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Business Development Business Plan. We are today experiencing a rapid growth in the economy of unsurpassed nature. This has been brought about by amongst other things, the relaxation of foreign exchange policies and macro economic policies geared towards attracting foreign investors into the country. The fiscal and monetary policies of the government geared towards maintaining growth with social justice have largely contributed towards this, evidenced by our economy averaging a growth rate of 7% since 1990 -- very high by international standards. Christianity Church History! The current drive and emphasis by essay on gun, the government on diversification of the church industrial base away from the minerals sector presents an opportunity for Palms and Bonds to make a valuable contribution towards achieving this goal. This will result in implementation of modern market research techniques and transfer of of biotechnology knowledge.
Having undertaken a thorough and comprehensive research of the market we realized that there was a need for a specialized market research firm that focuses on producing market research reports that are tailored to christianity church essay history orthodox, the clients needs. Though there are business consultancy firms currently on introduction to methodology essays, the market, some of whom have been in existence for a relatively long period of time, we believe that there is a market need for one (ourselves in essay history this instance) that particularly focuses on market research. We intend to provide services of extremely high quality -- something that cannot be over-emphasized in thesis the international arena with the current drive towards globalization. We appreciate that entering such a market is not a bed of roses and intend to implement an essay orthodox, aggressive marketing strategy, well supported by the other business functions. The above prognosis influenced our decision to enter the essay descartes business consultancy industry. Church Essay! Palms and Bonds will be focusing on local businesses and foreign investors looking at investing in the country. These will be small, medium, and rogerian on gun control, large-sized companies looking for a total service and quality work. Our most important group of potential customers are foreign investors. These are potential investors who want to have a feel and understanding of the local markets and church history, the opportunities, and thesis of biotechnology, constraints they present to them. They do not want to waste their time or risk their money looking for bargain information or questionable expertise. As they go into markets looking at new opportunities, they are very sensitive to risking their company's name and reputation.
Large corporations: one of our most important market segment is the large organization looking at penetrating new or existing markets. These companies will be calling on essay history orthodox, Palms and Bonds for development functions that are better spun off than managed in-house, for market research, and feasibility studies. Medium-sized growth companies: particularly in rapidly expanding markets, Palms and Bonds will offer an attractive development alternative to the company that is of writing essays management constrained and unable to address opportunities in new markets and new market segments. Small-sized companies: in an increasingly competitive environment entrepreneurs are becoming more cautious in church history orthodox the markets they seek to enter and on establishing new market opportunities. They are often seeking for prior research to be done to identify possible markets that are suited to their resources and capabilities. Hence the rogerian control most likely types of businesses to require our services would include: New businesses seeking investment or start-up capital New firms looking at investing in christianity church essay the country Existing companies which are expanding or introducing a new product/ service.
The table below summarizes the total market potential. We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create graphs for your own business plan. We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create automatic financials for your own business plan. Control! 4.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. Our marketing strategy will be based mainly on making the right information available to the right target customer. We will ensure that our services' prices take into consideration people's budgets, and church history orthodox, that these people appreciate the service and know that it exists, including where to find it. Introduction To Methodology Of Writing Essays! The marketing will convey the christianity history orthodox sense of quality in every picture, every promotion, and thesis, every publication. There is already a sense of segment strategy in the way we define our target market. We are choosing to compete in areas that lend themselves to local competition, service and channel areas that match our strengths, and christianity church essay orthodox, avoid our weaknesses. Our strategy calls for introduction essays the development of relationships with investment bodies, attorneys, accountants and financial institutions to support our business with referrals. Interviews with commercial loan officers have indicated that there is a serious need for a professional firm like ours to help their clients in market/marketing research, and development of comprehensive and concise business and marketing plans.
Palms and Bonds intends to provide the client with more than general market information. We intend to provide accurate, relevant, specific and church history, timely information that will enable our clients to make more accurate decisions. This information we intend to be available to essay, our clients at competitive rates. We understand that our target markets need more than just information but information that will enable them to make more informed decisions. Our target client wants information that is essay orthodox relevant to their needs and easily understandable so as to make the to methodology right decisions. We don't just intend to church essay history, provide a service, but to provide one of unparalleled nature relative to the market.
Our intended markets are increasingly growing towards recognizing the college application essay difference between poor quality business consultancy service and that of high quality. This development is an important trend for christianity essay orthodox us as it represents our target market, and hence opportunity. We now are having an rogerian essay, increasing number of people who appreciate quality information and the importance of having comprehensive and concise market and business plans undertaken. Another trend is the one toward greater use of specialized and focused consultants, instead of history orthodox in-house resources. Companies are looking for out-sourcing (but unfortunately few offer such a service) and, in general, a preference for variable costs instead of fixed costs. Although there are a number of attorneys and thesis proposal format paper, accountants who write or assist in writing a business plan, the church history orthodox reality is that these professionals provide invaluable services in the areas in which they specialize, but lack the imagination to write a comprehensive and effective business plan. The attorneys tend to dwell on the legal aspects and contractual arrangements while accountants sweat over the balance sheets, cash flow statements, product costs and income statements. Additionally, these vitally necessary professionals cannot afford to spend the many hours necessary to work on a business plan when they could be earning much more per hour concentrating on their particular field of introduction to methodology of writing essays expertise. Our expertise lies in the ability to listen to christianity orthodox, a business owner and essay, perceive their vision for their company over the next few years. We can envision what the business person is essay history looking for in the future, then put it in writing and at a cost they can live with.
The consulting industry is thesis proposal format research pulverized and disorganized, with many smaller consulting organizations and individual consultants for every one of the few dozen well-known companies. These other organizations often offer a service, which is not to the client's satisfaction. In addition they often claim to offer a service, which they are not fully capable of church orthodox providing satisfactorily. When Writing Are Novels! Consulting participants range from major international name-brand consultants to hundreds of individuals. One of Palms and Bonds' challenges will be establishing itself as a real consulting company, specializing in christianity church essay market research, positioned as a relatively risk-free corporate purchase. Control! The business consulting industry may be segmented by economics and needs patterns. This incorporates some of the christianity church essay history service type differences, but in a more practical sense: Mainline Services: these include marketing/market research undertaken through advertising, direct mail, referrals and sales literature. Essentially these will be customized to the client's needs. Are Novels! Ancillary Services: these include services such as trading licenses and company formation, which tend to be similar with not much to history, differentiate amongst providers except speed of execution. We intend to have an extremely efficient and 'state-of-the-art' business centre that will cater to our clients' needs. Service provider decisions don't tend to thesis of biotechnology, be major decisions/events covering relatively insignificant amounts.
Consulting is sold and purchased mainly on a word-of-mouth basis, with relationships and previous experience being, by church essay, far, the most important factor. The major name-brand houses have locations in the main mall, and executive-level managers or partners develop new business through industry associations, business associations, chambers of commerce and industry, etc., and in some cases social associations such as country clubs. On Gun! The medium-level houses tend to be general in terms of services and specific in terms of target market -- targeting FAP seeking clients/individuals. They are not easily able to leverage their business through distribution, which we intend to be one of our competitive advantages. Christianity History! 4.4.2 Competition and Buying Patterns. The key element in purchase decisions made at the Palms and Bonds client level is rogerian on gun trust in the professional reputation and reliability of the consulting firm. The most important factor in this market is the quality of the service.
The majority of the history investment referrals said they were not satisfied with the thesis current plans often submitted for their approval as they were of poor quality. There are numerous companies operating in Gaborone who classify themselves as business consultants. Church Orthodox! However, upon contacting these, it appears that the vast majority of these companies are bookkeeping and secretarial services companies. There are some companies that provide services similar to those offered by us and that is good, but none of them specialize in essay meditations market/marketing research. The following are some of our main competitors: The high-level prestige management consulting firms. Strengths: Prime locations managed by owner-partners with a high level of presentation and christianity, understanding of general business. Enviable reputations, which make purchase of consulting an easy decision for a manager, despite the very high prices. Weaknesses: General business knowledge doesn't substitute for the specific market, channel, and distribution expertise of Palms and Bonds, focusing on local markets and products/services. Also, fees are extremely expensive, and work is generally done by very junior-level consultants, even though sold by high-level partners. Essay! General Business Consultancy firms.
Strengths: Expertise in certain functional areas particularly bookkeeping. Palms and Bonds intends not to compete with general business consultancy firms in christianity history these markets. When An Essay Are Novels! Weaknesses: The inability to spread beyond a specific focus, or to rise above a specific focus, to provide actual marketing and church essay history, market research expertise, experience, and wisdom beyond the specifics. The most significant competition is no consulting at all, companies choosing to do market research, business development and channel development in-house. Strengths: No incremental cost except travel; also, the general work is done by application essay, the people who are entirely responsible, the christianity church history planning is done by those who will implement it. When Writing An Essay! Weaknesses: Most managers are terribly overburdened already, unable to find incremental resources in time and people to apply to incremental opportunities. Christianity Essay History Orthodox! Also, there is a lot of thesis of biotechnology additional risk in christianity church essay history orthodox market and channel development done in-house from the ground up. Finally, retainer-based antenna consultants can greatly enhance a company's reach and extend its position into conversations that might otherwise never have taken place. Attorneys and Accounting firms.
Strengths: Able to provide sound accounting or legal advice and services with the plans being done by essay meditations, the partners. Christianity Church Essay History! Weaknesses: They often lack the imagination to write a comprehensive and effective business plan. The attorneys tend to dwell on the legal aspects and contractual arrangements while accountants sweat over the balance sheets, cash flow statements, product costs and rogerian essay on gun, income statements. Very little market research, if any, is often undertaken, and often ineffectively. At the highest level are the few well-established major names in management consulting. Most of these are organized as partnerships established in major markets around the world, linked together by interconnecting directors and history orthodox, sharing the name and corporate wisdom. Some evolved from when writing an essay are novels underlined accounting companies and some from management consulting.
These companies charge very high rates for christianity essay history consulting, and maintain relatively high overhead structures and fulfillment structures based on partners selling and junior associates fulfilling. (Discussion omitted in this sample plan) We have sought to identify competition in terms of companies that satisfy the same client needs that we intend to. Our competitors are few in essay descartes meditations our main service, and, including Government agencies, numerous in our ancillary services. There will be a need to strongly differentiate ourselves from these other businesses. However on a broader scale our competition comes in several forms: The most significant competition is no market research consulting at all, companies choosing to do market research, business development and christianity history orthodox, channel development in-house. Their own managers do this on their own, as part of their regular business functions. Our key advantage in competition with in-house development is that managers are already overloaded with responsibilities, they don't have time for additional responsibilities in new market development or new channel development. Also, Palms and Bonds can approach alliances, investment bodies, and channels on a confidential basis, gathering information and making initial contacts in ways that the corporate managers can't.
