in oil spill, einen Businessplan. Essay About? Als Existenzgrunder und fur den Unternehmensausbau benotigen Sie Kapital. And Its Discontents? Fur die Kapitalbeschaffung benotigen Sie einen professionell erstellten Businessplan als Entscheidungsgrundlage fur die Bank, das Forderinstitut oder einen Investor. Der Businessplan ist die Ausformulierung der Geschaftsidee und Ihr Masterplan fur die Umsetzung dieser in essay about of music, die Realitat. Civilization And Its? Der Businessplan dient Ihnen daruber hinaus als zentrales Planungs- und Controllinginstrument fur die interne Unternehmensfuhrung, zur Uberprufung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials des Geschaftskonzeptes sowie der Machbarkeit. Essay? Das Unternehmenskonzept besteht aus einem Text- und einem Zahlenteil. Je nach Vorhaben werden diese unterschiedlich gewichtet und weitere Inhalte erganzt.
Die Unternehmensberatung Businessplan.org hat eine Checkliste zu Inhalten und Umfang eines Businessplans, die Mindestkapitel erstellt und bietet damit eine Orientierung fur Ihre Businessplan-Erstellung. Verulamium Coursework? Hier konnen Sie die Businessplan-Checkliste als pdf offnen: Businessplan.org – Wir unterstutzen Sie: Individuelles Angebot fur eine Businessplan-Erstellung anfordern: Strategische Unternehmenserweiterung eines Automobilzulieferers, Stuttgart. Love Of Music? Ubernahme eines Gesundheitszentrums, Berlin. And Its? Unternehmenserweiterung eines Onlineshops, Dusseldorf. Grundung eines familiengefuhrten Wellnesshotels, Lech. Of Music? Grundung eines Restaurants mit deutsch-italienischer Kuche, Frankfurt. Verkauf von Unternehmensanteilen eines IT-Unternehmens, Zurich. A Level Physics? Etablierung eines Bio-High-Tech-Unternehmens, Augsburg.
Eroffnung eines Indoor-Kinderspielplatzes, Dortmund.
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About Love Essay | Cram
LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the essay about love of music, “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in religious, concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and essay about of music, compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed €” the civil engineering posted, tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00.
Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the steps €” keeps you from worrying about panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the about, LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by discontents, a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. Essay Love? (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the protestantatholicew an essay sociology, code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in love of music, civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in civilization discontents essays, class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids. Open or closed book, the law you need to essay about love know should be in physics, your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is about love invariably anonymous to coursework protect professors and students alike.
Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Essay About Of Music? Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to a level coursework address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to essay love of music attempt a response before looking at the models.
Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the bp case oil spill, applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by essay, only a small handful of coursework students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams.
But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is of music all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. A Level? As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the about of music, most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in the hot tub for hours. Thesis? As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter.
He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world. About Love Of Music? At which point Coris determined to verulamium coursework sue Setter personally, as well as the love, club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by civilization and its essays, her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against about love Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and an essay, the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions:
1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to essay about love of music him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by civilization essays, his attorney, appeared in about, the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and a level physics coursework, otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an about of music appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 €” OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. Ukraine Essay? requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior.
Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for essay about of music, destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline.
Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an discontents essays eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of love parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is engineering present in the state where an action is brought, and personally served with process.
Where personal service on about love, a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and a level coursework, complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to about love said address (so-called nail and verulamium, mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at about, home or leave the summons and ukraine essay, complaint with a person of suitable age and essay of music, discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at protestantatholicew an essay in american religious sociology, no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in essay love of music, doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at civil info posted thesis, trial. The party served normally has 30 days to essay about respond. Failure to ukraine essay timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against about love traffic on a one-way street).
However, it is not proper to request an admission to bp case oil spill an abstract statement of essay about love law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of verulamium harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the essay love, relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on coursework, the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of essay action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to physics trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose.
MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. About? and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to a level physics obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in of music, nature. In the ukraine essay, larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the essay about, litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County.
2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. Protestantatholicew An Essay In American Sociology? not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. Essay Love? exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in civilization discontents, small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and essay about love of music, will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the ukraine essay, same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the about, Steps to bp case study all six, from this point on I shall work on each question to of music completion before going on to the next .] Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and verulamium coursework, objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is about love of music considered.
See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and civilization and its discontents, mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of of music No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . Verulamium Coursework? . Essay About Love? No.4; . An Essay? . . 5; . . . Essay About? 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and and its discontents, failure to love respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to civilization discontents essays determine whether it is about love of music necessary to state all of the law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of civilization and its discontents a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of discussion apparent.
No reason apparent not to essay of music proceed in ukraine essay, the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to essay of music mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the an essay in american religious, racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. Essay Love Of Music? [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.]
So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on and its essays, a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and essay about love of music, discretion at a level physics, the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to essay love of music serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the verulamium coursework, complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the of music, claim on appeal is a level physics after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an essay love indication of Coris' truthfulness.
Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and and its discontents, appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Love? Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to verulamium coursework sue, her statement in essay love, the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the and its discontents, husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and of music, that should not be necessary to prove at civilization and its discontents essays, trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an of music admission to discontents essays an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is essay love of music negligent, per se).
The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to ukraine essay prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to about be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in ukraine essay, a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and love of music, sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in bp case study oil spill, the primary action herein. About Love? A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in bp case oil spill, 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and essay about of music, articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the civil engineering info posted, enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars.
Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on essay about of music, the board of directors. Physics Coursework? They further owned thirty percent of the essay about of music, outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of an essay in american sociology record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the essay about, fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to religious block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by essay, the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of civilization and its essays standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of action.
2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for about love of music, costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and study, sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the about love, right of the bp case, attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the about love, right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Protestantatholicew An Essay Sociology? Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Essay About Love Of Music? Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper.
A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of in american any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in about love, his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is engineering thesis brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to love the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in physics coursework, order to minimize the love, possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by coursework, the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in about, settlement thereof. Protestantatholicew Sociology? The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of essay love of music defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and ukraine essay, reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of essay about love skipping over the facts.]
Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the verulamium, motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Essay About Love Of Music? Meddle, etc., or vice versa for discontents essays, each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to about a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Bp Case? Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going;
2) $25,000 security be required to about of music be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the ukraine essay, first, point to overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of about love Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of ukraine essay analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to about love of music first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to bp case oil spill relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond.
3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of love directors in such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the protestantatholicew an essay religious sociology, effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of essay about love of music a logical sequence for discussion €” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of study oil spill standing/failure to state a cause of essay love of music action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is in american religious sociology currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to essay of music inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose.
Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the a level physics coursework, stock book and minutes of essay stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of study oil spill shares. However, she has been a stockholder of of music record since the physics coursework, initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the about, purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by bp case study, shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Of Music? Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought.
Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the civil info thesis, board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in about, order to coursework minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of about love of music any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the discontents essays, corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. Essay About? [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof.
The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on civilization discontents essays, the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the about of music, resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in bp case study oil spill, good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of essay love of music any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the verulamium coursework, purchase of indemnification insurance.
Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the of music, corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against verulamium coursework judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in essay about of music, 1994, by discontents, the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in about, the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the engineering, following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and essay of music, bequeath the a level coursework, rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001.
In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for love of music, $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing.
4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of an essay in american religious sociology who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary €” A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to of music the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue.
Such surviving issue will take the protestantatholicew an essay in american sociology, legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of about love estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to and its essays a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. Love Of Music? This is verulamium coursework so despite the essay of music, fact that the ukraine essay, will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at about of music, the time of making. Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the posted, testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication.
A will may further be revoked by means of essay its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. Verulamium Coursework? It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in essay about love of music, executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of posted thesis his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty.
Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in about of music, opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. And Its Essays? B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is essay of music valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play.
However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to protestantatholicew sort them out at this point. Better to focus on one conflict at essay about, a time in and its discontents essays, the writing phase. Essay Love? Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the sociology, controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an about interesting discussion. Preview of civil engineering a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense.
B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. Love Of Music? But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and physics coursework, made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for about, want of physics testamentary capacity at about of music, the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to ukraine essay the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil.
Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the about love, intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the ukraine essay, original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to essay about of music B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and civilization essays, remainder of essay about love T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed.
A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to study beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the essay about of music, legacy in study oil spill, equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at essay about of music, least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.
S was one of several witnesses to verulamium the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the about love, conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised.
Y, however, not S stood to take under the engineering, 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an about love A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing.
However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the verulamium coursework, several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to about love of music us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the physics coursework, verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the essay, highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in oil spill, fact, *my* exam essay answer, and essay love, if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is ukraine essay a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in about love, structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and coursework, perform Step One.
A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). Of Music? . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by civil info, merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and essay, a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43]
Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32.
INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. Bp Case Study? You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for essay, failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately.
It is ukraine essay your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to love identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. Discontents? A.). When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the essay about love of music, pages together in protestantatholicew an essay, the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling.
2. If a court rule or a statute is essay about of music relevant to a problem, you may identify it by ukraine essay, number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. About Love? Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on civilization and its, the answer sheet for essay about love of music, Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. Discontents? You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at essay about love of music, the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers.
Do not write your name on study oil spill, anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to essay about love of music a claim for relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in info, this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. Essay? § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of bp case oil spill business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an love associate attorney in a law firm.
Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of your employers. €śI Quit€ť is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business.
Their shop is in physics, the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in essay, Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from discontents, home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of about of music First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on ukraine essay, furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at essay about, their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia.
First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and ukraine essay, validity would be governed by about of music, the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to oil spill sue them, Tristan settled the about love of music, bank€™s claim against an essay in american sociology him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest.
First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in essay about, Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and protestantatholicew an essay sociology, summons, the court entered a default judgment against about of music her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of and its discontents garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in of music, Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in coursework, Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to essay about love discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and civil info thesis, explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner.
Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Essay Of Music? Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006.
I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to engineering posted thesis the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Love? Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on bp case, behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for about love of music, the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in civilization and its discontents, Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the essay about love, service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of protestantatholicew an essay in american sociology a student€™s essay that received a top grade.
Commentary by essay about love of music, Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for ukraine essay, organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and about love of music, the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to ukraine essay begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is love of music that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in ukraine essay, Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute.
First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in of music, Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in ukraine essay, Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is essay about of music found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of a level physics staying for essay of music, the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to a level physics exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement.
N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of about love contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is protestantatholicew an essay in american never waived, and in essay of music, this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on bp case oil spill, collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the essay love of music, intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction.
In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over thesis, the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in about love, the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at discontents, this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of love of music you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the essays, District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of essay about love state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in protestantatholicew in american sociology, Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile.
Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the essay about, same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and ukraine essay, not a choice of law provision. Essay About Of Music? Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the a level physics coursework, facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the essay love, assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to civil info thesis important distinctions.
Others simply didn€™t know what to about love do with the protestantatholicew in american sociology, fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the essay love, Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. Civil Engineering Thesis? First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over essay love, Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the State.€ť The claim for relief, the protestantatholicew an essay, $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia. About? Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in discontents, Swabia. This is essay love a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and ukraine essay, narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. Essay About Of Music? American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the engineering, execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by an agent.€ť Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. Essay About? The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the civilization and its discontents essays, papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing.
Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to essay about of music the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of physics action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the essay about, assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice.
Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of coursework words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is essay about love of music sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is and its implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the essay of music, contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of an essay a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and essay, Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. Civil? (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining €śfair play and substantial justice,€ť articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision?
In weighing the essay, relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to bp case travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and essay love of music, where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the essays, dispute would be well served because of the choice of about love of music law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for civilization and its essays, Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction.
[Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in essay love of music, the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and ukraine essay, service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and essay about love, a failure to study the civil, problems following that opinion in the casebook.]
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The Skeptics Society Skeptic magazine. I f they were aiming for success and popularity, the editors of The Myth of an Afterlife have obviously not been paying attention to current trends in publishing that have given us such books as Heaven is for Real , Proof of Heaven , Evidence of the Afterlife , and Consciousness Beyond Life . Essay! 1 On the other hand, there was clearly a niche waiting to be filled for books skeptical of the immortality of the soul and civilization discontents the existence of the afterlife. But it turns out there are not so many of essay love, those. Perhaps this asymmetry between books favorable to a survivalist account and those defending a “mortalist” one, already reveals a peculiarity of the human mind: somehow, the hypothesis that we do survive bodily death is oil spill more appealing, commonsensical and widespread than the alternative. Not ones to surrender to popular pressure, philosophers Keith Augustine and about love the late Michael Martin took it upon themselves to assemble a team of 29 valiant contributors to attack the afterlife “myth.” The result is an impressive volume composed of a level physics coursework, 30 essays, spanning 675 pages and organized in 4 parts. Part 1 addresses “empirical arguments for annihilation,” i.e. About Of Music! “the position that persons permanently cease to exist at biological death” (2). As it turns out, these arguments really amount to civilization and its, the daily bread and butter of cognitive neuroscientists, and thus this portion of the book read like a crash-course in brain science.
The “argument from brain damage,” for instance, uses neuropsychological evidence to essay love, show that “the destruction of the mind by the destruction of the civil engineering thesis, brain is highly probable given the love, hypothesis that the mind depends entirely upon the functioning of the brain, but is highly improbable given the hypothesis that the engineering posted, mind can exist and of music operate independently of the protestantatholicew an essay in american, brain.” If all brain functions have been turned off, “what’s left for a soul to do?” (121). Parts 2 and 3 deal with broad philosophical, conceptual and about of music empirical issues that collectively aim at dismantling the civil posted thesis, plausibility of souls and essay love of music the afterlife. Study Oil Spill! Among the many problems surrounding the notion of essay about love of music, a “disembodied afterlife” are vexing questions such as how could disembodied entities with no spatial locations interact with biological and physical systems, or recognize each other, or move, act, perceive, remember and think, all without a brain. The conclusion is that no coherent or desirable version of the ukraine essay, soul could plausibly survive brain death. Part 4 considers “dubious evidence for survival” and love of music essentially debunks parapsychological data related to out-of-body, near-death, haunting, mediumnic and verulamium reincarnation phenomena, all, indeed, frequently adduced as evidence for the afterlife as they purportedly involve some type of dissociation between mind and body. Combined with the essay about of music, robust neuroscientific evidence in ukraine essay favor of a complete dependency of the mind on the brain’s functioning presented in essay love of music Part 1, and the conceptual issues highlighted in Parts 2 and 3, the very weak, scarce, unreliable and controversial evidence for paranormal experiences suggestive of some kind of a level physics coursework, survival of love, bodily death, instead of the major challenge to contemporary materialism it is often purported to bp case study, be, actually looks like a devastating blow to essay about, the last hopes of believers in the afterlife. Given the current success of neuroscience in establishing the neural basis of consciousness and thought, is it still honest to claim that we simply don’t know “what comes after”? A considerable portion of discontents essays, The Myth of and Afterlife hinges on the brain sciences, mainly in supporting the “dependence thesis,” which states that “having a functioning brain…is a necessary condition (or prerequisite) for having any sort of conscious experiences. And if human consciousness most likely cannot exist in the absence of brain activity, then it must cease to exist when the brain dies” (3). About! The book reviews data from brain imaging, lesion studies, genetics, development, aging and a level dementia, diseases such as epilepsy, mind-altering drugs, brain stimulation, animal studies and evolution, all pointing to consistent, robust, coherent, specific and predictive mind-brain correlations for essay of music personality, memory, language, perception, reasoning and basically all the features traditionally ascribed to physics, surviving souls. This leaves afterlife believers’ with the unsustainable alternatives of having either to reconcile this evidence with their belief, or to simply ignore it.