The high-level prestige management consulting: XXX and international firms. These are essentially generalists who take their name-brand management consulting into specialty areas. Their other very important weakness is the management structure that has the partners selling new jobs, and inexperienced associates delivering the work. We compete against them as experts in our specific fields, and with the thesis guarantee that our clients will have the top-level people doing the actual work. The third general kind of essay competitors are the various trading and bellevue essay, Investment bodies. These companies are formidable competitors for published market research and essay, market forums, but cannot provide the kind of high-level customized consulting that Palms and Bonds will provide.
The fourth kind of writing are novels underlined competition are the business consultancy firms, which undertake business plans for various organizations. For example: LLL, MMM, NNN, and OOO Consultancy. The fifth kind of competition are the numerous fly-by-night business consultants that claim to christianity history orthodox, offer the same services as we do. Often they offer a below par service with no qualified personnel. Your business plan can look as polished and professional as this sample plan. It's fast and easy, with LivePlan. Business planning has never been easier. With 500 complete sample plans, easy financials, and access anywhere, LivePlan turns your great idea into a great plan for bellevue college success. You can download this complete sample plan as a text document for orthodox FREE. Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses.
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ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY AND HUMANITARIANISM: AN
Right of Children to history, Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (Right to Education Act) Every child between the ages of 6 to 14 years has the right to free and compulsory education. This is stated as per the 86th Constitution Amendment Act via Article 21A. The Right to Education Act seeks to give effect to this amendment The government schools shall provide free education to all the children and the schools will be managed by School Management Committees (SMC). Private schools shall admit at writing an essay are novels underlined, least 25% of the children in their schools without any fee. Church Orthodox? The National Commission for when writing an essay are novels Elementary Education shall be constituted to monitor all aspects of elementary education including quality. Free and compulsory education to all children of India in the 6 to 14 age group. No child shall be held back, expelled or required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary education.
If a child above 6 years of age has not been admitted in any school or could not complete his or her elementary education, then he or she shall be admitted in a class appropriate to his or her age. However, if a case may be where a child is directly admitted in church history, the class appropriate to rogerian on gun control, his or her age, then, in church essay history, order to be at par with others, he or she shall have a right to receive special training within such time limits as may be prescribed. Provided further that a child so admitted to elementary education shall be entitled to free education till the completion of elementary education even after 14 years. Proof of age for admission : For the purpose of admission to elementary education, the age of a child shall be determined on the basis of the birth certificate issued in accordance with the Provisions of Birth. Deaths and Marriages Registration Act 1856, or on the basis of such other document as may be prescribed.No child shall be denied admission in a school for lack of age proof A child who completes elementary education shall be awarded a certificate. Call need to be taken for a fixed student–teacher ratio. Twenty-five per cent reservation for economically disadvantaged communities in admission to Class I in all private schools is to be done.
Improvement in the quality of education is thesis proposal research important. Church History? School teachers will need adequate professional degree within five years or else will lose job. School infrastructure (where there is a problem) need to be improved in every 3 years, else recognition will be cancelled. Financial burden will be shared between the state and the central government. Article 21A of the Constitution - Constitution (Eighty - Sixth Amendment) Act, 2002. 86th Amendment Act (2002) via Article 21A (Part III) seeks to an essay underlined, make free and compulsory education a Fundamental Right for church essay all children in the age group 6-14 years. A first draft of the legislation envisaged in bellevue college essay, the above Article, viz., Free and Compulsory Education for Children Bill, 2003, was prepared and christianity church orthodox posted on this website in October, 2003, inviting comments and an essay underlined suggestions from the public at large. Subsequently, taking into christianity church history, account the suggestions received on this draft, a revised draft of the thesis format, Bill entitled Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2004.
The CABE (Central Advisory Board of Education) committee drafted the ‘Right to Education’ Bill and submitted to the Ministry of HRD. MHRD sent it to NAC where Mrs. Sonia Gandhi is the history, Chairperson. NAC sent the introduction essays, Bill to PM for his observation. The finance committee and christianity orthodox planning commission rejected the Bill citing the essay, lack of funds and a Model bill was sent to states for making the necessary arrangements. Church History Orthodox? (Post-86th amendment, States had already cited lack of funds at descartes meditations, State level) Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Bill, 2008, passed in both Houses of Parliament in 2009.
The law received President's assent in August 2009. Article 21-A and the RTE Act come into effect. Why is the act significant and what does it mean for essay history orthodox India? The passing of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009 marks a historic moment for the children of India. This Act serves as a building block to ensure that every child has his or her right (as an entitlement) to get a quality elementary education, and that the State, with the rogerian control, help of families and communities, fulfils this obligation.
Few countries in the world have such a national provision to orthodox, ensure both free and child-centred, child-friendly education. What is ‘Free and Compulsory Elementary Education’? All children between the ages of 6 and 14 shall have the right to free and compulsory elementary education at when writing are novels underlined, a neighbourhood school. There is no direct (school fees) or indirect cost (uniforms, textbooks, mid-day meals, transportation) to essay history, be borne by the child or the parents to obtain elementary education. The government will provide schooling free-of-cost until a child’s elementary education is completed. What is the role envisaged for the community and parents to ensure RTE? The Right of rogerian essay on gun Children to Free and essay Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009 insists upon schools to constitute School Management Committees (SMCs) comprising local authority officials, parents, guardians and teachers. The SMCs shall form School Development Plans and monitor the utilization of to methodology of writing essays government grants and the whole school environment. RTE also mandates the inclusion of 50 per essay history, cent women and parents of children from rogerian essay on gun, disadvantaged groups in SMCs. Such community participation will be crucial to ensuring a child friendly “whole school” environment through separate toilet facilities for girls and boys and adequate attention to health, water, sanitation and hygiene issues. How does RTE promote Child-Friendly Schools?
All schools must comply with infrastructure and teacher norms for an effective learning environment. Two trained teachers will be provided for every sixty students at the primary level. Teachers are required to attend school regularly and punctually, complete curriculum instruction, assess learning abilities and hold regular parent-teacher meetings. The number of teachers shall be based on the number of students rather than by grade. The state shall ensure adequate support to teachers leading to church, improved learning outcomes of children. The community and civil society will have an important role to play in collaboration with the essay descartes, SMCs to ensure school quality with equity. The state will provide the policy framework and create an enabling environment to ensure RTE becomes a reality for every child. How will RTE be financed and implemented in India? Central and state governments shall share financial responsibility for RTE. Church Orthodox? The central government shall prepare estimates of expenditures. State governments will be provided a percentage of these costs.
What are the key issues for achieving RTE? RTE provides a ripe platform to thesis proposal format research paper, reach the church, unreached, with specific provisions for disadvantaged groups, such as child labourers, migrant children, children with special needs, or those who have a “disadvantage owing to essay, social, cultural economical, geographical, linguistic, gender or such other factor.” RTE focuses on the quality of teaching and learning, which requires accelerated efforts and substantial reforms: Creative and sustained initiatives are crucial to train more than one million new and untrained teachers within the next five years and to reinforce the skills of in-service teachers to ensure child-friendly education. Families and communities also have a large role to play to ensure child-friendly education for each and church essay orthodox every one of the estimated 190 million girls and boys in India who should be in elementary school today. Disparities must be eliminated to assure quality with equity. Proposal Research? Investing in preschool is a key strategy in meeting goals. Bringing eight million out-of-school children into classes at the age appropriate level with the support to stay in school and succeed poses a major challenge necessitating flexible, innovative approaches. What is the mechanism available if RTE is essay orthodox violated?
The National Commission for essay the Protection of Child Rights shall review the safeguards for rights provided under this Act, investigate complaints and church essay orthodox have the powers of an essay are novels underlined a civil court in trying cases. States should constitute a State Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (SCPCR) or the Right to Education Protection Authority (REPA) within six months of 1 April, 2010. Any person wishing to file a grievance must submit a written complaint to the local authority.. Appeals will be decided by the SCPCR/REPA. Church Essay? Prosecution of offences requires the sanction of an officer authorised by the appropriate government.
In 2002, education was made a fundamental right in to methodology of writing essays, the 86th amendment to the Constitution. Six years after an christianity church essay history orthodox amendment was made in the Indian Constitution, the union cabinet cleared the Right to Education Bill. Key provisions of the Bill include: 25% reservation in private schools for disadvantaged children from the neighbourhood, at the entry level. The government will reimburse expenditure incurred by schools; no donation or capitation fee on admission; and essay meditations no interviewing the christianity history, child or parents as part of the screening process. The Bill also prohibits physical punishment, expulsion or detention of a child and deployment of teachers for non-educational purposes other than census or election duty and disaster relief. Running a school without recognition will attract penal action. The Right to Education Bill is the enabling legislation to notify the 86th constitutional amendment that gives every child between the age of six and 14 the right to free and compulsory education. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009, on April 12, 2012 and thesis proposal format paper directed every school, including privately-run ones, to give immediately free education to students from socially and economically backward classes from class-I till they reach the age of 14 years. The court threw out the challenge by private unaided schools to Section 12(1)(c) of the Act that says every recognized school imparting elementary education, even if it is an unaided school not receiving any kind of aid or grant to meet its expenses, is obliged to admit disadvantaged boys and girls from their neighbourhood.
A Roadmap to Ensure Right To Education. The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has been designated as the agency to monitor provisions of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act. School Admissions According to RTE Norms. A series of measures have been taken by essay history orthodox the NCPCR to ensure that school admission procedures all over the country are in accordance with the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009. This was necessitated by rogerian control the fact that schools in some states were carrying out a screening procedure for admission of children in the elementary stage of education prohibited by the Act.In April, the NCPCR wrote to the chief secretaries of all the orthodox, states asking them to issue Government Orders to ensure that school admission procedures were in accordance with the RTE Act. This was prompted by the Directorate of essay descartes meditations Education, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD), issuing a notice in March inviting applications for admission to Class VI in church orthodox, the Rajkiya Pratibha Vikas Vidyalayas run by the Directorate. The NCPCR’s intervention in format research, April came in response to an admission notice that had been issued by the GNCTD’s Directorate of Education in all leading newspapers as well as in the Directorate’s website, inviting students to christianity church essay history, purchase application forms costing Rs 25 each and thereafter sit for an entrance exam. Since the RTE Act prohibits any kind of screening procedure and permits admissions into any school through random selection only, the notice was clearly in contravention of the Act.
As the nodal body monitoring the descartes, implementation of the RTE Act, the Commission wrote to christianity essay orthodox, the Principal Secretary, Education, GNCTD, asking the when writing are novels underlined, admission notice be withdrawn and christianity church history a notice in Conformity with the provisions of the introduction to methodology of writing, RTE be issued instead. It also requested that Government Orders (GO) be issued to all schools in christianity essay, the GNCTD within a week regarding the provisions of the Act so that the schools made the required changes in their procedures and modes of functioning. As the Directorate did not comply with this request, it was summoned by the Commission in June and given time till July to rogerian on gun, re-conduct the admission in accordance with RTE procedures. To ensure that the RTE Act was not similarly contravened in other states, the church essay orthodox, NCPCR has in its letter to the chief secretaries said that the GO they issue to schools on the matter must specify that: Admission procedures be made in essays, accordance with the RTE Act 25 per cent reservation is ensured for weaker sections in all ‘specified category’ schools and essay history private unaided schools, and reservation norms for government aided schools are to be followed. Further, private schools recognized by the government must also be mapped out and writing issued notice regarding provisions in the Act as well as the procedures by which children in the neighbourhood could claim admission to the schools. Also, the essay history, task of finalizing State Rules on the RTE Act must be completed at the earliest.
In response to queries regarding Navodaya Schools which have been designated as ‘specified category’ schools in the RTE Act, the NCPCR clarified that the provisions of Section 13 of RTE Act applied to thesis, all schools without exception. The relevant provision of Section 13 of the Act is: No school or person shall, while admitting a child, collect any capitation fee and subject the history, child or his or her parents or guardians to bellevue, any screening procedure. Any school or person, if in christianity history orthodox, contravention of the provisions of sub-section (1): Receives capitation fee, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten times the capitation fee charged Subjects a child to proposal format research paper, screening procedure shall be punishable with fine which may extend to Rs 25,000 for the first contravention and christianity Rs 50,000 for each subsequent contravention.
No Screening for Admission to Navodaya Schools. The National Commission for introduction to methodology Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has written to the commissioner, Navodaya Schools, as well as the state education secretaries against any kind of screening for admission of children to christianity history orthodox, elementary education (Classes 1 to eight). The NCPCR intervened to bellevue college, check violation of RTE provisions after it got reports of Navodaya schools screening students in Delhi and christianity church other states. Quoting Section 13 of the RTE Act 2009, the NCPCR has pointed out that while admitting a child to school, the Act prohibits schools or persons from collecting capitation fees or subjecting the child or the parents and guardians to any screening procedure. Any school or person receiving capitation fees, it has pointed out, could be punished with a fine which could be ten times the capitation fee charged. Subjecting a child to screening could lead to a fine of Rs 25,000 for the first contravention and Rs 50,000 for each subsequent contravention. Section 13 applies to all schools even the Navodaya schools which have been designated special category schools in the RTE Act. Screening procedures being conducted by when writing are novels Navodaya Schools are a violation of the RTE Act, it clarified.
NCPCR has also requested state governments to issue orders to christianity essay orthodox, all schools regarding the provisions of the Act so that the required changes in their procedures and modes of functioning are made within a week. The following persons shall be eligible for appearing in the TET: A person who has acquired the academic and proposal format research paper professional qualifications specified in christianity church orthodox, the NCTE Notification dated 23rd August 2010. A person who is pursuing any of the teacher education courses (recognized by the NCTE or the RCI, as the case may be) specified in the NCTE Notification dated 23rd August 2010. The eligibility condition for appearing in TET may be relaxed in thesis proposal paper, respect of a State/UT which has been granted relaxation under sub-section (2) of section 23 of the RTE Act. The relaxation will be specified in the Notification issued by the Central Government under that sub-section.
Each child to get free uniform, books under RTE. Each child from class I to class VIII in the country will be provided free textbooks and uniforms, if a raodmap prepared by the Centre to implement the essay history orthodox, Right To Education Act (RTE) is accepted by the states. The roadmap to essay control, implement the Right of Children to christianity essay history, Free and Compulsory Education Act was discussed at a meeting of state Education Secretaries recently. According to the minutes of the meeting: Nearly 7.8 lakh additional classrooms and seven lakh girls' toilets will have to be created to implement the new law which has come into force from April 1. The government will spend Rs 1.71 lakh crore in to methodology of writing essays, the next five years for implementing the Act. Church History Orthodox? Each child will be provided uniforms at on gun, Rs 400 per church history, annum. Many states are already providing uniforms from their own budget. But the uniforms will have to be provided by the state governments. College Application Essay? They need to agree to this provision and incorporate it in their rules, a HRD Ministry official said. Every child will be provided free textbooks while a child with special need will get Rs 3,000 per annum for inclusive education.
Similarly, Rs 10,000 will be given for home-based education for severely disabled children. There will be a requirement of additional 5.1 lakh teachers to meet the pupils-teacher ration of 30 for one as per the RTE Act. In UP, there is a requirement for 1.5 lakh teachers, followed by Bihar and Gujarat (0.5 to one lakh each), according to the minutes of the meeting. The Rs 1.71 lakh crore will be spent on provision of history access, infrastructure, training of untrained teachers and for intervention for out-of school children. Essay Descartes Meditations? The teachers' salary and civil work will have maximum financial requirements of 28 per cent and 24 per cent respectively. Nearly 17 per cent of the total estimate will be spent on child entitlement, while nine per christianity church history orthodox, cent will go to essay descartes meditations, special training for out-of-school children. School facilities will require eight per history, cent of this money and inclusive education will need six per essay on gun, cent. The 7.6 lakh untrained teachers will be provided training in next five years. Maximum number of untrained teachers are in Bihar, Jharkhand and the northeastern states.
The RTE stipulates barrier-free education for children with special needs and one classroom per teacher. About 7.8 lakh additional classrooms will be required. Majority of these classrooms will be Uttar Pradesh and christianity history Bihar (2.5 lakh each) followed by West Bengal (1.3 lakh) and essay on gun control Assam (30,000). There are nearly 27,000 'kuchcha' school buildings which will have to be upgraded. Nearly seven lakh toilets for girls will be required, including 90,000 in Bihar, 63,000 in Madhya Pradesh and 54,000 in Orissa. About 3.4 lakh schools will require drinking water facility. Source: Portal Content Team.
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Robert Bly Bly, Robert (Vol. 10) - Essay. Bly is an christianity church history orthodox, American poet, translator, essayist, and editor who through his rebellion against rhetoric and his development of the deep image has greatly influenced contemporary poetry. Often characterized as mystical or visionary, his is a poetry of the inner world, filled with images of nature and solitude. Bly was a founder of bellevue college essay, American Writers against the Vietnam War. A 1968 recipient of the National Book Award, he donated the prize money to aid young Americans in defying the draft. (See also CLC , Vols. 1, 2, 5, and Contemporary Authors , Vols. 5-8, rev. ed.) Access our Robert Bly Study Guide for Free. [There] was a radical shift between [Robert Bly's] first and second books, Silence in the Snowy Fields and The Light Around the Body . Since then, however, Bly has not put aside one style or mode to take up another, as some other poets have tended to essay history orthodox, do.
Rather, he has taken the bellevue essay, discoveries made in the first two books and used them to write different sorts of poems simultaneously, and has mingled the ways of writing explored there in new ways. The result has been a fascinating body of work, a voice as distinctive as any we now have in history, our poetry. (p. 2) A quietly revolutionary book, [ Silence in the Snowy Fields ] has had an important influence in American poetry in introduction, the years since [it appeared]. The snow, fields, barns, lakes, and trees, presented so plainly and precisely, yet seeming to resonate, to glow, with some deep, moving mystery; the christianity church essay orthodox, quiet declaratory tone; the open expressions of pleasure (there must have been a refreshing, freeing feeling then in writing lines like: There is a privacy I love in introduction essays, this snowy night and christianity church orthodox I love to see old boards lying on the ground in early spring); the unexpected leaps of metaphor; the silence, the sense of solitude, the poetry in the blank spaces between the stanzas; the rich subjectivity of it all;—all went to make a book that was strikingly original, and that tapped resources that had long been turned away from, for paper, the most part, in christianity essay orthodox, American poetry: silence, subjectivity, association, the unconscious, a limpid style. Bly was not alone in his interest in this kind of poetry, but Silence in the Snowy Fields was one of the crucial examples of its reemergence. More important, it was and is a beautiful and moving book of poems. I think it still stands as Bly's best single collection.
The critic who reviewed it in 1963 and said that the poems were less effective read grouped together was dead wrong; the repetition of images, phrasings, and feelings enriches the book—artful repetition being one of the when are novels underlined, oldest keys to poetry—and in a way holds it together as if it were a single long poem. Church Essay Orthodox. As an expression of a deep marriage between the inner and outer worlds in one man's life and thesis proposal format paper place it is in the line of christianity church essay history orthodox, Walden . Rogerian On Gun. I imagine that it will stand, in spite and because of its limitations, as a small (i.e., 60 pages) classic in American poetry. (pp. 2-3) While there is of course some continuity between [this and The Light Around the Body ] (most notably interest in what is now well-known as the deep image), the christianity orthodox, change from proposal research paper Silence to The Light was a jarring one. The Light doesn't have the clarity, the purity, of Silence; instead it is woolly with surrealism and wild associative leaps. The remarkable evocations of the motions of the soul in church history, peaceful solitude are replaced—nearly obliterated—by political and social rage and despair: the Vietnam War, The Great Society, America's Hatred of Men With Black Hair. It is an writing an essay, angry, uneven, powerful book, and clearly with it Bly made a major contribution to the growth of an American poetry which is truly political and truly poetry. After The Light , the question was: what sort of poetry would Bly write now? Inward pastorals, or barrages of wild imagery and political passion? As I've said, the answer has been to abandon neither, to open himself to the energies, and risks, of history orthodox, both. So in Bly's most recent book, Sleepers Joining Hands , we find together his most ambitious political poem, The Teeth-Mother Naked at Last, a surrealistic, wildly associative poem like Hair, and format research the quiet, brief, haunting meditations of Six Winter Privacy Poems.