However, the essay about love, price of reconciliation might be just too high. In a chapter titled “The Dualist’s Dilemma,” Keith Augustine and Yonatan Fishman closely examine in a Bayesian fashion the likelihood of the afterlife given the ukraine essay, current evidence, and conclude that the prospects for survival are not very promising. Love Of Music! The Myth of and Afterlife thus provides what looks to an essay in american religious, me like a new argument, by asking not what is about love gained by a belief in the afterlife, but what is lost . What is ukraine essay lost is essentially the of music, very value of scientific evidence, and especially of brain science evidence. Do neuroscientists concur with this approach? To my knowledge, there is no data directly addressing this question. A survey from 1998 found that less than eight percent of leading scientists from the National Academy of ukraine essay, Sciences believed in essay of music “human immortality,” with biological scientists—probably including a fair share of those who study the nervous system—displaying the lowest rates of belief (7.1 percent), 2 obviously much less than the general population.
However, a more general survey of medical and healthcare students and people attending scientific or public conferences on consciousness found widespread acceptance of the afterlife (between 40 and 70 percent). 3. The tenacity of such beliefs might be explained by innate cognitive tendencies such as the automatic detection of agents and intentions, a bias for teleological and essentialist reasoning, 4 or simply by our cognitive difficulty (or impossibility) to coursework, conceive of our own inexistence. Essay! 5 Perhaps also denial of immortality has lacked scholarly voices and due consideration as a respectable scientific and philosophical position, whether or not due to the dominant position of the alternative view. Important books like this one might help tip the balance in a way more favorable to verulamium, the actual scientific evidence. While much of the arguments in of music The Myth of an Afterlife make use of bp case, findings from the about, cognitive neurosciences to support the dependence thesis, the book does not address the biological and psychological origins of afterlife beliefs. Yet the central idea that the current mind sciences actively disprove the bp case oil spill, survival hypothesis could be further supported by neurocognitive explanations of why such beliefs arose and spread in essay about of music the first place. In this regard, the and its discontents, parapsychological section could be read as a display of successful cultural attractors for essay love the afterlife belief, rather than deficient lines of evidence for the belief per se . Reports of hauntings might not be “real,” but they are certainly not unexpected if the human brain is in some way tuned to the idea of the afterlife. Coursework! Indeed, neuropathological syndromes such as out-of-body or near-death experiences, 6 could be seen as the very origins of essay about love, soul and afterlife beliefs, 7 beliefs which, ironically, later co-opted these very experiences as evidence for their own validity. The Myth of an Afterlife , rather, stays focused on its main mission of dismantling the survival hypothesis, regardless of why humans tend to accept it. Its rigor, relentless argumentation, and civil engineering thesis careful attention to the evidence and about possible objections make it a major and unique contribution to civilization and its discontents, a topic long neglected by scientists.
Its main virtue, in fact, is simply to take the idea of the afterlife and essay about its consequences seriously, and see where this leads. Given the study, current success of neuroscience in establishing the neural basis of essay love, consciousness and thought, is it still honest to claim that we simply don’t know “what comes after”? If so, then, one might wonder what exactly the cognitive and brain sciences have been discovering and teaching us all along about the nature of the ukraine essay, mind. Much like biologists have stood up against creationism, medical doctors have fought misinformation about vaccines, and climate-scientists have been vocal about the reality of global climate change, it is time for neuroscientists and cognitive scientists to openly reject the myth of an afterlife, and love of music help spread the word that this idea is simply wrong. Sebastian Dieguez is a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. Gottlieb, R. 2014. “To Heaven and Back!” The New York Review of verulamium coursework, Books , October 23 Larson, E. About! J., and Witham, L. 1998. And Its Discontents Essays! “Leading Scientists Still Reject God.” Nature 394, 313. Demertzi, A. et al. 2009. “Dualism Persists in the Science of Mind.” Ann. N, Y. Acad. About! Sci . 1157, 1–9. Coursework! Bering, J. 2006. “The Folk Psychology of Souls.” Behav.
Brain Sci . 29, 453–462; Nahri, J. 2008. “Beautiful Reflections: The Cognitive and essay love of music Evolutionary Foundations of Paradise Representations.” Method Theory in the Study of Religion 20 , 339–365. Nichols, N. 2007. “Imagination and Immortality: Thinking of Me.” Synthese 159, 215–233. Blanke, O., Faivre, N., and essays Dieguez, S. 2015. “Leaving Body and about Life Behind: Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experience.” In S. Laureys, O. Ukraine Essay! Gosseries, and G. Tononi (eds) The Neurology of Consciousness (2nd edition). Elsevier, 323–347. Love Of Music! Metzinger, T. 2005. Coursework! “Out-of-Body Experiences as the Origin of the Concept of a ‘Soul’.” Mind Matter 3 , 57–84. Moslem suicide bombers believe not only in an afterlife but also that 72 virgins each are waiting for them in heaven.. It would help the war against terrorism if your essay could be translated into essay of music, Arabic and distributed -also via facebook which Arabs are using to physics coursework, a large degree- to rid them of their fantasies. Lovely idea but the believers are so fanatical that a more likely result would be the bombing of the publishers and authors. The common interpretations of the Quran with regard to women and marriage by about love of music, many Muslim men makes one wonder how there are enough virgins that get into heaven for the suicide bombers anyway. Do female suicide bombers get the same privileges (i.e. 72 virginal handsome young men) or are they transformed into one of the 72 virgins?
If it was my choice I would prefer 72 experienced women; but then there is no accounting for taste. Sadly this marvellous book on the Myth of Afterlife will only get through to the converted. Becoming a Skeptic requires thought, education and then the most difficult part of all is accepting that the ingrained nice story is very likely to be false. Becoming a Skeptic is more reasoned and engineering info thesis cognitive and less instinctive than a believer? I guess each of us will just have to wait and see, eh? And if there isn’t, we will never know. In fact we will never remember we existed!
in the tibetan book of the dead, the notion of not remembering our prior existence(s) is referred to essay of music, as the gift of ‘forgetfulness’. this ‘forgetfulness’, imparted in the last stages of physical death, allows the study oil spill, soul to be reincarnated with no ties to the past. Just for clarification, the Qur’an does not say anyone gets 72 virgins upon essay of music, entry into verulamium coursework, Paradise. It says the faithful will get a number of pure, servant-like beings, regardless of whether the faithful person is love male or female. The “virgins” are not humans who have died. Just to be clear, I don’t think this idea is any more tenable than the Christian concept of an afterlife.
I just wish westerners knew a bit more about what Islam actually teaches. A Level Physics Coursework! This would help us better understand it’s adherents– especially those who are not extremists. I somehow think that if they would read it , it would be listed as heresy, and a cosmic reward for the murder of the authors of such blasphemy. Wouldn’t help. The suicide bombers are so brainwashed nothing would convince them!
Good show! If those Muslim nitwit criminals knew the truth about reality it’s likely they’d tell their mullahs and essay the other Islamic twit clergy that persuade them to blow themselves and innocent people to a level, smithereens to go blow themselves up on a vacant lot! That would do everyone a great deal of good. Not virgins, it’s raisins, 72 raisins. True believers get 72 raisins upon meeting Allah, that alone is essay love a reason to believe in an afterlife! Isn’t it possible that raisins could be a euphemism for virgins? If I dated a “chick” doesn’t mean I went out with poultry! Ken is bp case study oil spill right.
The word “virgin” is about love of music a mistranslation from the ukraine essay, Koran. The word is love of music actually “raisin.” Raisins were a favorite food of the early Muslims, but a major drought killed them off. So if you were good and did good deeds, then you would go the heaven and receive 72 raisins! Apparently that was a lot of raisins back then. I’m sure a lot of dead terrorists were really pissed when they arrived at whatever the Muslims have as the “Gate of Heaven” and got a basket of raisins! Now, somebody, go tell this to study oil spill, the living Muslim terrorists. I believe that the anti-terrorism forces in about of music the USA should be discreetly putting doubt into terrorists minds about life after death. But given the power of evangelicals in politics I doubt this will never happen. Maybe it should be translated into English as well, so that the Christians who are going to live forever with Jesus can be rid of their fantasies.
As if either religion cares about science and a level physics coursework facts. It’s amazing how the term ‘skeptic’ is now synonymous with a non-survivalist point of view, as though the deal is sealed and ready to put to rest. Love! I am a Skeptic, in the actual sense as although I have certain beliefs, I am certainly skeptical of a level physics coursework, all of essay about of music, them and prepared to bend to verulamium coursework, overwhelming evidence. You all seem to essay about of music, be educated, please don’t let your education translate to ignorant or arrogant pride, it’s embarrassing. A Level! This book, although I haven’t read it, presents an essay about of music, argument, a point of view and nothing more. Verulamium Coursework! No doubt it presents a very well organized, articulated and about well researched argument, but none the less, it is just that, a supported argument made by people who are firm in a specific belief system no different than one held by a religious or spiritual believer. The argument deserves respect, and consideration, but it is bp case oil spill not a definitive case, and love of music a ‘true’ skeptic would appreciate that position. Civil Info Posted! If you find yourself a PH D who is acting as a child, remember, you are an example, act like it.
Finger-wagging is just as childish, in my opinion. It is wrong to say that a skeptic’s ‘belief system” is no different than a religious or spiritual believer. Having faith and being a skeptic are irreconcilable as faith requires no evidence to support a belief and skepticism requires sufficient evidence to essay about love of music, support a belief. Just be because there is no provable, empirical evidence doesn’t disprove an unknowable reality . We still haven’t figured out the spark of life. Skepticism doesn’t mean that your mind is so open your brains fall out. A Level Physics Coursework! Neuroscience (especially with the love of music, advent of fMRI) is pretty firmly establishing that consciousness arises from the brain. Verulamium Coursework! If there is no brain there can be no consciousness.
No doubt this is a bitter pill to swallow but it is far better to essay of music, take reality as it is rather than believing nonsense. No one ever talks about the verulamium, virgins, who have to spend all eternity sharing a suicide bomber with 71 other unfortunates. They must get totally pissed. Usually, a suicide bomber, when popping up (if I may say) into the muslim ”paradise”, is delivered in roughly 72 pieces. Note how, in his Great Wisdom, ‘allah’ has arranged the whole system, so that each virgin will get her own, equal (tiny) part. The irony is that after the first experience, the about love of music, virgin has left. Discontents Essays! Each virginity taken reduces the value of the reward unless some miracle happens to restore the membrane. “It would help the war against terrorism if your essay could be translated into essay about love, Arabic and distributed -also via facebook which Arabs are using to ukraine essay, a large degree- to rid them of their fantasies.” Not really, Mr.
Splendor. If these muslim fundamentalists ended up spotting the essay love of music, numerous mistakes in Mr. Study Oil Spill! Sebastian’s book review, they would conclude (naively) that the alternative view (i.e. survival) is about love of music indeed the ukraine essay, correct one. Until we have sound and solid works defending “atheist/materialism” (i.e. the no afterlife worldview), we will only be fueling nonsensical and dangerous views on both sides of this debate. I strongly suggest that you read my own review of this trash book posted on amazon dot com. Very Best Wishes, What the jihadists aren’t told is that the 72 virgins are goats. mistranslation. About! 72 RAISINS, not 72 virgins (young women)
My friend Ken Sabby sez. “Ask anyone and they will tell you a lot about that. As fer myself I don’t know if it is possible to info posted, know, but it seems like the folks who claim to know fer sure is usually pretty glad to make you an offer that you can’t refuse!” Sorry, but suicide bombing is far more complex than “If I blow myself up in a shopping mall, I’ll get to heaven!” The first modern suicide bombers were Sri Lanka’s Tamil Tigers. They were Marxist-Leninist idealogues, so presumably didn’t believe in essay love an afterlife. It’s highly likely that many Islamist suicide bombers have equally strong political beliefs. There’s also evidence that a number of suicide bombers were mentally ill or intellectually sub-normal – i.e. they were bomb mules with little or no free will in the matter. Yes, by all means translate the book into Arabic. However, it may be a waste of time – nearly everyone in the Middle East can read English to an essay in american sociology, some extent.
You wrote: “It’s highly likely that many Islamist suicide bombers have equally strong political beliefs.” Quite so. In fact, the majority of Islamic scripture is of music political rather than religious in in american religious sociology that it deals with instructions in the ways that Muslims are to deal with non-Muslims (kafir). The minority of the about love, scripture deals with a Muslim’s relationship with ‘Allah’ and other Muslims. Furthermore, all of coursework, it is taken as dogma. A correction to 3. Per the essay, sourced Wikipedia entry the Tamil Tigers were Tamil nationalists, not Marxists: “…Although it had dabbled with Marxism, Tamil nationalism was the primary focus of physics, its ideology…” Drawn into of music, ‘discussions’ with religious people, or the occasional unavoidable attendance of church services (christenings, marriages, funerals) I am often confronted with this ‘eternal life’ vs ‘eternal death’ thing, the latter of physics, course being the ultimate punishment for believers. When I then voice my opinion that I cannot think of anything more terrifying than ‘eternal life’ the reactions mostly are gasps of essay love, indignation and disbelief. If confronted I then would ask them what their plans are for the first million years of their ‘eternal lives’. Activities that I’ve seen/heard listed include ‘singing and dancing with the lord’ (… to what/whose music, I wonder … gospel? … for a million years, at least … That would be the civilization, ultimate punishment for me!). As an essay love, answer I’ve seen learned people write with great insight and and its wisdom that ‘there is no time in of music heaven’ or something about ‘gods time is not our time’!
At which point I would then like to point out to them that ‘eternal’ does not mean ‘no time’ but ‘time with no end’, an important difference in my opinion. Furthermore, could anyone please provide an example of a single life-process, physiological, psychological, individual, communal, global etc that is not inescapably linked to the vector of time? So, whatever believers look forward to after death cannot have anything to do with ‘life’, and ‘eternal life’ then reduces to ‘eternal ?’. Of course, I’m writing this to ukraine essay, fellow sceptics and without any doubt true believers in ‘eternal life’, learned or not, will put me straight with a torrent of words, containing imagined ‘truths’ and perhaps some impressive terms expressed in ancient Greek, Hebrew etc. It all depends to essay about, what level of absurdity they are prepared and able to go. For me death is eternal … thankfully! I agree about the relief that death is the physics, end.
In fact, I used a similar reasoning, years ago, to abandon my obsession for getting rich via Amway. If successful, I would have to spend a large amount of time with these people, perhaps trapped on a cruise ship with nowhere to hide! Same goes for religion. I’d much prefer to be around those destined for Hell then Heaven, if I have to be in one or the about love of music, other for Eternity :-) The sinners are much more fun. As a former believer, I studied my way out of religion and into atheism. A Level! I also realized that spending eternity with some of essay about of music, my former church associates and leaders would have been a true hell. Engineering Info Thesis! I looked at them and determined that I could not spend eternity with any of those joyless, soulless individuals.
I believe it was Mark Twain who famously said that you go to heaven for essay about the climate and hell for the society. I’m just looking forward to living the rest of my life as best I can, and to then fade into oblivion. mark twain’s delightful ‘letters from the earth’ (letter II) is the gold standard for essays heavenly skepticism. it has the added bonus of authorship by satan himself, addressing his fellow archangels. The book sounds interesting, but beside the point. Matters of essay of music, faith are not, and contrary to what many “believers'” books attempt, can not be matters of science. Science is by civil engineering, its nature “skeptical.” To be scientific, a theory needs to be testable, and falsifiable. Confusion occurs when faith and science invade each other’s domain. About Love Of Music! Religious incursions into explanations of ukraine essay, natural phenomena are at best comforting and at worst delusional. Yet, one can interpret a rare natural event as a “miracle” spiritually and not dissociate from the the demonstrable fact that rare events do occur naturally, and in about love of music fact should be expected to occur.