The single most important word with regard to orthodox, Sleepers is when writing, association; it is the dominant principle throughout the book. Bly has written a good deal about association in his essays; an christianity church essay, entire issue of his magazine The Seventies (#1) was devoted to it. While it doesn't detract from the self-sufficiency of the poetry or the rogerian essay on gun, value of his stimulating essays, it is christianity church essay, obvious that with Bly, as with Poe (and probably every other writer who has written both poetry and critical essays), a knowledge of the criticism is an important aid in getting a fuller understanding of the poetry. When he speaks of association Bly seems to have three things in mind. First, association is a structural principle…. Second, association has to do with speed, the speed with which a poet is able to move from introduction to methodology of writing essays one image, feeling or idea to another, from the christianity church history orthodox, known part of the mind to the unknown part and back to the known.… Third, association means being able to travel a long way from an initial, literal subject into subjectivity and the unconscious, and still be talking about the original subject….
Taken together, the result of these three ideas—the absence of connectives or natural order, rapid leaping, and moving the poem far. (The entire section is 2012 words.) Get Free Access to this Robert Bly Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and descartes thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on christianity history the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Robert Bly's poetry owes its appeal in part to vivid descriptions of the thesis, region around Madison, Minnesota, where he has spent much of his life. The chief concern of his verse, however, is not the objective portrayal of church orthodox, external nature but, rather, the presentation of various states of mind. Natural surroundings assume importance for him either as influences contributing to thoughts or emotions or as media of symbolic expression. Along with James Wright, James Dickey, Robert Kelley and others, Bly has argued for the writing of bellevue college, poetry of increased subjectivity, with emphasis upon the poet's personal vision…. He shares significant ground with the church, surrealist Andre Breton, particularly in his fondness for images generated by powerful feelings in the poet's unconscious and designed to appeal to the unconscious of the reader. Although he lacks Breton's Freudian faith in the omnipotence of the dream, dreams and thesis of biotechnology dream-images do appear in his verse.
Similarly, while his art is much more consciously constructed than the automatic writing or pure psychic automatism prized by the surrealists, it does contain such notable imagistic departures from objectivity as moles with golden wings and Arabic numerals dressed as bankers and sportsmen, images which are solidly in the surrealist tradition. In accordance with his attraction to subjectivity, Bly's typical authorial stance is emotional, as reflected in titles like Three Kinds of Pleasures, Unrest, Depression, Melancholia, and Written in Dejection near Rome. Despite the orthodox, predominant gloominess of these titles, the to methodology of writing, emotion most often expressed in church history, the poems is not sadness but delight. Joy or happiness frequently overtakes the author while he is alone in the out-of-doors. He is on gun, both comforted and inspired by solitude, not only because it facilitates the reflective and meditative moments which are vital to his well-being but also because is frees him to develop a mental intensity out of which poetry may issue. Bly refers to christianity essay orthodox, the artist's psychic potential as desire-energy and explains that during periods of solitude this desire-energy accumulates until it overflows into expression…. (pp. 231-32) Since Bly's verse depends heavily upon dominant images, it is essential that the most important images be carefully examined.
Among his most frequently repeated images is darkness. One third of the poems in Silence in the Snowy Fields are set in darkness, the poet delighting especially in late night walks across the fields. No doubt darkness attracts him partially because it is essay, conducive to solitude. Furthermore, it serves as a convenient emblem of the unconscious, an important realm to this poet who, like the surrealists, wishes to open new corridors into the psyche by association.… For Bly, as for generations of other poets, darkness also represents death. Such observations as: the christianity, darkness of death, The farmer looks up at the paling dome reminding him of death, and We are falling,/ Falling into the open mouths of darkness, combined with the juxtaposition of of writing essays, darkness and death in poems such as Night and Riderless Horses provide conclusive evidence of Bly's intentions. Frequently linked with darkness (as in the quotation above from Return to Solitude) is the image of essay orthodox, water, occasionally described by bellevue application essay, Bly as itself dark.… Having an christianity church, easily penetrable surface and variable depth, water is uniquely appropriate as an image attached to the related conditions of sleep and death, both of which Bly associates with a fertile strangeness and thesis of biotechnology inwardness.
Somewhat as a sleeper falls away from christianity surface consciousness into the depth of the unconscious, so the newly dead literally descend beneath the earth's surface and figuratively break through the surface of conscious existence and into a mysterious, unfamiliar realm. The imagistic usefulness of water in such contexts is bellevue college application, self-evident. Bly's aspiration to escape the tyranny of rational consciousness, experiencing instead the inward state and its richness, is christianity church essay history orthodox, expressed through a water-image in rogerian essay on gun control, After Drinking All Night With a Friend …. The poet acknowledges that his experiences have been essentially conscious, that his have been the same interests which, as he says elsewhere, have caused American poetry to cling at unprofitable length to the surface of life. Like the boat in which he is seated, he has simply drifted above the depths, but he yearns to christianity essay history orthodox, go underwater…. (pp. Format. 232-34) Like darkness and christianity essay history orthodox water, snow is a favorite Bly image associated with sleep and death. As with darkness, he is thesis, employing a traditional, even archetypal, image because of its proven suggestive power. In his preference for snow he joins a symbolic tradition among whose modern representatives are James Joyce's The Dead and Robert Frost's Stopping by christianity church essay orthodox, Woods on a Snowy Evening. Like Joyce and Frost, Bly prefers to link snow and darkness, thereby intensifying if not actually doubling the evocative powers of the rogerian, images. (pp. 234-35) Frequently associated with snow, water, or darkness in Bly's poems is moonlight.
To fully understand its place in his imagistic realm, it is first necessary to review his relation to the German mystical theologian Jacob Boehme (1575–1624), whose writings have furnished epigraphs for christianity essay history orthodox, both Silence in the Snowy Fields and proposal research paper The Light around the Body . The poet's choice of christianity essay history, epigraphs, such as, We are all asleep in the. (The entire section is 2230 words.) Get Free Access to this Robert Bly Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. In Sleepers Joining Hands , Robert Bly offers his readers a various weave of the bellevue college application, personal and the public, the psychological and church essay history orthodox the political modes of experience. Each mode illuminates the other, though … the collection is most fundamentally and formally psychological. Essay Descartes Meditations. The layout of the book is pleasantly indirect: two dozen pages of poems, ranging from haiku-like meditation moments to longer poems of protest.
Then there is the essay, a short course in the Great Mother, an analysis of the disturbing but finally nourishing configuration of feminine archetypes in the collective unconscious. And finally we have the oneiric title sequence: four poems and a coda, written at different times and published in. (The entire section is church history, 3377 words.) The experience of thesis proposal format paper, reading Sleepers Joining Hands … is essay history orthodox, a bit like slogging your way through a violent storm. The book begins in deceptive calm, with Six Winter Privacy Poems.… Bly's central theme, beautifully rendered: the duality of inner and outer worlds, the deep duality of a consciousness often conflicted but existing here in a momentary state of peaceful coexistence. It's the American haiku, fully and essay on gun quietly accomplished…. [However,] the final, frenetic Whitmanesque catalogue of wildly various identifications [in An Extra Joyful Chorus for Those Who Have Read This Far] should give you some idea of the bumpy ground Bly travels in Sleepers Joining Hands . (The entire section is 806 words.) Robert Bly's prose poems have a parallel hallucinatory quality [to the drawings by church orthodox, Gendron Jensen that illustrate This Body Is Made of Camphor and Gopherwood]…. My beloved is to meditations, me as a cluster of camphor, we read in the Song of Solomon (1:14); and the Ark, God told Noah (Genesis 6:14), was to be made of gopherwood.
The Ark was by some accounts an church, allegory for the body, and that's all the explanation you're going to get in these pages about what it's like to of writing, be alive in a body; in it, yet through it mysteriously part of everything else material…. Bly is attempting to write down what it's like to christianity history, be alive, a state in which, he implies, not all readers find themselves all. (The entire section is 168 words.) Nowadays, everything Bly touches becomes a holy cause and when writing are novels reason for another book. Orthodox. [In This Body is Made of Camphor and Gopherwood ] he consecrates the thesis, often neglected[?] medium of the prose poem. Like the snail in the book's twenty-one drawings by Gendron Jensen, Bly has crept into the shell of christianity history, his own meditations and remains absorbed in Sufi poetry, Rilke, protozoa, animals, woods, and essay control fog. The pilgrim's mecca is a small black stone, mysterious and impenetrable. One may admire such pure isolation, but the poet does not help us to share it. The result is not mysticism but solipsism, and we are left out in the cold by passages like this one from christianity church orthodox The Pail; So for two days I gathered ecstasies from my own. (The entire section is 302 words.) Robert Bly Homework Help Questions.
[eNotes editors are only permitted to answer one question per when are novels underlined, posting. If you have additional questions, please post them separately.] In Robert Bly's poem, Prayer for My Father, I believe that. The master mentioned in essay history, the final line of the Robert Bly's poem Waking from Sleep is actually sleep itself. Bly personifies sleep by making it our master as if sleep controls and rogerian control demands rest. This is short but powerful poem about the relationship between the speaker and his father. The father is near death, but the son is christianity church history orthodox, reassuring him that he will be OK after the when an essay are novels, father's passing. In order to answer the question you have to christianity church essay orthodox, consider your various association with hawks.
What immediately should come to mind is rogerian essay on gun control, their independent nature. They are usually seen in solitary. Ask a question.
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Greek orthodox Essay - 479 Words | Bartleby
100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for church over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and proposal paper easier. Causal analysis essays answer the church history, question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay.
To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is when writing an essay are novels this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of christianity essay history, falling in essay descartes meditations love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older?
Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to christianity essay orthodox fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)?
Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and rogerian essay control others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to christianity church essay be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush?
Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer?
Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)?
Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?
Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives?
Why are pets good for control kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to christianity history sleep in writing are novels underlined boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies?
Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the christianity essay history orthodox, wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates?
Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is rogerian on gun control nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the essay history, most successful animals on essay meditations earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere?
Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in christianity the Arab Spring Movement and essay on gun control Syria's civil war? What caused the essay orthodox, Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.?
What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to thesis paper the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the christianity essay history, world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in of biotechnology Germany? Why is China going to christianity church essay ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in of biotechnology the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to christianity church essay orthodox use vehicles as weapons?
Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the essay, development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the main language used around the history, world in format business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism?
What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the essay, parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is meditations different from the European system used by most of the rest of the church history orthodox, world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Rogerian Essay On Gun. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at church essay orthodox, 10%, and African American was third at essay descartes, 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the essay history orthodox, war?
Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for rogerian essay the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of history, your paper. Essay. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and church essay history orthodox describing the thesis of biotechnology, situation or effect. Christianity. See the chart for easy introduction and application essay conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and christianity church orthodox then answering it.
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Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. When Writing Are Novels. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by christianity essay history orthodox, Laura Writes 40. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. Essay Descartes Meditations. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at orthodox, my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Introduction To Methodology Of Writing Essays. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and christianity church orthodox helpful post!
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Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to thesis of biotechnology come up with good lesson plans and instructions. Essay Orthodox. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Essay. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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A Well-Educated Workforce Is Key to church essay history orthodox State Prosperity. What can state governments do to boost the economic well-being of their people? That is the central question of state economic policy. Incomes and wages can increase across an introduction essays, economy when productivity—production per capita—increases. Christianity Church Essay History Orthodox. States have many tools in their arsenal to increase productivity, including investments in public infrastructure, in proposal format paper technological innovation at public universities and christianity church orthodox, other institutions, and in workers through the education and training systems. But many states have been retreating from their responsibility to ensure state economic growth that benefits all residents in favor of a short-sighted approach to economic development. In these states, the focus is on luring employers from other states with strategies that do not lead to rising incomes because they do not make the workforce more productive. Application. Even worse, the focus drains resources from the most important, proven, path to increasing productivity: investments in christianity church essay education. Major findings of this report include the following:
Overwhelmingly, high-wage states are states with a well-educated workforce. There is essay, a clear and strong correlation between the educational attainment of christianity church a state’s workforce and median wages in thesis of biotechnology the state. States can build a strong foundation for economic success and shared prosperity by investing in education. Providing expanded access to high quality education will not only expand economic opportunity for residents, but also likely do more to strengthen the overall state economy than anything else a state government can do. Cutting taxes to capture private investment from other states is a race-to-the-bottom state economic development strategy that undermines the ability to invest in education. States can increase the strength of their economies and their ability to grow and attract high-wage employers by investing in christianity church history orthodox education and increasing the number of well-educated workers.
Investing in college education is also good for state budgets in christianity essay orthodox the long run, since workers with higher incomes contribute more through taxes over the course of their lifetimes. Introduction: Education suffers as state economic development wars escalate. Historically, U.S. economic growth and thesis, prosperity have been achieved through an essay, implicit partnership of federal, state, and local governments, a partnership that worked astonishingly well for a period after World War II. To Methodology. The federal government provided overall economic stability and sought to ensure that the economy never veered too far from full employment.1 State and essay, local governments assumed primary responsibility for the education system that produced a more skilled and productive workforce. Thesis Of Biotechnology. Federal and state governments both invested in infrastructure, and in christianity church essay orthodox basic research that provided enormous long-term benefits for the private sector. The end result was a long period of postwar productivity growth, the prerequisite for growth in the standard of descartes living. During the 1970s and 1980s, state and local governments across the country became convinced that they should play a more aggressive and expansive role in economic policy (Fisher and Peters 1998). Economic development became accepted as a major function of christianity history orthodox state and local government, and came to mean the direct promotion of private investment within the borders of a state or city.
This led to escalating competition for a limited supply of thesis private capital investment through increasingly generous incentive packages. While cutting costs to business has become the principal focus of economic development policy in many states, more and essay, more states are cutting programs across the spectrum to thesis research paper lower state taxes. In many cases these ideas are promoted as a way to orthodox attract employers from other states—to steal jobs by offering incentives to business leaders. But the preponderance of evidence has shown that in the long run these strategies are inefficient and ineffective (Fisher 2013; Mazerov 2013; Lynch 2004). State and local taxes on business are simply too small a share of total business costs to of biotechnology play a significant role in christianity essay orthodox location decisions; other factors—labor skills, wages, access to inputs and markets—are much more important.
Yet business tax breaks are expensive, and take money from investments in education and infrastructure that increase productivity and essay descartes meditations, support growth. And as public resources are squandered on unproductive state efforts to essay history capture private investment at the expense of thesis of biotechnology other states, it becomes more difficult to christianity fund the kind of education system innovations needed to raise U.S. Essay Descartes. educational performance up to the levels of other advanced industrial societies. Furthermore, investments in public research universities are important to enhancing the church essay history nation’s rate of of biotechnology innovation as basic research is spun off in new private ventures, and to maintaining or recapturing our leadership role in new technologies. Christianity Essay History Orthodox. Inadequate investments in education weaken the college application essay ability of a state to develop, grow, and attract businesses that offer high-skilled, high-wage jobs. Strong state education systems are good not just for the national economy; they are good for the citizens of the state. Ultimately, state economic policies seek to improve the lives of the christianity church essay history people in the state, which means creating conditions in essay control which people can get jobs that pay enough to support a family and provide economic security. This leads to a virtuous cycle, as working people who can afford to buy goods and christianity essay, services support local businesses and the local economy. The connection between education and of biotechnology, income is christianity essay history orthodox, strong. A high school diploma, technical college certificate, or college degree not only increases one’s skills and productivity, but signals to employers that the individual is motivated and introduction to methodology, completes tasks.
A more educated individual is more likely to participate in the job market, to have a job, to work more hours, and to be paid more, and less likely to be unemployed (French and Fisher 2009). Christianity Church. But the benefits of education go beyond the economic returns. Higher levels of education also correspond to improved health and lower rates of mortality, and lower rates of crime (Grossman and Kaestner 1997; Lleras-Muney 2005; Lochner and Moretti 2004). Research has also shown that greater parent education correlates positively with children’s health, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement (Wolfe and Zuvekas 1995; Haveman and Wolfe 1995; Smith, Brooks-Gunn, and Klebanov 1997). The children of more highly paid workers are also less likely to grow up in poverty, less likely to be poor as adults, and more likely to an essay are novels be better educated and paid as adults, and therefore less likely to rely on food stamps or other public assistance (French and Fisher 2009; Duncan, Kalil, and Ziol-Guest 2008). Christianity Church Essay History Orthodox. The benefits of thesis a more educated population accrue not just to the more educated workers, but to future generations and to the broader society. The best way to measure whether an economy is church history, working is to look at whether the incomes of average people are increasing. To achieve rising incomes for average people, two things need to happen: productivity needs to increase (creating more income overall), and new income generated from their increased productivity needs to be returned to workers in the form of higher wages. Ensuring the on gun control fair distribution of the rewards of productivity growth is primarily a federal responsibility, through such things as strong labor laws, fair trade policies, and monetary and fiscal policies that encourage full employment. There are some steps states can take in this area, such as maintaining strong labor standards, including minimum wage laws that protect the lowest paid workers.
Where states have the greatest role to play, however, is in christianity church making sure that all of their people—and particularly in bellevue application those from the most disadvantaged backgrounds—have the tools to be highly productive. Education is the christianity church essay history orthodox key to that, as are other things that make learning possible, such as making sure children have decent health care and sufficient nutrition. Reducing poverty itself has also been shown to improve the ability of children to thrive (Marr, Charite, and Huang 2013). Evidence suggests that states that increase the level of bellevue college essay education of their workforce see greater productivity. As shown in Figure A , between 1979 and 2012, states in which the orthodox share of adults with at least a college degree experienced greater increases in productivity, measured as gross state product per hour worked. Productivity has grown more in states with greater growth in the educational attainment of their workforce : Relationship between state productivity growth and increase in thesis proposal format research college attainment from 1979 to 2012. Source: EPI analysis of essay history unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, and college attainment data from the Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Copy the code below to embed this chart on rogerian essay, your website. There is essay orthodox, also evidence that greater productivity is associated with higher wages. Figure B shows that between 1979 and 2007, states with larger increases in productivity experienced larger increases in median worker compensation.
Worker compensation has increased more in states with greater increases in productivity : Relationship between change in thesis of biotechnology state median worker compensation and productivity from 1979 to 2012. Source: EPI analysis of christianity church essay history orthodox unpublished total economy productivity data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Labor Productivity and Costs program, state employment data from BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics, state compensation data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis State/National Income and Product Accounts public data series, and wage data from BLS Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Education, wages, and state economic success. The previous section established the link between education and rogerian on gun control, productivity, and productivity and wages.
We can further test the assumed link between education (and, alternatively, tax rates) and christianity church history orthodox, wages by thesis of biotechnology reviewing correlations between certain characteristics and high-wage state economies. We focus on the median wage (which includes hourly wages and salaries converted to an hourly basis) as the most appropriate measure of state economic success for several reasons. It should be the history goal of state development policy to raise the descartes meditations standard of living, which requires both improvements in church orthodox productivity and that the gains from productivity (how much output is when an essay, generated by the economy in each hour of work) be shared with workers in the form of christianity church essay history orthodox higher wages and salaries. Productivity improvements that only to methodology enhance profits will benefit only those at the top of the income and wage distributions. And average wages, as opposed to median wages, will rise even when all the gains are captured by christianity essay orthodox those at the top. Indeed, national data reveal that the increasing concentration of profits and wage growth at the top is behind the growing “wedge” between productivity growth and median wages in essay meditations the United States (Mishel et al. 2012). Yet even despite this growing wedge, higher rates of education are strongly predictive of higher median wages across states (as shown below). We use wages rather than income because wages are directly affected by state efforts to increase labor skills while investment income could derive from church history orthodox ownership of assets anywhere in the world. Furthermore, for most of the population, improvements in rogerian control wages are the principal, if not the only, path to church essay history improving income.
We do not use growth in jobs or in output (state GDP) because an increase in jobs or in output does not necessarily translate into an improved standard of living; an influx of low-wage jobs can drive down average pay, and an increase in output can occur with little increase in employment or wages if it comes about through substituting capital for labor. Our analyses allow us to answer several important questions. First, “are high-wage economies more common in low-tax states?” The answer, as shown in Figure C , is “no.” There is no significant correlation between overall tax levels and high-wage economies : Median hourly wage, and state and local taxes as a share of state personal income, by state, 2010. Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata and Tax Policy Center's Tax Facts data. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data underlying the figure.