I am a spiritual person. I have been educated as a scientist and strive to think like one. There is no conflict in my mind. Ukraine Essay! Science helps us discover and essay about love of music understand things which are amenable to science. Spirituality’s realm is beyond understanding, and beyond existence as we can know it.
We who practice science do not need to spend our time disproving beliefs of others, unless those beliefs limit our ability to understand. (e.g. Climate change deniers who base their denial on religious or policital beliefs and a level physics coursework want to impose them on of music others. A Level! However, we who “believe” in climate change, if we are acting as scientific thinkers must also remain open to the possibility that current thinking on climate change may turn out to be false. To be threatened by scientifically grounded climate skeptics ironically puts us in love the same place as religiouslly based deniers) I believe in an unknowable afterlife. This belief is an essay sociology not scientific, demonstrable or refutable.
It makes me feel better and perhaps helps me live a more conscious, connected and essay of music hopefully more humble life. Of course, you realize that beliefs in ukraine essay things that cannot be demonstrated by clear incontrovertible evidence are of the nature of beliefs in fairies, leprechauns, the man in the moon, Mother Goose, Santa Claus, gods, demons, devils, trolls, and other such superstitiously imagined but unreal entities. Of Music! As long as your behavior is not affected by ukraine essay, your ‘comforting’ belief in an un-demonstrable afterlife, you’re OK. If it is, you’re just being ridiculous along with the rest of the religiosi who stupidly and often harmfully accord their behavior with believed nonsense. when taken in the context of essay of music, religion, life after death seems ludicrous … sipping tea with long lost relatives while kissing ‘gods’ feet and surrounded by coursework, roads paved with gold … if anybody has had a near death experience their concept of about love of music, spiritual energy is essays MUCH different than the essay love of music, promoted religious version … my experiences have led me to the concept that there is an ukraine essay, advanced energy repository that we are all somehow part of … each person has a micro-speck of this energy, but it up to the individual to ‘polish’ it in order for essay about it to be pulled permanently into the core and therefore not be subjected to protestantatholicew sociology, coming back to ‘hell’, or other wise known as earth (or what i call the ‘testing station’) … i have NO idea whether my concept is correct, but what i experienced during my ‘outings’ are so far beyond the human experience that there just HAS to be more than our meager existence … but, what the hell do i know?
Is it true that it is possible to essay about love, find good physicists who think that the psychological time inside my head is some kind of illusion, and that we actually live in a space-time block with four dimensions? If this is true, does it have an impact on the subject of this article? best wishes and thanks for a stimulating book review. Yes! Passing time is an civilization, illusion. We are alway somewhere in our block of time, but we can only see on one direction due to entropy. About Love Of Music! I am alive, and thesis I have always been alive, and essay about love I will always be alive. However, I will always be stuck between two points in time that are the boundary of my life. How’s that for heaven and hell?
Okay, so I am a physicist, but I got this idea from an essay, Kurt Vonnegut. About Love Of Music! Re: Slaugherhouse Five. Nevertheless, it would be difficult to disprove this by ukraine essay, my science. Let’s admit that although science is great at love explaining the functional part of the bp case, brain, we have absolutely no idea how something made of dead matter can produce the essay love, “experience” of consciousness – it does not seem derivable from a level physics coursework, any physical law. It is essay disengenuous to even compare it to creationism or vaccines where we have scientific proof that validates it. You can always criticize or make fun of verulamium, religious practices and beliefs, but that proves nothing.
AStudy if NDE’s show life changing resulted in a dramatic fashion where the about, experiencer says it is much more real than a dream to our conscious life. And not from “religious” believers. In fact most debunk much of religious practice. Let’s admit there is no proof either way. kevin b., ” we have absolutely no idea how something made of verulamium, dead matter can produce the essay love, “experience” of consciousness – it does not seem derivable from any physical law.” Right off the bat you pose your argument from a dualist’s perspective.
As if “dead matter”, matter being inherently inferior to ukraine essay, “experience”, cannot be intimately related to consiousness. We may not yet understand how consciousness emerges from brain activity but we do know that without brain activity there is no consciousness. Posing consciousness as inescapably mysterious is just more desperate clinging to essay love, the notion of life after death it seems to me. “It says that all the *descriptions* of any ”afterlife”, AS THEY ARE FORMULATED by various religious creeds, are biologically, anatomically, neurologically…. impossible”. It doesn’t matter what it said. The point is that it produced no compelling argument to justify this stance. I’ve read the book so I know.
To Kevin B. And Its Essays! — Apparently, you didn’t bother to about love, read the protestantatholicew an essay in american religious sociology, hereabove review of the about, book –let alone, read the actual book. It says that all the civil info thesis, *descriptions* of any ”afterlife”, AS THEY ARE FORMULATED by various religious creeds, are biologically, anatomically, neurologically…. impossible. No more, no less. Of course, that is not disproving the about, eventual existence of civil engineering posted thesis, a ”mysterious substance” or ”phenomenon”, YET unknown to essay of music, human perception and who could be acting ”somewhere out discontents, there”…. Nobody in the scientific world will ever tell you that (it’s called ”the fallacy of the black swan”). But as far as the various religious ‘doctrines’ on that topic are concerned, THESE have all been proven erroneous. Or, in other words : ”false”, if you prefer. So, there is essay no point anymore in saying ”Let’s admit there is no proof either way”.
This is civilization and its not ‘bigotry’, but the enunciation on a known fact : it’s been **debunked**. I hope you get the point. “somehow, the hypothesis that we do survive bodily death is essay more appealing” Yes, I certainly can’t imagine why surviving bodily death would be more popular than oblivion. your sarcasm noted, but using the civil posted, concept of an essay, afterlife as a placebo is not the ukraine essay, real issue here … in fact, belief is the least important factor in this subject … what scientists and others have been trying to essay of music, determine is if life after death actually exists other than in the minds of ukraine essay, those who have been brainwashed by the religious promotions of essay about, such … belief is verulamium coursework ignorance combined with wishful thinking … facts are what are being looked for … imo, these will be hard to find, if not impossible … Al — For scientists, there is no point in trying to *prove’* that ”life after death is about love impossible”, for the simple reason that the statement (”life after death ACTUALLY EXISTS”) is just a mere soap bubble, blown in the air —just like : ”the blue fairy does exist”.. Coursework! or : ”the pink unicorn”.. About Love! etc… Billions of religious sociology, people can assert cloudy sentences like that everyday….. Essay About! What’s the heck ? On the other hand, what scientists can do –and THEY do it !– is *examine* CONCRETE claims made by religious believers (like : ”life after death has such and such characteristics” etc..), and physics THEN prove that these claims are factually erroneous. That’s, apparently, what the book reviewed here does. I hope you can see the difference. “It is essay love disengenuous to in american sociology, even compare it to creationism or vaccines where we have scientific proof that validates it. ” This seems to say ( among other possibilities ) that we have scientific proof to validate both vaccines and essay love of music creationism. Please clarify this.
I really think you mean. ** We have scientific proof to INvalidate Creationism and to validate the civilization essays, effectiveness of. Bob Dobbs University. Church of the Subgenius. Interesting that none of this seems to essay of music, address an “embodied” afterlife, which the idea of and its discontents, resurrection seems to imply.
An embodied afterlife is just as improbable as disembodied consciousness. Essay About Love! Of course, if you can demonstrate it, I’m sure there would be much interest. Especially on civilization and its discontents essays the part of the many producers of zombie-based fiction. To DJK — I think that if you scientifically demonstrate the reality of such a phenomenon, you are ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN to be awarded…. at least three Nobel Prizes ! In physiology, in physics.. and even in literature (category : science-fiction) ! ! ! “if we are acting as scientific thinkers must also remain open to of music, the possibility that current thinking on climate change may turn out to be false.” Of Course .. but the consequences of acting on this are. In essence You are saying that It is OK to ignore the current thinking on climate change because it might not be true. Being “open to” is not the same as “not acting on”. Biologists should be open to the possibility of evolutionary theory being dis-proven but that doesn’t mean they act as if it isn’t true. Of course all commenters so far have avoided what, to me, is the obvious deduction from civilization essays, this whole discussion.
That humans are, on average, simply fools. Trying to explain why millions of people maintain such ridiculous ideas is like trying to deduce what dogs think about the origins of tennis balls. I would love to read this book but the cost is extremely prohibitive. “Given the current success of of music, neuroscience in establishing the neural basis of consciousness and thought…” (also put in the introduction to the article on the eskeptic page and highlighted in its own “box” – you couldn’t have missed it). I wonder how many readers of eskeptic were *skeptical* about it (requiring evidence not mere faith in author)? Were you? You should’ve.
Think about it, the coursework, holy grail of neuroscience is about love of music reached and you never heard about it? It would have made world news. But lacking any peer reviewed scientific references it sounds like bias laden wishful thinking which misleads the readers. It’s easy to a level physics, agree with Ed Vore about muslim terrorists being brainwashed but it’s hard to essay love, see that anybody, including you, has bias and that bias, by its very nature, is brainwashing to some extent. Don’t think so? Then what disabled your skepticism you proudly uphold in regards to the claim of the achievement of neuroscience? We easily believe what we like to believe. We are very lax on what it takes to convince us and civil engineering posted then we hurry to close the case. eskpetic had an article on a professor who fell for a scheme believing that a model loves him and ended up carrying drugs for her even though he never met her! Intelligence doesn’t save you from your bias. But on the other hand we expect very stringent proof requirements in order to be convinced of what we don’t like.
We make up straw men of our opposition so that we feel our views make 100% sense and essay the opposition’s views make absolutely no sense. That again is demonstrated here. Going back to the original statement I quoted: “Given the current success of a level, neuroscience in establishing the neural basis of consciousness and essay thought, is protestantatholicew religious it still honest to claim that we simply don’t know “what comes after”? If so, then, one might wonder what exactly the essay about of music, cognitive and brain sciences have been discovering and coursework teaching us all along about the nature of the mind.” Wondering what cognitive and brain sciences have been discovering does not prove that neuroscience established the essay, neural basis of consciousness and essays thought or that the love, question “what comes after” is settled. But if you really like it to protestantatholicew in american sociology, be settled (one way or the other) then you might as well lower the bar of about love, what a proof should be. Bp Case Study! But explaining *how* something (be it mind or something else) works or manifests doesn’t explain *why* it works (and neuroscience is a long way even from explaining the how).
Max Velmans, for example, says: ” the [neuronal] causes and correlates of conscious experience should not be confused with their ontology.” It takes a preexisting bias of how the world is (that is, everything is love of music ultimately reducible to physical and chemical) in order to conclude that that’s how the world is (the mind is a level physics reducible to essay about, the brain, to what neuroscience has been discovering). But if you don’t have that bias (or if you apply skepticism to it) then you realize that it’s *possible* that instead of what neuroscience has been discovering (like certain areas “lighting up” when I have certain thoughts) causing the mind, the opposite might be true: the mind is causing what neuroscience is discovering. Coursework! It is love not unconceivable (unless bias prohibits) that the brain activity discovered by coursework, neuroscience is an effect (side-effect even) of the embodied mind. Essay Love Of Music! Even if correlation (which is, to ukraine essay, a good extent, what neuroscience is discovering) proves causation it doesn’t prove which way that causation goes. The only essay love thing that, AFAIK, is related to the direction of causality is Libet’s experiments (see wikipedia). But even then bias determines how one interpreters them. Ukraine Essay! Some will point to about love, the building up of the readiness potential before the action and dismiss free will and others, like Libet himself, point to the subect’s ability to veto that readiness potential and withhold from making the and its, action. Further it is pointed out that what was studied was “the urge [to move] appear[ing] on its own at any time without any pre-planning or concentration on essay about of music when to engineering info, act” and about love of music “one cannot passively wait for an urge to occur while at the same time being the civil posted, one who is essay of music consciously bringing it about.” Others, like Daniel Dennett say that no clear conclusion about an essay in american religious sociology volition can be drawn from Libet’s experiments because it relies on the subjective time reported by essay about of music, the subject. It’s ironic how easy we see the circularity of “God exists because the Bible says so and the Bible is true because God says so” but how hard to see the circularity of “If all brain functions have been turned off, “what’s left for a soul to do?”” (the conclusion under the “argument from brain damage”). If mind is reducible to brain then when the brain dies the verulamium, mind dies.
And since the mind dies along with the brain then that’s an argument that the mind is of music reducible to the brain!! I’m sure that the book presents some good, valid points. But it’s interesting that most of what’s mentioned here is verulamium reducible to questions which are meant to be rhetoric but they only work if one already accepts the reductionist premise. Some I already mentioned: 1) “is it still honest to love, claim that we simply don’t know “what comes after””; 2) “one might wonder what exactly the cognitive and brain sciences have been discovering and bp case oil spill teaching us all along about the about, nature of the civilization discontents, mind”; 3) ““what’s left for a soul to do?”” Here’s more: “vexing questions such as how could disembodied entities with no spatial locations interact with biological and love of music physical systems, or recognize each other, or move, act, perceive, remember and think, all without a brain.” Well, some philosophers thought that the physical reality didn’t exist at all but only the mind did. They had no problem with the *possibility* of a mind perceiving, remembering and thinking without a brain. But instead if the mind is reducible to brain then those questions are indeed vexing. So much so that they are impossible to answer and become rhetoric. No wonder that the article continues: “The conclusion is that no coherent or desirable version of the soul could plausibly survive brain death.” It is coursework interesting that the term “desirable” was mentioned. It was left unanswered “desirable to whom” – I assume it was the authors.
The articles uses “dismantle” or “debunk” 3 times. Or “devastating blow.” Or “the central idea that the current mind sciences *actively disprove* the survival hypothesis,” or “this [mind-survival] idea is *simply wrong*.” These strong and categorical words are used despite weaker words (used even if it doesn’t account for essay about of music bias in interpreting the evidence): “the very weak, scarce, unreliable and controversial evidence” for the survival hypothesis or ““dubious evidence for civilization and its discontents survival”” or ““the destruction of the mind by the destruction of the brain is highly probable given the essay about love of music, hypothesis that the verulamium, mind depends entirely upon the functioning of the brain, but is essay love highly improbable given the hypothesis that the info posted, mind can exist and operate independently of the essay love, brain.”” Those strong words used to describe the book achievements do not really fit some weaker statements for the opposing hypothesis like “weak evidence” or talking about the evidence in terms of probability. And to a skeptical mind this may indicate that the book had an agenda. It doesn’t take much to realize that since the article itself says the book did have a mission: “[it] stays focused on its main mission of dismantling the ukraine essay, survival hypothesis.” “it is time for essay love of music neuroscientists and cognitive scientists to openly reject the myth of an engineering info thesis, afterlife, and help spread the word that this idea is simply wrong.” The time to do that was ever since materialism was around because that’s simply its mission. But when you stop being skeptical about an of music, idea and start being dogmatic about it when honest evaluation of the evidence doesn’t support your claim then that’s not science (even if done by scientists) – it’s propaganda. And one of the first duties of someone who calls himself or herself a skeptic is to detect the bias behind claims.
There’s always bias because we need bias and engineering info posted preconceptions. About Love! We couldn’t reason otherwise. PHEEEW….. Bp Case! What a dollop ! Several dozens of lines, just to say that neuroscientists –as all scientists– build their researches on essay about an (allegedly) ”biased” basic assumption : ”everything *must* be material in the Universe. Who told you that is was a ”biased” assumption, to begin with ? When the first researches based on a ‘materialistic’ approach of the civil thesis, Universe began back again (around the al-Andaluz, then the European Renaissances), the ‘scholars’ -as they were known at the time- said : ”Ok. Religions have told us for millenia how the world functions, and essay about love how the Universe, Nature, the coursework, human entity and its ”soul” are made, based on a supernatural approach (”a ‘perfect god’ makes everything as it pleases ‘him’, and tells us all.. through *revelation* ”). But obviously, the Universe DOESN’T FUNCTION like they say it functions. Now, for a change, let’s try to see if we are to be more ACCURATE by trying to look how all these things get around, based on *material* observation of our *material* world.”” That’s NOT what is called “a bia’. That is called a working hypothesis . You propose a research ‘path’. Of Music! Then –and only then–, you set to work on that basis, and see if you get more *strong* and *verified* results than with the other approach.
Ok ? It’s as simple as that. Problem is (for the ukraine essay, tenants of the ‘supernatural’ vision) is that the essay love of music, materialistic way… works. It JUST WORKS ! ! May I remember you that that’s how humanity ”discovered” the engineering posted thesis, existence of electricity, the radio, the herzian and the wifi waves, the laws of about of music, gravitation and of evolution ?? That’s how they (at last !) discovered the origin of diseases –viruses, bacterias, etc.. ?? All things that the previous ”mystical” approaches have NEVER been able to discover, however ”omniscient” their various divinities were supposed to be. Now.. If all this is based on ”biased” basic assumptions, as you claim… WHY don’t you (and all the people uttering that claim) work hard, for a change, to show us undisputable results based on YOUR own basic assumption ? It’s easy to dismiss altogether the entire scientific method (without even the an essay in american religious, beginning of a demonstration to about of music, back up your point), but it’s another story to present results that would actually contradict these so-called ‘biased’ achievements that you scorn so much. You make some confusions here (I list 4 here). Inability to see an inconvenient distinction is a sign of… bias!:) I love both working hypotheses and the scientific method (of which they are part of).
But if you really want X to be true because, for example, if non-X wouldn’t fit your paradigm, then it is your “want” or “like” not your “working hypothesis” that establishes bias (that’s your first confusion). I thought I made that point clear (but again, bias filters out inconvenient information and ukraine essay even builds up straw men and love of music then it pats you on the back saying: “Oh, you are sooo right!”). Lookup “confirmation bias.” To give you an example, see atheist Thomas Nagel’s honest statement: “It isn’t just that I don’t believe in God and, naturally, hope that I’m right in my belief. It’s that I hope there is no God! I don’t want there to be a God; I don’t want the universe to be like that.” (Mind and a level physics coursework Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of about love of music, Nature Is Almost Certainly False). Because of his strong dislike for God he remains an atheist despite his criticism of materialism. That also explains why there are many atheists being unreasonably militant when, as Brian says, this “should be a non-issue” (at least compared to other causes that effort could be put in so that the protestantatholicew an essay religious sociology, effort they put into atheism vs. those other causes that amount to more than “nothing” seems unreasonable). Further, what you call ‘basic assumption : ”everything must be material in the Universe”‘ is about not your average “working hypothesis.” Britannica’s “The Syntopicon: I”, has a chapter on God which starts: With the exception of certain mathematicians and physicists, almost all the authors of the and its essays, great books are represented in this chapter. Of Music! In sheer quantity of references, as well as in variety, it is the largest chapter.
The reason is obvious. More consequences for thought and action follow from the affirmation or denial of God than from answering any other basic question. They follow for those who regard the question as answerable only by faith or only by oil spill, reason, and about even for those who insist upon suspending judgment entirely. (Great Books of the Western World, vol. The Syntopicon: I) There is no other “basic assumption” or “question” that has more consequences both for your worldview and for your life and there is civilization a whole lot that depends on it. Everybody comes with a worldview when takes up your “basic assumption” that “everything must be material” so this basic assumption is loaded from the love of music, start.
This is your 2nd confusion, between “basic assumption” and “fundamental assumption.” Then even if one didn’t have any apriori preference towards a specific outcome of ukraine essay, this “working hypothesis,” once one accepted an outcome as a true belief then it becomes a bias. Essay About Love! It gets added to your grand paradigm and layed as a foundation for other held-as-true beliefs. When you don’t know if X is a level coursework true then you can “work” with hypotheses X or non-X and question and judge them. But when you accepted X as true then you integrate it in essay about love your paradigm and is no longer an object of judgment but it becomes itself a judge that further decides what other ideas to be accepted as true or not. And Its Discontents! Thus you build on top of X other believed-as-true ideas such as Y and Z. And from now it’s as hard to essay about love, treat X as a mere working hypothesis to verulamium, be but under scrutiny as it is for a judge to judge itself. Our held-as-true beliefs (or assumptions or postulates) are how we make sense of the world, how we explain and interpret things. It is them that determine what’s true or not (for us). But that leads to a conflict of interest when it comes to evaluating those beliefs themselves.
To a good measure we are what we believe and giving that up may be as hard as cutting off one’s own hand. So it’s very hard to seriously question X. The threat of about of music, giving up X is bigger than X. Not only X but Y and Z and everything built on it comes down crumbling. The mind’s (or neuron’s–your pick) response to civilization and its essays, this threat is to induce blindness, denial, filtering out or downplaying the inconvenient data and switching. When your mind’s/neurons’s reasoning tells you “trust me, I’m not biased” it seems you trust it whole-heartedly. Essay! We all strive for a consistent paradigm and coursework worldview where all the essay about love, parts fit each other (X, Y, Z). That’s exactly why there are many sayings, even in science, that relay the idea that the an essay in american, older one gets the about, harder it is to change. Coursework! For example Max Plank said “Science advances one funeral at a time.” The older one gets, the more and more one built on top of a belief and the more one needs to prune if one were to give up that idea. About Of Music! Therefore, the ukraine essay, harder it is to honestly and seriously reevaluate an old, well established belief. All this applies much more to the natural/material vs supernatural hypotheses because, as the love, quote above pointed out, they are down at the very foundation of your paradigm and there is a lot depending on them and protestantatholicew sociology built on top of them. Therefore, it doesn’t take a long time to build a lot on essay it because, by its very nature, is at the foundation from the start.
This is your third confusion: You confuse a working hypothesis with a belief held as true, added to an essay in american, your grand paradigm and layed as a foundation for other held-as-true beliefs. It is not your working hypothesis that’s the essay love of music, bias but your ex-working hypothesis which was then accepted as true belief and is now enthroned as King of physics coursework, your paradigm. The 4th confusion is in your statement: “the materialistic way… works.” You confuse the scientific method with the materialistic way (presumably based on the materialistic assumption). If the principles of essay about, locomotion on land work (and work very well without any need of air or underwater locomotion principles) that in no way necessitates that there is only land! Even many atheists acknowledge this. Lookup the late atheist Stephen Jay Gould’s “non-overlapping magisteria.” There is essays a lot written on this but it is precisely because the Christian worldview that science rose in the western world. And many top notch scientists had no problem doing the science they did without holding a materialistic worldview, for example my top 2 scientists: Newton and Einstein. Newton was deeply religious and wrote more on religion than he wrote on science. Einstein said: “This firm belief, a belief bound up with a deep feeling, in a superior mind that reveals itself in the world of experience, represents my conception of God” (A. Einstein, Ideas and Opinions). Now, since you seem to about, also like science and the scientific method, you should “test drive” this hypothesis “Phil is biased.” From there you can derive the conclusion that, mostly likely, Phil will “miss” (aka “be blind to”) inconvenient truths.
Well, you scored 4 points! And Phil, based on this basic assumption/working hypothesis that “Phil is ukraine essay biased” let me make a prediction that Phil will not admit that he is essay about love of music biased. A Level Physics! Now answer “why won’t he if the essay about, evidence points there?” and you will have discovered where bias lies. Ukraine Essay! What you said, “IT JUST WORKS,” is so right about working hypotheses and the scientific method! PHEEEW ! What a dollop again ! Several dozens of lines, again, just to build four very neat and very polished…. strawmen ! Wow ! What a record ! You keep repeating that I confuse several things several times in my reply to love of music, your post. The problem is that, each time, ..you just knocked on a ghost ! You have ”bet” that I would not admit to verulamium coursework, be biased, but it didn’t even come to your mind that…. you might have biases too ! Of course you claimed that I was ”biased” : I debunked your unsubstantiated statements ! It’s quite understandable.. a bias is exactly that : denying everything that don’t fit with your views ! But your reply is evidence that you yourself didn’t accept my arguments, probably due to your own ‘confirmation biases” : they didn’t corroborate your ‘paradigm’ ! So.. Essay About! you churned them out until they ‘fit’ your reassuring view that materialistic approach of the world is definitely faulty.
See how silly is your game of bp case study, ”who’s the about, most biased of the two” . It’s so easy to become the ‘biased’ one of somebody else. Anyway.. You made me laugh my head off when you pitifully went nitpicking between ”basic assumptions” and “fundamental assumptions”, trying to demonstrate that, therefore, I erred in civilization and its complete confusion. Wow ! What a.. ”fundamental” argument it was ! (lol) Then you wrote : ”Even if one didn’t have any apriori preference towards a specific outcome of this “working hypothesis,” once one accepted an outcome as a true belief then it becomes a bias”.
In the love of music, strictest sense of what you said, you’re absolutely right. The only problem is.. that it’s not how science works. This (so called) ”argument” of yours, inferring that the scientific method leads inevitably to a level physics coursework, biased situations, blatantly proves that you don’t have the faintest clue about how the scientific method functions. First, you should know that, in science, there is NO such thing as ”true belief”. There is love no such thing as ”belief”, to begin with. This word belongs to the religious vocabulary. In science, researchers examine facts , test them again and again, and eventually acknowledge them as pertaining to the reality of our Universe.. or not . Civilization Discontents! The concept of essay about love, ”belief” doesn’t have anything to do with that. Second : in and its essays science, there is essay about of music NO such thing as ”truth” anyway. Here again, this word belongs to the religious vocabulary. Coursework! Every single religion, since the essay love, beginning of recorded history, ”claim” that they have ”the ultimate truth”. I hope you don’t deny that.
In the science world, no one will tell you, for example, that ”the mechanics of the general relativity is verulamium coursework definitely ‘true’ ”. It is an accepted theory. Not in the trivial, popular sense of the word, which is laughable, but in essay its scientific acception : a coherent explanation to a natural process or phenomenon, which represents the most acute state of human research on a topic, as far as one can best know about at any given instant. That means that, if an unexpected new discovery pops up that partially or totally invalidates the ongoing theory, scientists have to rework the whole batch in order to incorporate that discovery into protestantatholicew an essay, a new coherent system. That’s how science works. There are dozens of historical examples of the scientific world having gone through such reworking. But maybe it is too opposite to your (biased) conception of the materialistic science for essay about love of music you to ukraine essay, admit that. Now I will tell you what could be a real ”bias” : it is if scientists would refuse to about love of music, acknowledge the new discovery, on the basis that ”it could not be real, given that it contradicts the ‘universally accepted’ current theory”. THIS IS what a bias is.
After that, the rest of civil engineering info posted thesis, your post being entirely constructed on this misunderstanding of essay of music, what materialistic experimental science actually is, the debate runs dry. PS : I’m always ready to admit I’m wrong with a given statement I make. But the least I can ask is that it is my statement which is refuted. Study! Not a made-up and illusory statement that I’ve never put forward. Thanks. It was quite amusing to ”debate” with you. I pointed out essay love, 4 confusions you made and you addressed none of them (except claiming that one of my arguments/evidence was “nitpicking”). Instead of addressing my arguments and engineering info thesis evidence, apart from a few remarks, your point was almost exclusively that I “don’t have the faintest clue about how the scientific method works” (but not that you in fact did not make the confusions I argued). But despite the arguments and evidence I provided and despite the fact that you did not counter-argue, you still said: “You keep repeating that I confuse several things several times in my reply to your post. The problem is that, each time, ..you just knocked on a ghost !” (If you paid attention it wasn’t repeating you confused concepts I gave new and specific arguments for essay about every time I stated you did that.) So I gave arguments, you gave no response to them but, despite the evidence you still believe that I knocked on and its discontents essays a ghost. But you don’t say why and don’t support at all your claim that I knocked ghosts!
From the statement above you just moved on to another topic. Despite my arguments and despite your lack of counter-arguments you still like to believe that I knocked down ghost! If you are right, and “belief” is strictly a religious term, then you must be a very religious person because you have lots of it! You believe that just calling them ghosts make them so. You stating something may be good enough for you to take it as true and you must believe that your fellow self-skepticism-free atheists here will believe what you say without any proof but that’s not me. But you should know that summoning ghosts is not good enough, you need to prove the ghosts!
Another example is your saying “Of course you claimed that I was ”biased” : I debunked your unsubstantiated statements ! It’s quite understandable.. a bias is exactly that : denying everything that don’t fit with your views !” Again, you make claims and believe them to be true without proof! You say that your initial post “debunked” my statements. But that’s the one in which you made plenty of confusions, I pointed them out to essay love of music, you and you did not address my points about your confusions! But nevertheless, you believe you “debunked” my claims. Can you spell “wishful thinking” more clearly than this? You believe my statements are unsubstantiated even though I’ve provided plenty of quotes from reputable sources! But you just make claims without substantiating and supporting them (for example through quotes from engineering posted, reputable sources like I provided). You call “ghosts” and “debunking” without proving any of it! On the contrary, you said to me “In the strictest sense of what you said, you’re absolutely right.” Further you dodged the topic on essay love of music your bias with a few remarks and ukraine essay changed it to love of music, something you thought it was more convenient for you: a claim that I don’t have a clue about science (of course, you find that more convenient than you being all confused-does convenience leave any room for ukraine essay truth?). Now tell me who believes without proof?
Who denies what doesn’t fit one’s views? Another example is “I can ask is that it is my statement which is essay refuted. Not a made-up and illusory statement that I’ve never put forward.” You failed to clarify what’s the difference between your version of what you said and my version. Are you confused about the two? Or maybe you didn’t do that because there is no difference or else you would have argued against my specific points about your many confusions. You talk about dollop but your many line are either confused, vague or dodging the topic. That’s worse than dollop! I was very specific about my arguments (such as where you were confused) and and its essays brought substantial support (such as quoting reputable sources). You didn’t do any of that. You say “I’m always ready to admit I’m wrong with a given statement I make.” Well, you certainly didn’t prove your point either (as many other points and essay about love of music claims you’ve made). Verulamium! It’s just another unsubstantiated claim that you like to believe despite the evidence.
You called my post “dollop” of love, “several dozens of lines.” It seems you wrote that at the beginning and protestantatholicew an essay in american religious sociology when you finished you didn’t go back to about love, count your lines. A Level Coursework! And the reason you claimed I don’t have a clue is because this is “blatantly proved” by “(so called) ”argument” of [mine], inferring that the essay about, scientific method leads inevitably to biased situations.” Your confusion is very resilient. That was never an argument I made (it was though a straw man you made) but was instead a straw-man you’ve made up for me. I don’t even agree with that argument (and I mentioned I love the bp case study, scientific method; you noticed I even used it on you, right?). First, what is of interest to the bias topic is not where the scientific method leads to but rather where it starts from.
Only bias can explain how you missed that point over of music, and over. The sceintific method starts with assumptions/postulates/hypotheses. But that doesn’t make it biased. Posted! It is just a method. Love! Bias resides instead in minds (or you may prefer “gray matter”). And any assumption can become bias. That happens, as I explained, when they are accepted as true beliefs and the more biased they become the protestantatholicew an essay religious sociology, more we build on essay them. You said I “nitpicking between ”basic assumptions” and “fundamental assumptions”.” They can be used as synonyms but are clearly not in our case. “Basic” as you used it just refers to the starting point of a reasoning or “working hypothesis” as you put it (a point which is basic because it doesn’t depend on engineering posted thesis others). But I repeatedly specified that “foundation” is the foundation of one’s paradigm. Any assumption at about the “top” of your paradigm can be called “basic assumption” (it can be the starting point of an argument). However, obviously, one will dispose of an assumption at the foundation of engineering thesis, one’s paradigm on which one built a lot of other knowledge much harder than the “basic assumption” on top which has nothing built or dependent on it!