The figure shows no clear relationship between state taxes (as a share of meditations state personal income) and christianity orthodox, median wages. Higher-tax states appear to rogerian have slightly higher median wages, but that correlation is not significant. One conclusion from this chart could be that it is christianity, very unlikely that we would ever see a clear pattern when looking at wages across all 50 states—because states are so different in so many ways. Testing the accuracy of this conclusion leads to bellevue college application essay our second question: “Is there a factor that does show a strong correlation with high-wage economies?” The answer is “yes.” Overwhelmingly, high-wage states are states that have a well-educated workforce, evident in Figure D . The correlation is very strong and there are very large differences between median hourly wages in states with well-educated workforces and hourly wages in states with less-well-educated workforces (as measured by the share of workers who have at least a bachelor’s degree). In the 22 states with the least-educated workforces (30 percent or less with a bachelor’s degree or more education), median wages hover around $15 an hour, the christianity church essay only exceptions being Alaska and Wyoming. In the three states where more than 40 percent of the population has a bachelor’s or more education, median wages are $19 to $20 an hour, nearly a third higher. For a full-time, full-year worker, a median wage of $15 versus $20 an hour means the difference between making $30,000 a year and descartes, making $40,000 a year. Essay Orthodox. For a household with one person working full time and one person working half time, it is the difference between making $45,000 a year and of writing essays, making $60,000 a year. Median wages are substantially higher in states with better-educated workers : Relationship between state median hourly wage and share of state’s workforce with a bachelor’s degree or more education, 2012.
Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) basic monthly and CPS Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the essay orthodox code below to embed this chart on your website. The data underlying the figure.
In addition to the magnitude of the differences between states there is also a striking consistency: There are no states with a relatively well-educated workforce and relatively low wages and virtually no states with low levels of education and relatively high wages. There are two outliers: Alaska and Wyoming. Their locations on the graph suggest that states with valuable natural resources and format, a very limited number of people may be able to offer reasonably high wages without a well-educated workforce. In the case of christianity essay orthodox Alaska, it may also be a matter of being forced to offer high nominal wages to attract workers because of the high cost of living.2 But these are clearly special cases. In some ways, the correlation between wages and education should not be surprising. For an individual, annual earnings rise with increasing education, as shown in descartes Figure E . Higher median annual earnings for those with more education reflect not just higher hourly pay, but more stable employment and fewer periods of church history orthodox unemployment. Wages are higher for better-educated workers : Median annual earnings of U.S. workers, age 25+, by education, 2011. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. The data underlying the figure. Source: Current Population Survey, 2012 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.
Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. It makes sense that if an individual’s wages increase with education, then wages across an economy likely increase as more people have higher levels of education. Businesses that need well-educated workers, and pay the wages such workers earn, will grow and prosper in rogerian on gun control states that have such workers and christianity church history orthodox, may be forced to leave states that don’t. While this correlation between education and high-wage jobs is not surprising, what perhaps should be surprising is how often policymakers ignore it and pursue other quick fixes, such as special tax breaks or other subsidies for businesses. Looking at the correlation between education and wages, there is little indication that states have found a way to create a high-wage economy without a well-educated workforce. Interestingly, this was not always the case. If we turn back the clock to rogerian on gun the late 1970s, we see a very different picture, represented in Figure F . Alaska is again an outlier. Church Orthodox. But behind Alaska, the highest-wage state was Michigan, which didn’t have a particularly well-educated workforce. Ohio and essay meditations, West Virginia also had reasonably high wages but not well-educated workforces.
At the church history orthodox other end of the spectrum, many states with more well-educated workforces didn’t have particularly high-wage economies. We had a very different economy in the 1970s and the wage premium for a college degree (the gap between wages of college and thesis research, high school graduates) was much smaller. It then grew significantly in the 1980s and 1990s (Mishel et al. 2012, Figure 4N). There was a much weaker correlation between education and orthodox, wages as recently as 1979 : Relationship between state median hourly wage and share of state workforce with a bachelor’s degree or more education in 1979. Source: Authors' analysis of Current Population Survey (CPS) basic monthly and CPS Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. Copy the code below to rogerian embed this chart on your website.
The data underlying the figure. Additionally, Figure F shows higher median wages in states with strong labor unions: Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, California, and christianity church essay history, New Jersey, for example. Bellevue. Historically, there has been a strong correlation between union density—the percent of a state’s workforce represented by a union—and state median wages.3 Today there are no states with the levels of union density that the high-wage states had in church essay history orthodox the late 1970s. Not surprisingly, the share of corporate revenue that is paid in are novels underlined wages rather than distributed in profits has declined significantly (Jacobson and Occhino 2012). Unions now represent a much smaller share of the workforce than they did in the decades immediately following World War II and so are not the force that they were for creating middle-class jobs for large numbers of workers with a high school education or less. Education as smart economic development policy. Does the correlation between education and earnings necessarily mean that states can strengthen their economies in christianity essay orthodox the long run by adopting policies that increase the number of well-educated workers? Recent academic work suggests that the answer is, “Yes.” A study by Federal Reserve economists examined the factors contributing to greater state prosperity over a 65-year period and found that a state’s high school and college attainment rates were important factors in explaining its per capita income growth relative to other states between 1939 and proposal, 2004 (Bauer, Schweitzer, and Shane 2006). Increasing educational attainment can be achieved by a variety of policies and programs, including those that increase access to postsecondary education by restraining tuition growth or increasing financial aid, reduce high-school drop-out rates, move people without high school degrees through GED and associate degree programs, increase the quality of K-12 education to improve success of christianity church essay high school graduates in postsecondary education, and offer preschool programs that lead to long-term improvements in educational outcomes. An evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative education strategies is beyond the thesis of biotechnology scope of this report.
But there is evidence that state expenditures on primary and secondary education improve school performance and christianity history, raise state per thesis proposal capita income. For example, investments in school facilities led to improvements in student test scores (Cellini, Ferreira, and christianity, Rothstein 2010). To Methodology Of Writing Essays. And over a 34-year period, states that improved their position relative to other states on christianity church, real per-capita education spending improved their relative position in real per-capita income, and of writing essays, the direction of causality was from christianity essay history orthodox education spending to income (Bensi, Black, and introduction to methodology, Dowd 2004). Also, the long-term benefits of early childhood education programs have been well documented (Lynch 2007). Some state officials may be tempted to ask, “What good would it do to produce more college graduates if better-paying jobs for college graduates are not available?” “Shouldn’t the state focus on christianity church, attracting higher-skilled jobs instead of creating more skilled workers who have to leave the state to find work?” But in this instance, if not in most others in economic policymaking, increased supply can actually help create its own demand. Introduction. As Bartik has put it, “An increase in the labor supply probably stimulates labor demand by at least two-thirds the supply increase. This is because additional labor attracts employers, and essay history, additional higher-skilled labor attracts employers with more skilled jobs” (Bartik 2009). To a degree then, the answer to rogerian control these concerns is, “If you educate them, jobs will come,” though national strategies to increase the demand for skilled workers may also be needed. Education investments are good not only for a state’s economy and residents, but also for a state’s budget in the long run. This may seem counterintuitive since education is a large share of church history orthodox state-financed expenditure—typically over half if including postsecondary education and state aid to K-12 school systems.4 But education investments can pay off for the state in the long run.
The majority of students graduating from state schools will remain in thesis format paper the state over their working lives, and as a result of being better trained, will have better jobs. This means they will earn more and stay employed at a higher rate, paying more income and sales taxes and relying less on state assistance programs. There is evidence that every additional student who gets an associate or bachelor’s degree instead of stopping formal education after graduating from high school will, over his or her lifetime, return to the state, in the form of higher taxes, substantially more than the cost of their education. This means that scholarships or other programs that lead more students to higher education can more than pay for themselves, even if a third of the essay history graduates leave the state (French and Fisher 2009). The overall returns from investments in early childhood education mean that such investments will generally pay for themselves (Lynch 2007). States would do well if they focused their resources on their historic role as the guarantors of high quality education for all, while broadening the scope of that role to include universal preschool and other early childhood education programs, and beginning to view high quality postsecondary education and training as the standard for all students.
In most states that would mean reversing recent cuts to, and even elimination of, publicly funded preschool,5 and declines in public investments in thesis format research paper postsecondary education. From 1990–1991 to 2009–2010, real funding per student at public colleges and universities declined 26 percent, and the share of state personal income going to higher education fell 30 percent, while tuition at four-year institutions more than doubled and at community colleges rose 71 percent (Quinterno 2012). Instead of improving access to higher education in christianity church orthodox response to the needs of a changing economy, most states have restricted it. Ultimately, the wealth of a society can increase only essay if the economy becomes more productive. A more productive economy can support both higher wages and higher profits, as well as shorter work weeks and a higher quality of life.
So the christianity essay question of how to increase productivity needs to be at the center of any debate about state economic development. As this paper shows, moving jobs from one state to another state does nothing to increase productivity. Essay Descartes. Rather, productivity rises with investments in infrastructure and church history orthodox, workers, with investments in education that raise educational achievement providing a major boost. Thus, investing in education is a core contribution states can make to the well-being of their residents and the national economy overall. At the same time, increasing productivity does not by itself guarantee that the resulting economic gains will be broadly shared. At the national level, productivity and wages grew hand in thesis format hand from the end of World War II until the early 1970s (Mishel et al. 2012). But since then, wages have largely stagnated while productivity has continued to rise. From 1973 to 2011 productivity increased 80.4 percent while real median hourly compensation (wages and benefits) of production/nonsupervisory workers in christianity church essay orthodox the private sector grew just 10.1 percent (Mishel et al. 2012, Figure 4V). An Essay Underlined. The vast majority of the gains from productivity were captured by those at the very top.
While national policies will have to church essay history orthodox play the major role in creating a national economy in which economic growth leads to incomes rising across the income spectrum, there are measures that states can take to strengthen the ability of application essay working people to participate fully in the gains from economic growth. These include restoring state minimum wages to the real level that prevailed in history orthodox the late 1960s, aggressively addressing problems of wage theft and employee misclassification, adopting higher wage standards in economic development programs, and other measures. But most importantly, states can build a strong foundation for economic success and shared prosperity by investing in introduction essays strategies that make their people more productive, chief among them education. Providing expanded access to high quality education and related supports—particularly for church those young people who today lack such access—will not only expand economic opportunity for those individuals, but will also likely do more to strengthen the essay meditations overall state economy than anything else a state government can do. Noah Berger is president of the orthodox Massachusetts Budget and essay meditations, Policy Center, an independent research organization that analyzes state budget and tax policies, as well as economic issues that affect low- and moderate-income people in Massachusetts. Prior to joining the orthodox center, Berger served as counsel and policy director for the Massachusetts Senate Committee on Ways and Means from thesis proposal format paper 1993 to church essay orthodox 1996 and as policy director for Massachusetts Senate President Tom Birmingham from 1996 to 2002. Rogerian Essay On Gun. Berger’s leadership extends to the national arena, where he serves on the board of directors for Public Works, on the advisory board of the Tax Policy Center, and on the EARN advisory group. Berger graduated from Harvard College and has a J.D. from Harvard Law School. Peter Fisher is the research director at christianity church essay orthodox, the Iowa Policy Project. Fisher is to methodology of writing essays, a national expert on public finance and has served as a consultant to the Iowa Department of Economic Development, the State of Ohio, and christianity essay, the Iowa Business Council.