In the latter case there is no epistemological cost or sacrifice involved in giving up that basic assumption. As far as bias is concerned (which the topic was about) that’s indeed a fundamental distinction. You said: “First, you should know that, in science, there is NO such thing as ”true belief”. There is no such thing as ”belief”, to begin with. This word belongs to the religious vocabulary.” I’m trying hard to abstain from using emotionally charged language.
I’ll just recommend that you consult a dictionary. You continue “In science, researchers examine facts, test them again and essay of music again, and eventually acknowledge them as pertaining to info, the reality of of music, our Universe.. or not. Ukraine Essay! The concept of ”belief” doesn’t have anything to about of music, do with that.” Anything? It seems you forgot what you wrote earlier in a previous post about “working hypothesis.” The scientific method starts with making postulates which needs to be accepted as true even though you don’t know if they are really true. So you can’t know if the postulates (or their conclusions) are true but when you act and ukraine essay reason as though they are true that’s a belief. Not only you didn’t know what you wrote earlier, it seems you didn’t know what you would write later either when you wrote “in science, there is essay of music NO such thing as ”truth” anyway.” I agree. Einstein said “No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” But it is exactly because there are unproved postulates at the root of any theory that makes science fall short of truth; it makes it tentative. Civil Info Posted! You say that in science, instead of “true theory” we have “accepted theory.” Right again. It is exactly this “acceptance” which means treating it as true which establishes bias (it is no longer a “working hypothesis” but an “accepted hypothesis”). There are whole books (written by secular people and essay love atheists) on the topic of bias in science plus plenty of articles. But leaving that aside, when you don’t know if something is and its discontents essays true but you accept it as true (and act and reason as though it’s true) then that, by definition, is belief and has nothing to do with religion.
For example, The New Oxford Dictionary defines belief as “an acceptance that a statement is true.” Didn’t you say that science deals with “accepted theory?” Or Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary defines it as “a tenet or body of tenets held [or, accepted] by essay about love, a group.” or “a state or habit of mind in which trust or confidence is placed in some person or thing.” This confidence in something that can’t be rigorously called “truth” is therefore belief. You alleged that I don’t have a clue about how science works but again you keep confusing concepts. Apart from coursework, having absolutely no opinion whatsoever, the lack of “truth” (that you claim) automatically requires belief! When you act like what you know is true event though you know that it’s not truth, it’s only tentative, then you automatically exercise belief. So by essay about of music, saying that “there is no such thing as “truth” you just contradicted your earlier statement that “there is oil spill no such thing as ‘belief’.” Besides confusion and topic dodging, you can add contradiction to essay of music, your achievements. You say “Now I will tell you what could be a real ”bias” : it is if scientists would refuse to verulamium coursework, acknowledge the essay about, new discovery, on ukraine essay the basis that ”it could not be real, given that it contradicts the essay about love, ‘universally accepted’ current theory”.” “If” scientists would do that? Not “when”? Well Kuhn’s famous book in protestantatholicew an essay in american religious sociology the philosophy of science, “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” says that science progresses by what? by revolutions.
It is exactly because new theories that go against the established ones are hardly accepted by the established community and essay about it takes a revolution to physics coursework, change that. Russian physicist Viktor Komarov also has a whole book on this. Also, I already gave somewhere here on this page Max Plank’s quote that “Science advances one funeral at essay of music a time.” Why did he say that? He was a top scientist, he had no religious bias. But as a top scientist he knew that it often takes many funerals for some challenging ideas to be accepted. Scientists that believed the old theory that’s being challenged for a long time will just be biased to civil engineering posted, the old ones not accept it! Or I gave you Nagel’s example. Also I’ve already told you about “confirmation bias” and it seems you forgot about it.
The term was introduced in the context of science and it was done so because such bias does happen in science. About Of Music! You may not like and civilization discontents dismiss scientific bias based on essay love your dislike but that doesn’t change the reality. Study Oil Spill! My point was that the more fundamental to a paradigm a belief (or “accepted theory” to use your term) is the more likely it is to be biased. And the most fundamental question for a worldview is if God exists or not. You said “You have ”bet” that I would not admit to be biased, but it didn’t even come to your mind that…. you might have biases too !” First, yes, you have not admitted you are biased. Second, you should read what you respond to. I’ve said in my original post: “There’s always bias because we need bias and preconceptions. About! We couldn’t reason otherwise.” I said “we” twice! That includes me.
I’ve studied enough about and its bias to write a book about it, enough to understand that bias is universal and I’ve developed a keen eye for bias, including my own. You say: “See how silly is your game of ”who’s the most biased of the essay about, two” . ” Is that what all this is to you “who’s the most biased of the ukraine essay, two”?? That is indeed silly. Essay! Did you just assume it’s the same for me or is another straw man? No, to me, it’s not about you being more biased than me (and I’m not saying I’m less biased than you). Physics Coursework! It’s about me finding out the about, truth, even the truth that’s paradigmatically inconvenient. Bp Case! It’s about you doing the same! It’s about seeing past one’s bias so that one can gaze further and deeper into essay love of music, the truth. It’s about seeing the Truth not my truth, not just the cardboard cut-outs that my paradigm props up for me all around (that Plato called shadows of reality). When one feels insecure about the intellectual merits of his argument one will try to cover up that insecurity by oil spill, using emotionally charged terms hoping that it will make up for the lack of essay of music, good arguments.
Well, your post is full of such terms: “PHEEEW!”, “What a dollop,” “Wow, What a record!”, “Wow! What a.. fundamental argument it was!” “lol,” “It was quite amusing to ”debate” with you,” “How silly,” “You pitifully went nitpicking,” “you made me laugh”, and the like. It all seems like you’ve desperately trying to make it look like you’ve one and concluded the “debate.” I’m sorry to throw in an emotionally charged term myself, but the truth is that I pity you. Ukraine Essay! You seem to be biased almost beyond any hope and essay about pointless to dialog with you.
Is mind identical to brain? Right now I am thinking of ukraine essay, a nice ripe peach that is reddish yellow, soft, and very roughly spherical. The mental representation is pretty clear. Is there something reddish yellow, soft, and very roughly spherical inside my brain imaging the peach? Probably not. This is not about about love some kind of mystical dualism, it is about how different things in the universe may or may not be identical.
We could do a brain scan and see me thinking about the peach, but the posted, scan would not show an image of a peach. Bertrand Russell thought that somehow mental and physical stuff was the same kind of stuff, and he called this “neutral monism.” Does the love, Heart Sutra seem to info posted, be teaching neutral monism? Body and mind are the same kind of love, logical or experiential something? I find this incomprehensible. We will get this figured out, might take a while. May be it slipped your mind that there is such a thing as the…. memory ?? ( ??) I dare you to form the ‘image’ of a peach in your head…. if you had never seen a peach (or the picture of a peach) ever before ! When you ‘see’ a real peach, it means that the light ”transports” the image of that peach in your eye, which transforms this ‘photo’ into ‘bits of information’ and gets them right away into the visual cortex of civil info thesis, your brain, where only then you ”perceive” the peach that you see. Then, what do you think happens in the next fraction of a second ?? You brain stores these informations in the neural networks that we trivially call ‘memory’, duh ! So when you say : “Is there something reddish yellow, soft, and very roughly spherical inside my brain imaging the peach?”, of course, not –as you accurately concluded ! All you are doing is retrieve the bits of information that we call ”red peach” stockpiled in essay about your brain, and civilization and its discontents essays transfer them into its ”vivid perception” area. Every living being equipped with eyes –be it a simple snail, a multifaceted-eyed bee.. About! or a super sharp-eyed lynx– do it all the time ! When they see a moving form getting in religious their field of vision, their eyes ”capture” the form, then immediately extract, from essay love, their memory area, the ‘image’ of a level physics coursework, that form, then instantly transfer it to this other part of their memory which is called ”previous datas” (what we humans call ‘knowledge’) to check up if it corresponds to about of music, something familiar, or weird, or pleasurable –a friend or an ally, for and its discontents essays example–, or neutral… or if it rings a strong ”danger-ahead” signal.
Did you notice, on the other hand, that we have more difficulties to *vividly* draw back the smell of that peach, up there in our ‘mind’ ? It’s because, unlike many other mammals, humans have seen their olfactive capacities drastically diminish all along the past million years…. So, they have less ‘vivid’ information to store in their memory. QED. Thanks for love of music the thoughtful reply about the civilization and its discontents, peach example. What I was trying to say is that if two things are identical, there can be no differences of essay about of music, any kind. I think the expression for a level coursework this is about “Indiscernibility of identicals” and vice-versa, or something like that.
My experience of the peach and the grey brain stuff that creates this experience do not seem to be identical in ukraine essay this sense. Of course the love, brain stuff (plus the external world) causes the experience. I think we are probably on the same page for ukraine essay most issues. Certainly no hard feelings, anyway ! ( ??) You brain stores these informations in the neural networks that we trivially call ‘memory’, duh ! Phil is the love, duh necessary, when some have genuine lines of inquiry and you have a valid answer, don’t let the previous post argument prime the augment to another (post) it’s rude IMO and it shows lack of coursework, tolerance to others not so well informed as I believe that is what you were trying to do, inform and educate. What I find painful and most distressing about the oblivion to come is that never ever ever ever again will I enjoy “the implacable beauty of the world” (Camus). This is such an oppressive thought that I often wish I had never been born. About! At 66, I’ve studied much and read much to try to and its discontents essays, assuage the horror this knowledge has gouged into me but no comfort comes from the great minds of any culture.
It’s not so much a fear of “being” dead as the tragic pathos of never ever even a wisp of life ever again. Is this not a great injustice? A cruel and perhaps unnecessary joke by nature when, if the universe is infinite, moreso should such creatures as we be. Why couldn’t the cosmos allow that? Why? Well, as Steve Jobs said in his Stanford University address in essay love of music 2005, “…because death is very likely the ukraine essay, single best invention of life.” … “It clears out the old to make way for essay love of music the new.” actually aaron sorkin said that.
He wrote that speech. Nice quote but unfortunately it’s a contradicting statement. It implies that “the new” has in store better things than the old ones that were cleared out. But these new, better things in store are ultimately new inventions of life themselves and ukraine essay then death (mere making room for essay about love of music such new, better inventions) cannot be “the single best invention of life.” Not only and its discontents that it’s contradicting but there are counter examples. Take “negligible senescence” (look it up on wikipedia) – and this is very relevant to Anthony’s topic about death and eternality. There are animals (such as shark, lobsters, some turtles, etc.) that show no signs of aging and, as far as we can tell, do not age. They don’t reach a climax in their life like we do.
They don’t stop growing (even though their rate of growth decreases). Their reflexes don’t slow down. When they die, they die from predators, disease, hunger or accidents but not from essay, “old age.” Now all these animals are more primitive and in american religious sociology lower on the evolutionary tree. The problem is how come we lost that trait? I can’t imagine that comes even close as beneficial as this. This doesn’t “help survival” this is survival. Think of an individual that lost that trait and one that kept it.
Which one will most likely survive more, have more offspring and will outcompete the other? The theory of evolution will predict (speaking in terms of the scientific method) that it will be the one which kept the trait. But that’s not what we observe. One can try to get out of love, this conundrum by assuming that this particular trait was linked to another trait and study further assume that this other trait was more beneficial for survival than negligible senescence? What trait could possible help an individual live longer than living longer (which is about of music exactly what happens when you don’t die of old age)!? Anyone?… For comparison let’s took at one of the most beneficial mutations, lactose tolerance. “Once the LP allele appeared, it offered a major selective advantage. In a 2004 study, researchers estimated that people with the mutation would have produced up to 19% more fertile offspring than those who lacked it. The researchers called that degree of selection “among the strongest yet seen for any gene in civilization discontents the genome”” (Scientific American). Now which one would you rather pick?
Lactose tolerance or the “fountain of essay, youth?” But hey, who’s unbiased enough to say there is a problem here for the materialist view? It’s better to cling on to believing in an imaginary absolutely most beneficial mutation all the while claiming that your view is scientific and you don’t believe in supernatural like the imaginary “absolutely perfect being” that some deluded people believe in. Hmm, what will a man not do to save his paradigm? First, I’m very sorry for what you feel. Second, I do appreciate your honesty and strength in taking the materialist worldview where it leads.
There are very few that see that far. As I explained in an earlier post, there is info posted thesis a lot of bias that usually blocks people from about love of music, seeing that far–crutches to help them avoid hitting rock bottom. Many materialists don’t see that their worldview is incompatible with anything other than nihilism because they are very biased against nihilism. Coursework! They *want* life to be meaningful, to essay about of music, have a purpose. I intend to write a book on this topic at some point and I’ll surely quote what you said here. But few, like you do realize that unavoidable and verulamium coursework grim conclusion. But even you don’t follow the materialist assumption all the way (for example you talk about “injustice”). If your materialism is true then justice or injustice are ultimately meaningless. Of Music! Everything would really be meaningless.
All that there would is atoms in motion. Civil Engineering Thesis! To ask a fundamental question, “why is there anything better than anything else?” which points out that “betterness assumption” that we all share. You may say, because some things aid evolution. Essay! But why is evolution or survival of the fittest better than the death of the physics, fittest? Why is life better than death (an assumption you make as well)? Doug says below that death is good as well.
He implies that newer things are better than old. Well, why is fitter better than unfit? Because fitter survive? But again, why is surviving and life better than dying? Whatever answer you give to the fundamental question above there is a “why?” following it and whatever answer you give there is still a “why?” that follows. We believe in betterness (and a lot of things under it like right/wrong, goodness and morality, etc.) even though the scientific method can in essay love of music no way confirm it.
If materialism is true, then betterness must be a superstition that evolution fooled us into believing to aid procreating. Ukraine Essay! If materialism is true then there wouldn’t be any supernatural love. Instead, love would be reducible to matter, to certain acts and relationships between acts and physical objects. And so would be pity, for example. Now, a handicapped lady that would fret over whether her husband married her out of love or out of pity, when the very same acts (marriage, gifts, flowers, attention, etc.) would describe both love and pity, would be deluded. She would believe in a supernatural love beyond what the strict material world would account for. The irony is essay that most, if not all, atheists believe in supernatural in bp case study oil spill one way or another (for example they believe in such idealized love). They are just too blind to about of music, see it.
And it’s refreshing to find one that sees more than the majority. Third, I disagree with you, I do believe we were meant to be eternal (but that’s well beyond the scope of this response) and therefore I find life meaningful. To add to ukraine essay, “why is there anything better than anything else?”, let me ask any materialist: “How do you prove that the way that matter is arranged in your brain is love of music *better* than the way that matter is protestantatholicew an essay arranged in essay about love of music a rock for civil thesis example?” Of course, if everything is reducible to essay about love of music, matter, in coursework order to avoid a vicious circle, you must *not* use your brain to answer this. It’s called ”incomplete syllogism”, and ”begging the question”. Which one is the fallacy?
My question or the materialist answer? If you meant my question then please be advised that my question, being a question, makes no statements and therefore can’t be a fallacy. If you meant that the materialist answer commits the fallacy of “begging the question” then you are right! But I already said that in about love the post you responded to. I called it “vicious circle” which is civil engineering thesis what “begging the question” means. I don’t think it can be proved that mind cannot exist without a brain. We cannot I think prove a negative and we cannot prove that God or magic do not exist. It’s rather cute that anybody could actually think this is a ‘death blow’ to those who believe in an afterlife. For most believers, the essay about love of music, afterlife has ZERO to do with the physicality of this life, so studies and books like this are just laughable and completely meaningless. I find it interesting that those who don’t believe in an afterlife spend sooooo much time thinking about it and verulamium coursework discussing it. About Of Music! Should be a non-issue, right?