His reports are regularly published in State Tax Notes and refereed journals. His most recent book is Grading Places: What do the Business Climate Rankings Really Tell Us , 2nd edition, published in 2013 by Good Jobs First. He has authored or co-authored the majority of Iowa Fiscal Partnership reports and guest opinions on state tax policy. On Gun. Fisher is professor emeritus of christianity church essay Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Iowa. Fisher has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of thesis proposal format research paper Wisconsin-Madison. 1. An economy has reached full-employment when any further increases in aggregate demand would fail to history orthodox reduce the unemployment rate. Note that this, of course, does not mean the meditations unemployment rate will be zero —some degree of “frictional” unemployment (temporary unemployment as workers move between jobs and move from out of the christianity orthodox labor force into paid employment) and “structural” unemployment (a mismatch between workers demanded by employers and those available in any given local labor market) will always persist.
The Employment Act of 1946 called for the federal government to maintain full employment, and fiscal and monetary policy in thesis of biotechnology the ensuing postwar period was used to attain that goal while keeping inflation low. In more recent decades, concern with inflation has often taken precedence over unemployment in Federal Reserve monetary policy, and the effectiveness of fiscal policy to christianity church essay stimulate the economy has been challenged by those who would shrink government at all costs. 2. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Alaska has the ninth highest cost of living (Aten, Figueroa, and Martin 2012). 3. In 1979, for example, the correlation between state union coverage and state median wage was .67. Thesis Of Biotechnology. Union coverage by state and year comes from the Current Population Survey and can be found at unionstats.com (Hirsch and Macpherson 1979). Median hourly wage data are also from the Current Population Survey as analyzed by the Economic Policy Institute. 4. In 2011, expenditures for education accounted for 36 percent of total state government expenditure in the United States, but 56 percent of state own-source revenue (U.S. Census Bureau Annual Survey of State Government Finances 2011)
5. “Of the 39 states with some form of public pre-K program, about half have cut spending since the start of the recession” (Knafo 2012). Per pupil spending on preschool programs has been on the decline for a decade (Barnett et al. 2011). Aten, Bettina H., Eric B. Figueroa, and Troy M. Church. Martin. 2012. To Methodology. Regional Price Parities for States and church essay history orthodox, Metropolitan Areas, 2006–2010 . Bureau of Economic Analysis, August. Barnett, W.S., M.E. Carolan, J. Fitzgerald, and J.H.
Squires. When. 2011. The State of Preschool 2011: State Preschool Yearbook . New Brunswick, N.J.: National Institute for Early Education Research. http://nieer.org/publications/state-preschool-2011. Bartik, Timothy J. 2009. “What Works in christianity essay State Economic Development?” In Growing the State Economy: Evidence-Based Policy Options, 1st edition, Stephanie Eddy, and Karen Bogenschneider, eds. Madison, Wis.: University of descartes meditations Wisconsin, 15–29. http://research.upjohn.org/bookchapters/18/
Bauer, Paul W., Mark E. Essay Orthodox. Schweitzer, and essay descartes meditations, Scott Shane. Church Essay History Orthodox. 2006. “State Growth Empirics: The Long-Run Determinants of State Income Growth.” Federal Reserve Bank of essay control Cleveland Working Paper 06-06. http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/workpaper/2006/wp0606.pdf. Bensi, Michelle, David Black, and church essay history orthodox, Michael Dowd. 2004. “The Education/Growth Relationship: Evidence from Real State Panel Data.” Contemporary Economic Policy , vol. 22, no. Rogerian Control. 2. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/cep/byh020/abstract. Bureau of Economic Analysis. National Income and Product Accounts. Various years. National Income and christianity church essay history, Product Account Tables [data tables]. http://www.bea.gov/iTable/index_nipa.cfm. Bureau of Economic Analysis.
State/National Income and Product Accounts public data series. Proposal Format. Various years. Annual State Personal Income and church, Employment [data tables]. http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?reqid=70step=1isuri=1acrdn=1#reqid=70step=1isuri=1. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata.
Various years. Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics [machine-readable microdata file]. When Writing Are Novels Underlined. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.bls.census.gov/ftp/cps_ftp.html#cpsbasic. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey basic monthly microdata. Various years. Christianity Essay History. Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census for thesis of biotechnology the Bureau of Labor Statistics [machine-readable microdata file].
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.bls.census.gov/ftp/cps_ftp.html#cpsbasic. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor Productivity and Costs program. Various years. Major Sector Productivity and Costs and Industry Productivity and Costs [databases]. Church History. http://bls.gov/lpc/#data (unpublished data provided by program staff at of biotechnology, EPI’s request) Bureau of Labor Statistics. Church Essay History Orthodox. Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Various years. http://www.bls.gov/lau/ Cellini, Stephanie Riegg, Fernando Ferreira, and Jesse Rothstein. 2010. Descartes Meditations. “The Value of School Facility Investments: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics , vol.
125, no. 1, 215–261. http://qje.oxfordjournals.org/content/125/1/215.short. Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Historical Income Tables [data tables]. Various years. www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/index.html. Duncan, Greg J., Ariel Kalil, and Kathleen Ziol-Guest. 2008. Economic Costs of Early Childhood Poverty.
Washington, D.C.: Partnership for America’s Economic Success. Fisher, Peter. 2013. Corporate Taxes and State Economic Growth . The Iowa Policy Project. Church Essay History. http://www.iowafiscal.org/2011docs/110209-IFP-corptaxes.pdf. Fisher, Peter S., and Alan H. Peters. Introduction Of Writing. 1998. Industrial Incentives: Competition Among American States and Cities.
W.E. Christianity History Orthodox. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, p. 5. http://www.upjohn.org/Publications/Titles/IndustrialIncentivesCompetitionAmongAmericanStatesandCities. French, Lily, and Peter S. Fisher. 2009. Education Pays in Iowa: The State’s Return on Investment in Workforce Education. The Iowa Policy Project. http://www.iowapolicyproject.org/2009docs/090528-ROI-educ.pdf. Grossman, Michael, and Robert Kaestner. 1997. “Effects of when writing underlined Education on Health” in The Social Benefits of Education, eds. J.R. Christianity Church History. Behrman and S. Nevzer.
Ann Arbor: University of essay control Michigan Press. Haveman, Robert, and essay history, Barbara Wolfe. 1995. “The Determinants of Children’s Attainments: A Review of Methods and to methodology, Findings.” Journal of Economic Literature , vol. 33, no. 4, 1829–1878. Hirsch, Barry, and David Macpherson. Various years. Union Membership and christianity church essay orthodox, Coverage Database . “All Wage Salary Workers” [excel file]. http://www.unionstats.com/ Jacobson, Margaret, and Filippo Occhino. 2012. “Labor’s Declining Share of Income and Rising Inequality.” Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/commentary/2012/2012-13.cfm. Knafo, Saki.
2012. “Smart Start? Will Preschool Budget Cuts Damage A Generation?” Huffington Post . http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/29/smart-start_n_1819501.html. Lleras-Muney, Adriana. 2005. “The Relationship Between Education and Adult Mortality in the United States” Review of Economic Studies , vol. 72, no.
1, 189–221. Lochner, Lance, and Enrico Moretti. 2004. “The Effect of Education on writing are novels underlined, Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports.” The American Economic Review , vol. 94, no. 1, 155–189.
Lynch, Robert. 2004. Rethinking Growth Strategies: How State and Local Taxes and Services Affect Economic Development. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/books_rethinking_growth/ Lynch, Robert G. 2007. Enriching Children, Enriching the Nation: Public Investment in High-Quality Prekindergarten . Christianity Church Essay History. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/book_enriching/ Marr, Chuck, Jimmy Charite, and Chye-Ching Huang. 2013.
E arned Income Tax Credit Promotes Work, Encourages Children’s Success at rogerian, School, Research Finds . Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Christianity Essay Orthodox. http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=viewid=3793. Mazerov, Michael. 2013. “Academic Research Lacks Consensus on the Impact of State Tax Cuts on Economic Growth: A Reply to the Tax Foundation.” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, June 17. http://www.cbpp.org/files/6-17-13sfp.pdf. Mishel, Lawrence. 2012. “Understanding the Wedge Between Productivity and Median Compensation Growth.” Working Economics (the Economic Policy Institute blog). http://www.epi.org/blog/understanding-wedge-productivity-median-compensation/ Mishel, Lawrence, Josh Bivens, Elise Gould, and Heidi Shierholz. 2012. The State of Working America, 12th Edition. An Economic Policy Institute book. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Quinterno, John.
2012. The Great Cost Shift: How Higher Education Cuts Undermine the Future Middle Class. Writing. Demos. Christianity Church Orthodox. http://www.demos.org/publication/great-cost-shift-how-higher-education-cuts-undermine-future-middle-class. Smith, Judith R., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela K. Klebanov. 1997. “Consequences of Living in Poverty for of writing essays Young Children’s Cognitive and Verbal Ability and Early School Achievement.” Pages 132–189 in Consequences of Growing up Poor , eds. G.J. Duncan and church history, J. Brooks-Dunn. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
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Wolfe, Barbara, and Samuel Zuvekas. 1995. Nonmarket Outcomes of christianity essay history orthodox Schooling. University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty, discussion paper no. 1065-95. EPI is an independent, nonprofit think tank that researches the application essay impact of economic trends and policies on working people in the United States. EPI’s research helps policymakers, opinion leaders, advocates, journalists, and the public understand the bread-and-butter issues affecting ordinary Americans. 1225 Eye St. Church History. NW, Suite 600. Washington, DC 20005.
2016 Economic Policy Institute. The Perkins Project on Worker Rights and Wages. Tracking the bellevue college essay wage and employment policies coming out of the White House, Congress, and christianity history orthodox, the courts. A research and public education initiative to make wage growth an urgent national policy priority. The authoritative analysis of the living standards of American workers. Interactive tools and videos bringing clarity to thesis research paper the national dialogue on economic inequality.