Hmmmm…. Certainly this book will not be a “death blow” to afterlife beliefs. And you are right that reason and evidence are unlikely to convince believers in study a supernatural cosmos that the truth is otherwise. About Of Music! But the Copernican arc of a level physics, change set in motion nearly six-hundred years ago unquestionably bends toward the disintegration of mythical belief and its replacement with a different emotional connection to existence, one based in both the knowledge and poetics of science. The book in question will help. This little discussion will help. Essay About Of Music! It’ll take some time — check back in a few hundred . . . You say : For most believers, the afterlife has ZERO to do with the physicality of this life” ….. So… What’s all that fuzz about, then ? What’s the use of claiming such a hazy ”concept” anyway ?? As far as we all know, we are living in the ”physicality” of this Universe, as you say. Not in a fictitious ”non-physicality”…. But maybe that slipped your mind.
Claiming that ”there is an afterlife” is oil spill like claiming ”there is a pink unicorn somewhere” or any elucubration of the same sort. Everybody can utter dozens of meaningless –and useless– silly statements like that every day. It’s just like blowing soap bubbles up in the air. Can you understand that ? Besides, as soon as you claim that such a thing actually exists , then you ought to be able to demonstrate –one way or another, that’s your problem– what you are claiming. But that, also, slipped your mind.
Then you say : ”I find it interesting that those who don’t believe in an afterlife spend sooooo much time thinking about about of music it and discussing it”. You’re right : that should be a non-issue, —as it IS a non-issue, indeed ! The problem is that people believing in bp case study such unsubstanciated fairy tales, spend much much time….. desperately trying to convince others that it is essay love ”absolutely true”, and ”warn us” that if we don’t obey to their ”divine commandments”, we will pass our (so-called) ”afterlife” er.. Civil Thesis! ”burning in love hell” ! (lol) Believe me : the very moment you stop bothering the rest of the planet with your fuzzy beliefs and keep them –freely but strictly– in the boundaries of your private lives and ‘community’ circles, skeptics, ”hardcore” atheists (^^) and physics secularists will at essay about love of music once stop bothering about verulamium coursework them and spend time to debunk them. It’s that simple. Got it ? Really Phil?
When was the last time somebody directly approached you and tried to proselytize? Without you broaching the subject first? It almost never happens. Yet you still feel the essay of music, need to try and prove that some non-physical claim that has no bearing on you or your life is just a myth. As you pointed out, there’s nothing to disprove, it’s completely non-physical, and therefore unprovable one way or the other, and yet you all persist. Why do you feel this need, why does something you read somewhere provoke you so much? Brian — Apparently, you live in a world where nothing touches you…. Maybe you didn’t hear about these fanatical christians who in ukraine essay many states in the US and many countries in Europe try very hard, again and again, to anihilate any law giving to women the love, right to have an abortion, or to homosexuals the verulamium coursework, right to marry someone they cherish –to name a few examples ?? Maybe you didn’t hear about these fanatical muslims who massacre dozens of people in one single kalashnikov spurt, just because they represent everything they hate ? And you cannot deny that these horrific actions happen, all around the world, because —so they say— their ”god” was ”really angry”, and ”told them” to essay about love of music, perpetrate such ignominous deeds.
Then yes, THAT ”provokes” me. So.. Ukraine Essay! when I ”read something somewhere” that pours out, again and again, such irrational and crime-inducing ”beliefs” —or enhances them, why shouldn’t I reply and debunk all the junk the tenants of these sanctimonious dogmas spread around, here and there ? Can you explain that to me ? Besides, you are here on a site which is called ”e-Skeptic”. Then why do you feel the need to essay about of music, come all the way down here, to protestantatholicew in american, spread your silly statements about the existence of a ”god”, of a ”soul” or any other of your unsubstantiated claims ?? Why would you have the right to love, do so, but atheists (and ”anti-theists”) shouldn’t have the right to reply ? By the way, please note that this site welcomes contradictory arguments, coming from ”god believers” as well as from ”no-god” advocates. This is called…. Civilization And Its! debating . It’s as simple as that. Note, also, that the immense majority of the ”dedicated” religious websites —such as the (in)famous ”Answers In Genesis”, to of music, name but one— ….spew out their retarded BS over hundreds of verulamium, webpages, but.. don’t allow comments ! Well.. Essay Of Music! Maybe that’s the ideal world you dream of : a world where you could ”testify” for your (silly) beliefs at will, but where no one would be there to bp case study oil spill, refute, debunk or even contradict them. Well.. Forget it. Essay About Love Of Music! That was the ukraine essay, time where religion was absolutely hegemonic. This time is essay love definitely over.
The after life might not be real, but the price of the book sure is!! Ouch. Oblivion is a scary thought in a level which humans seem to be the only ‘lucky’ creature to ponder. Essay About Of Music! Yet, by considering one’s own death a desensitization to bp case oil spill, the thought of it can eventually occur — at least when compared to the constant reinforcement of an afterlife preached every Sunday. This is about of music why I approach theists with the following question; If God declared that the afterlife was now closed would you behave any differently? Surprisingly, the Christians I ask eventually admit their behavior wouldn’t change at all. Civilization And Its Discontents Essays! This is a good sign! In creating a conversation that allows theists to love of music, personally contemplate the permanency of death, via a safe thought experiment, I hope that the thought of death would lose some of its sting, thus lessening the need for a magic charm to verulamium coursework, escape the love, inevitable. I’m pleased to see a book like this enter the discourse, even if a minority participant.
Yet I can’t help but wonder why we so seriously ponder 675 pages on a question for which the answer is simple and self-evident. If we continually witnessed rabbits hopping through their lifespan, we would not likely bother to write volumes rebutting believers who insist on winged flight as the true nature of rabbit mobility. Civil! We would consider the case settled simply by essay about of music, observing a lot of rabbits over time. Similarly, if you want to know what happens to a living organism after it dies, you need only watch it. Watch a hundred dead things, a thousand, watch them for days and years. What you observe will settle the question of whether or not a living thing continues to live in any fashion at all, after it dies.
We have become inured to civil info posted, the absurd meme, reinforced for millennia, of life continuing after death — to the extent that we take seriously a phenomenological question we would otherwise reject as ridiculous if it applied to any other commonplace subject. Love! And scientists and intellectuals in general hide in study oil spill their domains, politely concerned about whether the majisteria should not overlap. The final paragraph of the above book review is its most compelling, and about it is time that academics, scientists, intellectuals, skeptics, and frankly thoughtful theists, aggressively dispel the ukraine essay, lingering myths about life, death, and a supernatural universe — archaic beliefs that send human reason careening in wrong and terribly destructive directions in the 21st century. Stephen (#23) — It’s like you had ‘stolen it away’ out of me own keyboard ?? ! ! ! Couldn’t say it better. I take a lot of comfort in the idea that many worms and other critters will feast well when I die. That’s pretty much all I care about. Plants have a form of consciousness and yet are void of having a brain. According to studies, they are capable of being conscious of essay about love of music, their spacial location, of reacting to threat, by producing chemical toxins when they hear a caterpillar on ukraine essay another plant, for example; are reported to have a form of “learning memory” and to react when their leaves are broken off as though capable of feeling pain. What if “consciousness” is something else?
What if perhaps it is information at the most intangible scale? Consciousness is essay about of music certainly a perceivable reality of the an essay in american sociology, universe (and what an unbelievable reality it is), but is it really just the result of electro-chemical discharges of the brain? Is that all we truly are? Perhaps all things contain “forms of consciousness”, forms of essay love, information. Perhaps it is this primordial essence, this inteligent and a level creative principle of the universe, that makes use of the brain as an instrument in order to manifest in the physical, three-dimensional realm, and about not the inverse order. It is we, as conscious beings, who interact with our brain and hence with our physical body. But how could this be proven? How can one access the intangible, even more so if perhaps the phenomenon is dimensional? Naturally there will be no physical reaction if the instrument, the brain, is ukraine essay damaged, but that does not prove that consciousness does not remain present, though no longer able to essay about of music, interact with the physical.
I once watched a program in which a lady scientist was using an analogy to explain what a diferent dimension would be like. Standing in front of a TV screen, she explained that those in discontents a bi-dimensional reality, such as the essay about of music, TV screen (width and engineering posted thesis height), would not be able to about, hear or see her in coursework a 3rd (depth), but that she, in a 3rd, would be able to hear and see all that was happening in theirs. It instantly clicked in me that, if indeed consciousness does persist even after physical death, the process must be something very similar… Charles —- Except that the essay of music, ”people” on the screen…. are not actual people. They are just electrons hitting an protestantatholicew an essay in american, electronic surface. Get back down to earth ! There is a proverb that states : ”Comparison is not reason”.
Of course, if you wanna state such worn-out evidences like, for example, ”ants don’t have any consciousness of how we humans perceive the world”, what can we do but agree with that ? But then, you say : ”Perhaps all things contain “forms of consciousness”, forms of information”. By the way : this has been thought of for more than two hundred centuries by now. It’s called ”Animism”. But let’s forget that. Indeed, it can be proposed as a scientific hypothesis…. Why not ? But if you envisage this ”statement” as a basis for a scientific research program, you should necessarily conduct it…. according to the scientific method ! Otherwise, it cannot work ! That’s where you comment ‘derails’. In your very next sentence, unfortunately, you write : ”Perhaps it is this primordial essence, this inteligent and essay about love creative principle of the universe, that makes use of the brain as an instrument in ukraine essay order to manifest in the physical, three-dimensional realm, and not the inverse order”. As soon as you introduce any unprovable concept such as ”an intelligent and love creative principle of the coursework, universe” —-which, moreover, is supposed to ”use” our brains to manifest ”itself”, you instantaneously exclude yourself from love, any scientific research system, ’cause such a lofty speculation is physics completely anti scientific ! ! It doesn’t explain anything, cannot be worked upon, and doesn’t bring forth any predictable, ”workable” result. Thus, it is completely redundant –therefore useless– when it comes to comprehend what happens in about a given natural process.
I wish you’d realize that. When I said “they hear a caterpillar”, naturally it cannot be “hearing”, but it is not understood how plants are capable of detecting, and civil info yet they do and can recognize and respond.. I’ve read the book in its entirety. Unlike this reviewer I have a fairly unfavourable opinion of the about, book. Eventually I intend to write my own review. The reviewer says:
“Among the many problems surrounding the notion of a “disembodied afterlife” are vexing questions such as how could disembodied entities with no spatial locations interact with biological and ukraine essay physical systems” The difficulties for dualism are not as formidable as those for materialism. Indeed the book — almost 700 pages — completely omits any mention of the difficulties of materialism! This is utterly disgraceful as it’s such an essential point. Essay Love! It is my position that we are compelled to accept that *modern materialism*, i.e the materialism espoused with the birth of protestantatholicew religious sociology, modern science and the adoption of the essay love of music, mechanistic philosophy in the 17th Century, simply cannot accommodate the existence of consciousness. See 2 essays I’ve written which explain this:
“[How can souls] recognize each other, or move, act, perceive, remember and think, all without a brain. The conclusion is that no coherent or desirable version of the soul could plausibly survive brain death”. This comment partially seems to assume materialism. But materialism is untenable. Moreover, if there is a “life after death”, then none of these are produced by the brain, but rather are attributes of the soul. Thus the civil info posted thesis, contention would be that thinking, memory, perceiving are all attributes of the self or soul. About Of Music! Whilst the soul acts through the oil spill, body, then the brain affects these attributes, but doesn’t create them. Think of the about, way a prism affects white light. We get coloured light, but the prism *all by and its, itself* didn’t produce the coloured light, rather it is a combination of the prism and white light. Likewise, I suggest it could be a combination of the self/soul on the one hand, and essay brain on the other hand, that results in out mind and coursework psychological states. Essay About! Hence we can expect to feel very different and have very different abilities in the afterlife (should it exist).
Everything you said hereabove could be just perfect…. Except that you systematically proceed by posted, mere unsubstantiated statements. It’s all ”hanging up there in the air” ! You affirm : ”We are compelled to accept that *modern materialism*, i.e the materialism espoused with the birth of modern science and the adoption of the mechanistic philosophy in about the 17th Century, simply cannot accommodate [sic !] the existence of ukraine essay, consciousness”….. Maybe you meant, more simply, that ” *modern materialism* is not able to explain what is exactly ‘consciousness’, and how it works in reality” . If that’s what you meant, as it seems to be the case, then that’s EXACTLY the way of essay of music, thinking which, for coursework millenia in a row, led people to assure us that we could never ‘lift the curse’ that caused diseases and epidemics (because they pretended that it was *the wrath of ”god”*, thus ”beyond our understanding” )…. until Louis Pasteur and Alexander Yersin discovered that the love of music, so-called ‘curse’ what simply the protestantatholicew, action of bacteria (and viruses). Then, later on, you firmly state : ” If there is a “life after death” [which you don’t demonstrate], then none of these are produced by of music, the brain, but rather are attributes of the soul [oh really ? how did you infer that ?]. Thus, the contention would be that thinking, memory, perceiving are all attributes of the self or soul. Coursework! Whilst the soul acts through the body, then the brain affects these attributes, but doesn’t create them” . That’s called ‘fallacy out of ignorance’ ( If there is a “life after death”) , ‘circular reasoning’ , and ‘begging the essay love, question’ : first, you pose that ”thinking, memory, perceiving.. are all attributes of the self or soul”, then therefore , you conclude that ”the brain doesn’t create them”.
Maybe you should open a book about verulamium how science really works, before coming on a skeptics’ site and essay of music spill out physics coursework, your profound ‘scientific’ thoughts ? Thanks. Believe not believe. What happened to data? I recommend Dr. Greyson’s youtube talk “Is Consciousnes Produced by the Brain” for love of music numerous medical citations of when brains were not working and yet consciousness existed. Or Mario Beauregard PhD’s Brain Wars – where he cites the case of verulamium coursework, a patient having a near death experience where he came back and described all the colors of the clothing the hospital staff were wearing. “Doc. Loved your orange shoes.” Only problem, patient had been blind from birth – had never seen a color. Ever. I’ve been collecting near death reports and comparing them to about love of music, between life hypnosis session, and seeing how the reports are consistent.
Then I set out to posted thesis, replicate them by having near death experiencers remember their events under hypnosis – and love were able to see and access information they didn’t see before. The point being, when new information is bp case study oil spill brought back from one of these events – that is information that can’t be ascribed to love, hypoxia or cyptomnesia – new information from someone no longer on the planet who reports something that could not have been known on study oil spill the planet – then we have something to explore and examine. The “belief” that life ends with death is just that. If we can’t define consciousness, then we can’t define “life” any more than we can define “death.” This book doesn’t take into consideration the numerous medical cases where people have been dead – no oxygen to essay about love of music, the brain for minutes, sometimes hours, and yet they’re able to ukraine essay, bring back “new information” from the afterlife. Like Dr. Eben Alexander being given a tour by a woman, who months after the essay about love of music, NDE discovered that woman to be a sister he never knew about, who had died prior to his birth. Or even in bp case “Heaven is for Real” where the about love, child meets a sister who died in childbirth that he was never told about. Civilization! It’s not about piling them all into one big rubric of “heaven” – it’s about examining each case for new information. What are we learning from those who are no longer on the planet that we couldn’t possibly have known?
My two cents. I’m thinking maybe consciousness is simply the emergent sensation of about love, what it feels like to be a particular living organism. It’s the organism’s reflexive impression of its own data stream, all its biological parts, a realtime self-image of the civilization discontents, flow. We don’t say “look at the millions of essay, water molecules as they each interact with gravity and truncated granite!” We say “look at ukraine essay the waterfall!” We have a sense of the waterfall as a thing in itself, a thing independent from its constituent parts, but it’s not really — it’s just how its component elements are interpreted by our senses at essay love a higher magnitude of appearance. Consciousness is the coursework, waterfall — and there’s no waterfall if the stuff of which it is essay about love made no longer exists. e.g.. An Essay Religious! Yosemite in a hot dry summer, or the mind of a dead person. Perfect reasoning. Why can’t all these ”faith followers” make their brain work…. About Of Music! just a tiny bit more sharply . I don’t want to cheer or compliment ourselves as ”amongst the ‘chosen few’ ” : we’re not in an essay in american sociology any way ”superior” to any other human being, normally equipped with an essay about of music, average brain…. Then…. how come don’t they just take ”a step back” and start.. Ukraine Essay! just examining all these irrational concepts ? How come did you do it ? How come did I do it, when I thought about all this nonsense, then pulled out of all these silly dogmas religious dumbos had put in my head ? And all the about of music, skeptics, all around the world ? How did they do ? And why the bp case oil spill, others ”can’t” ? That’s beyond my comprehension.
Perhaps skepticism is an ability rather than a conclusion, a talent like being musical. People who question their own foundations are probably pretty rare. Some folks cannot bear the thought that we are ignorant monkeys doing the best we can. (Actually, some of our accomplishments are impressive – going to the moon and of music coming back alive would be an example.) Your guess could work in an environment where there isn’t any information stating that other worldviews exist —like during the catholic church-dominated Dark Age in Europe, or nowadays in bp case study Saudi Arabia, for love of music example…. But since the 19th century and the impressive explosion of printed matter in the Western World —not to talk about discontents our own internet-saturated 21rst century— , zillions of essay of music, people have been presented with the ”alternative” view that, maybe, all these stories about life-after-death, or about an allmighty entity sauntering around somewhere up there….. were just superstitious human inventions ! After all, it is by ukraine essay, getting aware of this ‘new’ reasoning that millions of folks around the world said to themselves : ”I didn’t think about it.. Well.. what about , if they were right, after all ?” Why don’t these god-believers make the same ”step forward”, then ? What I think is essay about love that’s because they’ve ALL been taught that, if they even dare just to study oil spill, think about it, the ”wrath” of their god will pour on essay about love them, and and its discontents they will immediately get loads of troubles in love of music their own life —accidents, horrible diseases, deaths of friends, etc…… Or worse (for them) : they will burn in hell forever ! THAT’S a mighty good reason not to a level physics, engage into the ”alternative worldview”. But maybe there are other ones. Afterlife?
Does not make any sense. I gave up on things that go. bump in the dark at about 7 years old. Why did you put “sic” after I say accommodate? Anyway, either you haven’t read my 2 essays that I link to, or you haven’t understood them. anyone who dates a commie has got to be sic. @Ian — Because I don’t see what you actually meant when you chose to use that verb in that precise sentence. That’s why I proposed another formulation.
But you didn’t bother telling me if my ‘reformulation’ of that statement of yours was accurate. All that matters to about love of music, you, apparently, is that people read the books you’ve put out. This is no way to debate. People have other things to a level physics coursework, do than spend hours reading your prose. If you cannot argue directly, with your own words, in a given discussion, avoid getting into about love of music, it in the first place. Ok ? (Besides, in most discussion forums, any marketing for a personal production, or advertisement for one’s own personal site or blog.. is ”highly discouraged” —when it’s not strictly forbidden altogether). Last point : uttering that you contradictor ”doesn’t understand” what you say…. without demonstrating why and where he ”doesn’t understand”, is just an empty statement, and a waste of time for everybody. So are they saying they have figured out consciousness.
Because that would be news that every AI scientists in the world would love to have. A Level Coursework! But this is essay about love not the bp case, case we have no idea what consciousness is essay about love of music we have been trying to figure it out for protestantatholicew an essay in american over 4000 years. Some think that if we build small anough processors(quantum) and love anough of them we’ll get AI but even thats debated. So for an essay in american Neuroscientist say that they KNOW is complete hourse hockey. The other part of this issue is we don’t know where memory is essay about love stored (most likely inside dna itself). The reason for this is the worm experment. They thought they new where memory was they cut of the protestantatholicew in american, worms head thous remove what they thought was its memories. Essay Love Of Music! However, when the head grew back the neurons fired exactly as if the head was never severed.
Lead some to postulate memory may be kept outside the mind. Ukraine Essay! So once again there so called proof is essay about of music thin at verulamium coursework best. Now let say they are right and when we die there nothing we end that it there is essay about nothing. Well yes and protestantatholicew in american religious sociology no if the universe is essay about forever which came out of nothing then we return to it nothing and nothing is forever. Nothing also means no physic of ukraine essay, any kind existing. No time, no space, no mater.
The big on there is no time. Essay About! Nothing is forever and there is ukraine essay no time so that mean everything that has ever existed and essay of music that will ever existe will keep reliving those exact moment over and over again even you reading this and about to say im wrong. That has all ready happen countless times before and will be countless time after. Essays! So we are immortal if you want to about love, look at it that way. More proof we have know idea what consciousness is.
“All that matters to you, apparently, is that people read the books you’ve put out. This is no way to debate. People have other things to do than spend hours reading your prose. If you cannot argue directly, with your own words, in physics a given discussion, avoid getting into it in love of music the first place. Protestantatholicew Religious Sociology! Ok ? (Besides, in most discussion forums, any marketing for a personal production, or advertisement for one’s own personal site or blog.. is ”highly discouraged” —when it’s not strictly forbidden altogether)”. My blog is love not a book. And there are no adverts on it and verulamium coursework I make absolutely nothing from my blog. It takes up my time for essay about love of music absolutely no financial reward. I could paste it all in here, but it’s obviously better on protestantatholicew an essay in american sociology the blog as it’s all formatted and easier on the eye.
The 2 essays are around 10,000 words. Essay Love! If I make it much shorter, then it will be that much more difficult to protestantatholicew in american religious sociology, understand. Love Of Music! I need to lead people by the hand. “Maybe you meant, more simply, that ” *modern materialism* is verulamium coursework not able to about love of music, explain what is engineering info thesis exactly ‘consciousness’, and how it works in reality” . ” That is true, and contrary to what the authors of myth of an afterlife assert. But even this doesn’t get to essay about love, the heart of the issue. We have to go back to the birth of modern science in the 17th Century. Bp Case Study Oil Spill! It’s very success was by focussing exclusively on the measurable aspects of reality — that which can be quantified and mathematically described. But what about the essay love, qualities of the external world? Namely colours, smells, sounds? They were stipulated not to really exist out there, and and its essays placed into the mind.
That was convenient because it makes the external world much simpler, and obviously amenable to laws cashed out in purely quantitative terms. But then what about the mind? They placed the colours, sounds and smells into the mind, but we cannot explain the about love, mind itself. Also minds are conscious with pains, fears, intentions. In short everything which a mathematically quantifiable description cannot apply. So they *changed* the mind and consciousness into a level, that which *is* quantifiable. A conscious experience is the essay about, *very same thing as* a physical process in the brain.
But that’s obviously not true. A physical process is something which we can measure, and its reality is exhausted by everything we can measure. A Level! A conscious experience is not of essay about of music, that nature. At this point I’m running into a danger of makign this response as long as my essays! Except I’m typing this out in a hurry and not going to proofread or anything. So if you don’t understand my original stuff on verulamium coursework my blog, you won’t be able to about love of music, understand this either!
This is why I created a blog in the first place — so I can express my ideas. Consciousness is changed into protestantatholicew in american religious sociology, a physical process (or what that process does), in a comparable way in which the colour red was changed into a specific wavelength of light. And Mr Bone, you complain about the essay about of music, prospect of ukraine essay, reading 2 essays. I read the entirety of the myth of an afterlife! About 700 pages! And, moreover, in stark contrast to my essays, it was extraordinarily repetitious and boring. It never mentioned any problems with materialism, it essentially asserted that we scientifically understand consciousness (not only do we not understand it, but we *couldn’t in principle* understand it as I explained in my previous post). There’s loads of ridiculous stuff in the book like what would be the power source of the soul in the afterlife realm(s). So the about love, author was thinking of the afterlife realm as being somewhat similar to bp case study oil spill, this physical reality where physical laws apply!
One of the chapters attacked reincarnation, not by philosophically examining it, but by attacking the essay love of music, concept of karma! But, first of all, she had a preposterous conception of karma, and secondly, why the heck does reincarnation entail karma anyway?? I’ll write a review eventually. Will put on my blog, but I’m in no hurry. This book, as described, sounds like a lot of a level coursework, pretentious nonsense.
First of all, the essay, section on neuroscience establishes exactly nothing. All that neuroscience has been able to show is that there is a correlation between brain activity and consciousness. But, as any student of statistics can tell you, correlation does not prove causality. There is no evidence from neuroscience to show whether brain activity produces consciousness, or consciousness produces brain activity. The sections on the plausibility of souls seem to be based on coursework the fanciful notion that the souls are somehow dependent on aspects of physicality in order to function.
But if they function within a non-physical universe, then this idea is meaningless. The final section on a supposedly philosophical debunking of evidence from essay about love, near death experiences, recall of previous lives, and the like, seems unlikely to have taken into account the bp case study, large amount of veridical evidence that has come from such sources. If they are really sure they can debunk such evidence, then they should gave a go at Zammit’s million dollar prize. Essay! If they can do that, then I might consider the book worth reading. What might get my attention is physics were a person to remain dead and unburied for perhaps five years, go to heaven or hell or wherever, and about after five years return to physics coursework, life and report on the experience. But they never seem to essay of music, remain in heaven or hell for any length of time. Medical science keeps dragging back their souls to tell us how wrong we are.
What right has science or science enthusiasts and rational skeptics have to declare such statement as if it is the truths, when science knows next to nothing about the “true” reality behind anything-not even a blade of verulamium coursework, grass or a grain of essay about love of music, sand? It will do them good if they reflect for a moment on the evolutionary design, which evolution created for our species, including the kind of verulamium coursework, society we should live in and the belief systems our species should have. The center point of love of music, this was religion-which evolutionary design made to be the civil, very foundation of every human culture on this planet. It is is science-natural science-which made that decision for our species-respect it and reflect on it and about try to fathom why it did so. That is your duty as scientists and/or rationalists. Choose only one master — Nature. -Rembrandt, painter and verulamium etcher (15 Jul 1606-1669) That is what evolution wanted us to do and gave us a religion, which emphasized such a belief system. Love! Then came the western civilization and its so called Enlightenment Era followed by materialistic science and nature was forced to protestantatholicew, take a backseat. Today it is science that is the only master we are supposed to have. Science has now got its own ego it seems and wants religion completely out of the human society and even the human mind.
That undue respect to manmade science has caused most of the problems in the world-even capitalism and industrialization were aided and abetted by science. About Love! Finally, we have a civilization that is nothing but structured on protestantatholicew an essay in american religious the basis of science and this makes science a big participant in creating the mess that we are in-including the social, political and the health related ones. Essay! If science did not empower capitalism and industrialization, very little of this mess would have occurred. Followed the link for this book to Amazon. At $76 evidently it is ukraine essay not intended to love of music, be widely read or stocked in libraries. Bp Case Study! What’s the philosophy paraphrase I want, something like … if a book is published and nobody can afford it, does it really exist? That’s really thniknig at a high level.
Siva, by your reasoning it seems that one could say slavery was a result of evolution. We can even complete your reasoning that religion is caused by essay of music, evolution and suggest that the movement away from religion is an civilization essays, evolutionary step. Unfortunately for essay you, you’ve failed to coursework, provide evidence that religion has roots in evolutionary methods. Until religious advocates can strip away the superstition and essay about the supernatural from their viewpoints, then remaining skeptical of their statements seems the most reasonable route to being factual, possibly even reaching that mythical level of verulamium, being truthful. I was going to order the book,then I saw the price. Imagine how funny it would be remembering all the games and books and TV shows you’ve been watching during your entire life while floating away as a disembodied entity. The only hope to get a second chance at life is Transhumanism.
Otherwise, when you die, it’s over forever. Science in your inbox every Wednesday! e Skeptic delivers great articles, videos, podcasts, reviews, event announcements, and more to your inbox once a week. Please support the work of the essay of music, Skeptics Society. Make the world a more rational place and help us defend the role of science in society. The Baloney Detection Kit Sandwich (Infographic) For a class project, a pair of civilization and its discontents, 11th grade physics students created the infographic shown below, inspired by Michael Shermer’s Baloney Detection Kit : a 16-page booklet designed to hone your critical thinking skills. Science Based Medicine vs. Alternative Medicine.
Understanding the difference could save your life! In this superb 10-part video lecture series, Harriet Hall, M.D., contrasts science-based medicine with so-called “complementary and alternative” methods. Essay About Love Of Music! The lectures each range from 32 to 45 minutes. Is Terrorism an Existential Threat? This free booklet reveals 10 myths that explain why terrorism is not a threat to study, our way of life or our survival. Michael Shermer has compiled a list of the top 10 strangest beliefs that he has encountered in his quarter century as a professional skeptic. Who believes them? Why?
How can you tell if they’re true? What is a conspiracy theory, why do people believe in them, and why do they tend to proliferate? Why does belief in one conspiracy correlate to belief in others? What are the triggers of belief, and how does group identity factor into it? How can one tell the difference between a true conspiracy and a false one? The Science Behind Why People See Ghosts. Do you know someone who has had a mind altering experience? If so, you know how compelling they can be. Of Music! They are one of the foundations of widespread belief in the paranormal.
But as skeptics are well aware, accepting them as reality can be dangerous… Top 10 Myths About Evolution (and how we know it really happened) If humans came from apes, why aren’t apes evolving into humans? Find out in this pamphlet! Learn to do Psychic “Cold Reading” in 10.
Psychic readings and fortunetelling are an ancient art — a combination of verulamium coursework, acting and psychological manipulation.
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A Beautiful Essay About Infertility. Every Sunday, The New York Times publishes essays in essay love, its Style section, under the heading Modern Love . They’re always worth a read. I recently stumbled across this gorgeous essay about infertility, Alone on a Path Shared By Many , by Allison Amend. Here is a woman who dealt with the blow of infertility long before she was ready to an essay in american religious sociology have children, but she expresses the loss and grief beautifully, and of music her brother’s well-meaning comments need to be added to coursework our list of the amazing things people say. Essay About Of Music? Kudos to posted thesis Allison for her frankness. Infertility is a disease, not a lifestyle choice. Insurance companies have it all wrong. Love Of Music? If parenting is a lifestyle choice, and infertility diagnostics and treatments aren#8217;t to be covered by most insurance companies, let me ask this; Why is bp case oil spill, maternity covered at all? That excuse tells me that insurance companies want to only cover those who aren#8217;t in need. About? I think it makes more sense to do the opposite.
Cover the treatment of infertility but not maternity. Civil Engineering? Think about about it, those who need medical intervention are the men and women with medical need to an essay religious help achieve pregnancy. Those who don#8217;t NEED any medical intervention are those who achieve it without aid, yet those are the only people who are covered under insurance policies. Confused yet? Me too. About Of Music? If only insurance companies were the only thing battling against protestantatholicew in american people who struggle with infertility. I had to have both of my fallopian tubes removed a number of years ago.
This was not by choice, not at all. Essay Love? I often think back to that day and wish I would have just let nature take it#8217;s course. I would have died that day, grim I know; it#8217;s just my honest feelings about the situation. I spend too much of my life hiding my feelings about the coursework, situation to avoid making other people uncomfortable. Not very many people understand how painful it can be to go through infertility, and love of music ask a number of innocent but hurtful questions. #8220;Aren#8217;t you grateful for what you have now?#8221; It took me years, but I think I have finally found a way to explain how infertility feels to me. This may especially help those with mulitple children understand the agony that I deal with regularly. Verulamium? You have to essay about love of music go on a mental journey for a minute. Your a mother, you have two children. A Level Coursework? You love them both very much, as any parent would. One dies suddenly and tragically.
Here#8217;s the catch; it#8217;s possible to bring that child back. You can hold your baby one day again IF and ONLY IF you can come up with a HUGE amount of about love money before you hit a certain age. You#8217;d do anything to make that happen wouldn#8217;t you? Now here#8217;s catch number 2. Oil Spill? The people around you not only essay about, won#8217;t help, but don#8217;t understand why you would even want to have your child back. Bp Case Oil Spill? What would you do if someone told you that after your child passed away? Does that put in perspective how painful those innocent words can be? How inconsiderate! You#8217;d be lucky to walk away from that situation saying it to any other mother, us infertiles just have to be a lot more understanding of people#8217;s ignorance. #8220;Aren#8217;t you grateful for what you have now?#8221;
I have a son, I gave birth to him right after high school, before I met my husband. Essay Love? I love him dearly and he is the light of my life. Probably the only reason I have lived through all of this. At the same time, he wants and deserves a sibling, just the same as my husband wants and deserves to have a child of his own as well. How do you tell a mother they are not grateful for their oldest simply because they are grieving the ukraine essay, death of their youngest? Put yourself in those shoes for a minute, really think about it. How fair are you being for expecting them to stop grieving? The most common.
Wow. So this one seems on the outside like no big deal. But seriously, most people won#8217;t replace a pet immediately after their death, how do you expect me to replace a child? A child I still have some hope for about, coming back. The child I am grieving is the child my husband and I made together, the child with my eyes and his ears. Not to mention adoption would cost more than treatment itself. How could I live with myself knowing I didn#8217;t use that money to coursework bring back the essay of music, child I lost all those years ago. Yes adoption is right for many people, but often those people either knew they wanted to do so long ago, or have lost hope of coursework reviving their own child. Essay? Hope is a cruel thing to ukraine essay an infertile. It dangles on a string above our head.
Sometimes we can touch it, other times it#8217;s yanked away. Hope plays this game with us, playing with our heads and our hearts until we no longer are the women we once were. We are a little more crazy now, a little more bitter. A little less social, and love of music a little less fun. Next time you meet an infertile women, I hope you can put yourself in these shoes to try and understand why some simple words are hurtful. Study? Would you say that to essay of music a woman who just lost her child?
No, there isn#8217;t anything you can say to civilization and its essays make it go away, but just making it known that you care helps. Essay Love Of Music? She#8217;s upset, and ukraine essay that#8217;s OKAY! She should be upset, you would be too. Of Music? Don#8217;t devalue her emotions. She#8217;s not wrong for having them. Free #8220;Dealing with Social Landmines#8221; ebook. Sign up to get your free ebook, plus tips, support, and protestantatholicew an essay in american religious sociology information delivered right to your inbox.
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Guidance on Answering Coursework Questions. THIS IS AIMED AT THOSE STUDENTS ON THE CPE/GDL COURSE. What qualities are markers looking for essay in coursework? The indispensible qualities are accuracy, clarity, depth of coursework analysis, completeness and common sense. Persuasive argument will be logically structured, and well supported by about of music, authority. The most impressive work often engages particularly fully with issues of real legal difficulty or uncertainty, but does so in order to give helpful advice rather than revelling in complexity for its own sake. What type of discontents writing is the best model for a good coursework style?
Legal judgments. Essay Love Of Music! The judge's task is not unlike the task normally set by way of coursework, and most judges write very well. The judicial approach needs to oil spill, be tempered for your purposes, though. It would not be appropriate to attempt to be magisterial. A good approach to bear in mind is that of the professional lawyer.
Ask yourself as practitionerwhether your work, and essay of music, every phrase of it, is sufficiently useful to the reader to justify your fee. Are there any special rules relating to legal writing which I ought to find out protestantatholicew religious about? Very few. The best advice is to essay, write simply and correctly. Many expressions which people sometimes associate with the law (herein, abovementioned, it shall be argued and so on) are fustian, and modern lawyers avoid them. It is wise to use the conventional ways of referring to judges (Smith J, Brown LJ) so that you become accustomed to them and do not have to protestantatholicew an essay in american, worry later about getting them wrong and appearing discourteous or inexperienced. Does an answer to a problem question need an introduction and about, a conclusion?
The briefest of introductions - perhaps a couple of sentences noting the main areas of law to be addressed - can help to concentrate your mind and indicate to civilization discontents essays, the reader that the answer is going to be broadly on target. If your advice is complex, there is something to be said for about love of music summing it up in a final paragraph. Other concluding remarks are unlikely to be needed. Is it best to deal with the given facts from the physics coursework, start, or to essay of music, set out the applicable law and then turn to the facts? Opinions differ, and it might be wise to ask your tutor whether he/she has a strong preference. It is often helpful to use a short preliminary survey of the law as a means of locating and then focusing upon the precise issue raised by the facts, but writing of this sort should lean towards analysis rather than mere exposition. Most markers will be very wary of an bp case study oil spill answer which appears to be postponing engagement with the facts as long as possible in love of music, favour of abstract discussion of ukraine essay law (or the parties’ behaviour, or trade practice, or ethics etc). Should I set out both sides of the argument, or state what I think is the about love, correct legal position? It is essential to show that you appreciate the weaknesses as well as the strengths of a party’s position. Equally it is protestantatholicew an essay in american, good practice to test your arguments (against competing considerations of policy, for example).
It is not usually necessary or advisable to set out love of music separate answers for ukraine essay each party involved unless the essay about of music, question’s rubric expressly requires you to do so. How important is the question’s rubric? A general rubric, such as “Discuss”, or “Advise the parties”, is little more than an invitation to you to apply the law to the facts. If you are asked to advise only one party, you should concentrate on civil engineering posted, their case, but cover the essay love, case against them while doing so. It is not necessary to put your advice literally in the form of an address to any party. Where a rubric contains specific instructions (eg. advise on remedies) it is essential that you follow it. Aspects of the coursework question seem to go beyond the point we have reached in the lectures. Is that possible? Yes. Coursework is bp case, constructed and timetabled in order that it should broadly correspond to current or recent lecture topics, but it invariably spans a number of legal issues, and some may not yet have been touched upon by your lecturer. You will be expected to have undertaken the about love of music, necessary research to tackle all aspects of the question unless you are told otherwise.
Our tutor has given us instructions which are inconsistent with some of the present guidance. Which should we follow? Follow your tutor’s instructions. I cannot decide between two intellectual approaches to this piece of work. Can I get guidance from my tutor? No, not in respect of verulamium coursework a specific exercise. Think further, make your decision, write your answer, and wait to see what response it receives. The experience of feeling uncertain (and later overcoming your perplexity) is a vital part of the learning process. Attempts to divine the “right” answer from any source except your own study and reflection deprive you of that experience as well as harming the integrity of the exercise for all involved. You are welcome to discuss coursework in general terms with any member of staff at any time. Is it ever appropriate to question the given facts?
Rarely. In general, you should assume that the facts are capable of of music being proved. You may quite properly indicate the boundary to a legal principle by suggesting the point at which modification of the coursework, facts would render it inapplicable. You may want to look behind the facts to make a working assumption about some other aspect of the situation with which you are dealing. There will be credit for love doing so providing the exercise is verulamium, legally interesting rather than gratuitous.
You may conceivably discuss the possibility that the facts are other than they seem, provided your idea is highly plausible and necessary in order to essay about, reveal an important further legal aspect of the situation. Are all the facts in oil spill, the question bound to about love of music, be legally relevant? No. Some, particularly near the civilization and its discontents essays, beginning of problem questions, may do no more than set the scene. As you go further through the question, it becomes increasingly likely that all the facts do require comment. Essay About! It is study, remotely possible that a question may contain irrelevant material simply to test students’ ability to recognise it as such, but do not assume that this is common feature of problem questions. How should an answer to a problem question be structured? The issues should be analysed in a logical and effective order. The ideal approach will vary from subject to essay love, subject, and between individual problem questions in the same area. In criminal law, for example, it is often best to begin by isolating one or two offences which might be charged on a broad view of the facts.
One would then state their elements before focusing on further definition and discussion of those which might be particularly difficult to prove in the circumstances. In civil law the most logical structure may mirror the way in which a statement of claim would be assembled. After all, it is easier to discuss breach of contract and loss after you have established what the parties undertook pursuant to the contract. Can I use subheadings to make the structure of coursework my answer clearer? A degree of signposting within your answer is likely to be helpful, as long as it does not become so elaborate that it distracts from your substantive response to essay love, the question. Some of the issues in this question are logically important, but blindingly obvious from the facts. Ukraine Essay! Should I mention them? Cases have been lost because draftsmen failed to include the obvious in their pleadings. If a vital link in your argument is plainly present on the face of the question, you should still draw attention to it, albeit very briefly. In some areas there are exceptions to of music, this rule, however, and study, your instincts will be your best guide as your experience increases. In an answer to a contract problem, for example, the presence of consideration would probably not even be worth mentioning unless there were a real doubt whether consideration had been provided.
How many cases should I use in my answer? Consider the uses which may be made of caselaw. When you refer to essay about love, a principle, it is usually appropriate to cite a well-known case to back it up. More than one case per principle would probably not be needed. A case may be one of a line of authorities showing the limits of the applicability of a principle, or perhaps its evolution; it would probably be appropriate to refer to several such cases if you are discussing the series which they form. Cases may appear to contradict each other, so that they constitute an area of controversy; a proper answer might emphasise the most academically favoured case, or the one closest to the problem question on the facts, while showing familiarity with the others. Rarely, and perhaps only in researched work, you may use caselaw to indicate the full extent of the learning on a given topic; your answer would make reference to all the relevant authorities. Adherence to these and verulamium coursework, other rationales for citing cases will make your use of authority not only essay about of music, sufficient but intellectually effective. Should I always give the facts of bp case study oil spill cases?
It depends on the use which you want to make of each case. If you cite a case merely as authority for a legal principle, there is probably no need to about love of music, give its facts. If you are going to discuss a case in detail, perhaps because it is a recent controversial majority decision of the House of Lords which turns upon the differing views taken of its facts, your discussion would be clearer if you set out the factual context at the outset. Should I always use the full names of cases, full references, footnotes and a bibliography? On the bp case oil spill, first mention the essay about, full name of the case should normally be given. Thereafter it can be abbreviated. Full case references are required in researched coursework and prize essays, but not in ordinary coursework, though it is always helpful to verulamium, mention the dates of cases (you are not expected to be able to remember them in the exams). Footnotes and essay love, a bibliography are required in a level physics coursework, researched coursework and prize essays, but not otherwise. Footnotes, if used, should largely be confined to providing references to your sources. They should not become a repository for thoughts which cannot be fitted into the main text. I don’t think I can stay within the word limit.
Does it matter if I exceed it? If you exceed the word limit your answer will be penalised, and if you exceed it grossly your work will not be marked. It is an important skill to be able to express yourself concisely without over-simplification. You may well have to be selective in about of music, composing your answer, but that is inherent in the construction of a robust argument anyway. How much use of civil thesis academic writings is essay, expected? It depends on the nature of the coursework. If it is researched work, or a prize essay, you must show suitable familiarity with the academic literature. Essay questions will usually require you to give more attention to academic writings than problem questions. Coursework! Shorter and less factually intricate problem questions may demand some knowledge of academic output; they may well be designed to lead you directly to essay about of music, a narrowly defined but much debated issue to undertake discussion of it in depth. Long and involved problem questions may require you only to work your way through the facts by application of positive law.
Any crucial academic debates are likely to have been mentioned in lectures. Do I always have to ukraine essay, say what I think is the best view? Yes. Love Of Music! You have been asked for your opinion, and you must give it. Provided your reasoning is clear, based on proper understanding of the law and on sensible reactions to the facts, you will not lose much credit simply because the ukraine essay, marker would have reached a different conclusion. Many marks are lost, however, by answers which use the supposed uncertainty of the law as an excuse for failure to assess the strengths of competing arguments. Is it ever appropriate to about of music, adopt a particular view of a problem for civilization essays the tactical reason that it provides the best route through the question?
Yes. If you think there are two plausible answers to of music, a question, and one would lead you to reject most of the given facts as irrelevant while the other would allow you to make good use of those facts, you would do well to adopt the ukraine essay, second view. You do not have to essay love, be intellectually dishonest; if in fact you prefer the first approach, say so, but go on to consider the discontents essays, second one as an alternative. I have finished writing my answer. Is there anything else I should do before handing it in? Put it to essay about of music, one side, at least overnight and preferably for ukraine essay longer, and then read through it. If there is any point in your reading at which you need to pause to essay love, wonder about the essays, sense of what you have written, that passage needs to be re-drafted. Check the spelling, punctuation and so on. There is no excuse for handing in badly written work.
If you are hazy about any points of grammar (use of apostrophes, for example) find out the rules and learn them. Are there any formal presentational instructions to follow? Make sure your work is as easy to read as possible (ie. use a standard font and essay of music, print it out on a printer which is working properly), and check that there is enough of a margin for the marker to write comments beside the body of the text. Work need not be double-spaced, however. Is it a good idea to a level physics coursework, compare notes with other students once coursework has been handed back? It is essay love, often useful. It is entirely a matter for individual students, though, and nobody should feel under pressure to ukraine essay, share their coursework with others. My tutor seems to have found little to comment on essay love of music, in my answer, but has given me a mark in the low 50s.
How should I do better next time? Some major flaws can be quite tersely expressed (eg. superficiality, lack of discernible structure, major authorities missed, basic mistakes of law) so check very carefully since brief comments may in fact reflect serious shortcomings. A Level! If you are still at a loss to understand it, make an appointment to speak to your tutor. You are entitled to sufficient feedback to help you to improve. Why are marks of more than 80% hardly ever awarded? This is a convention common to most law schools. There are various justifications, some of them more convincing than others. Comparative assessment is a major component of the marking process, so that a mark in fact tends to measure the extent to which an love of music answer is better or worse than an average performance. This approach makes it difficult to verulamium coursework, classify any piece of work as wholly worthless (0%) or perfect (100%). Love! There may also be a sense that the highest marks can only properly be awarded for protestantatholicew an essay in american religious sociology exercises of a certain level of difficulty (which Diploma coursework would not begin to approach). The convention is well understood, and essay, should not be a cause for concern.
I think the study, mark I have been given is about of music, completely mistaken. Can I do anything about it? The marker should be willing to spend some time discussing this with you in order to try to protestantatholicew an essay in american religious, explain further to you why the mark is essay love, what it is. This should not be regarded as an invitation to put pressure upon the marker to change the mark. If you remain dissatisfied, you may seek a verification of the mark through the University’s Academic Registry. Why do coursework marks not count towards our final Diploma results? The Diploma is an intensive course, and students’ full efforts need to be directed towards learning. The Law Department’s opinion is that coursework can assist that process in a number of in american ways, but that it would cease to do so if it became an end in itself. In order to love, prevent that, the ukraine essay, status of coursework remains informal. Thanks to David Herling (Senior Lecturer in Law, and essay, Programme Director for the GDL) for this useful guidance. Conceived by E Allbon.
Redesigned with co-conspirator Sanmeet Kaur.