Economic Analysis and Research Network (EARN) A network of state and local organizations improving workers' lives through research and advocacy.
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Keep up with the latest in Photography. I remember when I first used a Leica camera. It was back in 1986 when I was photographing the Americas Cup in christianity church, Fremantle. Introduction Of Writing! Local WA photographer Roger Garwood had invested in an R4s system and showed me the christianity church history results on on gun, Kodachrome. I was intrigued, not to mention impressed, and borrowed an outfit from what was then Perth Pro Sales. The results were quite remarkable. I was used to the contrast of the Nikon and Canon systems; the Canon L series glass was awesome, less contrasty than the Nikons but still more contrasty that the christianity history orthodox Leica. It was this ‘openness’ of image that attracted me to the Leica results, something that is hard to pin down but is quite obvious when you see it. I was not in a position to buy the R4s in to methodology, those days, but I remember clearly the build quality, the image quality and the overall feel of the hand-built cameras and christianity church orthodox, lenses. Fast forward to 2010 – I was invited to become the essay descartes meditations Leica S2 Ambassador in Australia and started to use the S2 as my ‘large format’ camera much as I used to do when I used actual large format film in a 4?5 field camera. (Of course I am still using my Canons for specialist 35mm style work like wildlife, macro, long lens and christianity orthodox, flash work, plus of course video, and when writing are novels underlined, all my printing is christianity essay, done on Canon printers these days. ‘ Horses for courses ‘ I say, no camera is capable of on gun control shooting all styles so I tend to christianity essay history use the right camera for the job.)
It was therefore a great opportunity to be invited to the Leica factory in Solms, not far from Frankfurt in Germany, to see for myself how Leica run their manufacturing processes and to be able to talk to the technical people about the philosophy and technology behind this remarkable camera. Leica S2 Assembly. On the first day our group (Australian Leica retailers’ staff) visited the when are novels factory and were able to look through the glass walls to christianity church essay history orthodox see the factory floor where white suited technicians were assembling lenses and camera bodies. Surprisingly it’s not a big place, computer controlled lens element grinding machines, camera focus calibrators, and lots of complicated machines of diverse and varied functions, are packed into a relatively small area which gives a clue as to thesis format research why Leica camera products are in somewhat short supply these days. There is nowhere, at present, to expand into. Production has been boosted hugely in the last two years, it’s been almost doubled, but the voracious worldwide demand for the M9 and S2 still outstrips production and shows no sign of slackening off. These are hand made products quite literally. Christianity! It’s why they are desirable in the first place and the process can only proceed so fast. I’m told it takes 8 hours to assemble an M9 body and having seen the care and precision with which they are assembled, I can certainly believe it.
This unprecedented demand is essays, remarkable; the M9, for example, was projected to christianity sell 14,000 units over its production life. Currently that production life is rogerian essay on gun control, still underway and they have sold over christianity church 30,000 units so far. Revenue has jumped from 150M Euros to 250M Euros, and is projected to thesis exceed 500M Euros over the next few years. Every lens made is sold, and christianity church, this gives a clue as to why the release of new lens designs appears slow. It’s not like they are dragging their heels, no, it’s basically for two reasons. One, nothing will be released until it is as perfect as it can be, and, two, adding a new lens to the line up will not actually sell more lenses when they are already selling as fast as they can be made. There are plans in progress to move to a new purpose built 25,000 square meter facility back in Wetzlar in 2013.
The architects’ drawings look impressive the proposed factory complex is considerably bigger and is topped off by to methodology essays what looks like 35mm film spooling around the christianity church essay history orthodox upper floor making the building look very modern and stylish. There will be a gallery, show room and a bigger factory floor capable of doubling the current production capacity, but in the meantime the application essay Solms factory is pretty much ‘ maxed out ‘. During our tour we were not allowed to take photos through the glass, or anywhere else for that matter. Fortunately, for me, I was allowed to re-visit the following day and was granted a 30 minute opportunity to go inside the clean room (wearing a hair net, white coat and shoe coverings) to take some images of the S2 and M9 camera assembly room. I have been photographing for almost 30 years, I have worked under intense pressure, in difficult situations, and in privileged places but having just thirty minutes to christianity church history make some quick images of writing such a fascinating and significant place was daunting to say the least. I grabbed my S2, the 35mm and 120mm lenses, and that was it, no bags allowed in, but luckily I was allowed to christianity history orthodox take in my Gitzo tripod. My impression on the inside was one of quiet and purposeful industry with immense attention to the finest details. Everyone was focussed on the task in hand and, more importantly, everyone appeared to be taking great care in their work. There was no idle chatter, no distractions, no superfluous activity, but at the same time it was not tense or ‘pressurised’. Of Writing! Just a group of church essay history skilled craftsmen (and women) going about their tasks quietly and efficiently. As an example, I was able to watch the antireflection coating being applied to the edges of of writing essays each glass element that combine to make a lens.
This is essentially a coat of black paint on the outside circumference of each glass element; every element needs such a black rim to reduce the possibility of stray light scattering inside the lens, thus reducing contrast. This coating is applied by hand to each and essay history orthodox, every element. Apparently the machines were simply not able to perform to the level of consistency that Leica required. There are four technicians with the required level of skill, only four. That means that every lens made (and they produce a lot, maybe 1,000 per month), containing multiple lens elements, will have had each one hand painted around its edge by one of four people. This is what you are paying for not only are the products of superb quality but their hand-crafted nature appeals to many people in this era of mass production, short product cycles and the emphasis on more bells and whistles to thesis research shift boxes off shelves. Leica cameras do not change much from model to model, each is a refinement over the previous iteration. Essay Orthodox! There is an almost nostalgic aura to the cameras, reminiscent of fine watches, high-end hi-fi systems or any other fine hand made luxury items. I get all this, and I quite like it on a personal level, but at the end of the rogerian on gun day a camera has to perform its task, not just look and feel good. I have an old Rolex Tudor watch which I adore it keeps quite poor time being fully mechanical, but I love the feel of history it and would never swap it for a digital watch that is accurate to one second every century.
Fortunately, Leica cameras not only look and rogerian control, feel good, but they also perform at the highest levels. Images from the M9 can be every bit as good as those from christianity essay orthodox a top of the when writing an essay are novels line Canon or Nikon; actually, given the uncompromising quality of the optics, probably even better. The S2 is also a delight to use and the results are second to none, so you are getting genuine value for money a lot of money to be sure, but then you do get a lot in return. Checking M9 Focus. After my visit to the heart of the christianity history factory I was able to spend some time with some of the production and essay descartes, development team, people like Stephan Schulz (Head of Professional Imaging), Maike Harberts (who lead the original development of the S2), Gerald Wagner (Service Manager) and Andreas Dippel (Public Relations). I spoke to Stephan Schulz at church history, length and was able to essay meditations put some questions to christianity essay history orthodox him; I will present our conversation in an interview style but this is thesis of biotechnology, not a transcript, more of a summary, and should not be taken as verbatim. When will we see the CS lenses? We had some issues with some suppliers of parts for the very precise shutter mechanisms and we had to change the way they are made and assembled. We are testing the church history new shutters now, probably through until September at the earliest. Essay Descartes! We won’t release them until they are as precise as possible. I’m told there is a new 30mm due out ‘very soon’, when will we see this lens?
Very soon. (grin) You will be very happy with the new lens. It is maybe a little better than the current 35mm with almost perfect edge sharpness. It’s almost the essay orthodox same size as the 35mm but it is f2.8, not f2.5 like the current lens. When will we see the 30-90mm zoom? Again, it is definitely part of our roadmap and will be released as soon as it is finished. We are aiming for a very versatile design, so it will be smaller than you expect, and writing an essay are novels underlined, there will not be a CS version. This means we can design a smaller and lighter lens which is something a zoom lens should be.
Will we ever see LiveView on the S2 or future models? Not with a CCD sensor. It is church history, not possible. Research Paper! However, CCD sensors will not be used for ever, so future models may be able to have this. Given that other brands are continually increasing their megapixel size, will Leica be following the same trend? No, no more megapixels. It is enough we think.
Future development will be concentrating on shooting rates, lower noise, higher Dynamic Range and higher ISO abilities. There is a rumour on the Internet Forums that the histogram on essay history, the S2 is proposal format research paper, raw based is this true? No, it is based on essay history, the jpeg preview. A histogram from raw data is application, not possible as the orthodox image cannot be said to exist yet. A white balance needs to be chosen and the red blue and bellevue college, green channels need to be combined to give a meaningful histogram. So we always give you more than you think.
If your histogram is good, then you will actually have more data in the raw file than you expect. Early in essay, the last decade Leica cameras were not setting the world on thesis, fire. The brand was strong, the product was solid but sales were heading in church essay history, the wrong direction. Essay Descartes Meditations! The DMR Digital Module-R for the R8 and R9 was brilliantly innovative back in christianity church history orthodox, 2003 and at 10MP was very competitive (given that the of biotechnology opposition brands were still offering 6MP cameras like the Canon D60 and the premium priced 11MP Canon 1Ds), but never really caught on. Church Essay Orthodox! Then the R9 and descartes meditations, the R-Series was discontinued in 2009. The M8, a digital version of the christianity orthodox M7 with a 10MP crop sensor came out at the end of 2006 and was well received, although it had some teething problems that were rather exaggerated by the internet forum pixel peepers. I asked Stephan Daniel, Director of essay descartes meditations Product Management, about the christianity history orthodox beginnings of the newly found success of the company and he told me that “ The roots were laid out (the developments started) in 2007/2008 which resulted in the success starting 2009 and which is continuing still today .” I asked what were the main reasons for the turnaround. He added “ First of all, successful important products such as M9, S2 System, X1 and are novels, the compact cameras.
Furthermore, the christianity church essay development in the Leica Store concept (now more than 50 stores / boutiques worldwide) and last but not least the growing markets in Eastern Europe and proposal format paper, Asia .” Leice S2 Eyepieces. The M9 is a sensational camera, and, at 18MP with no anti-alias filter and superb optics, rivals the 20+ MP offerings from Canon, Nikon and history, Sony. Descartes! Sales of this camera took off and show no sign of abating so the pressure to church essay history orthodox bring out thesis, a new model (M10) at Photokina 2012 is probably less intense. With no confirmed comments to christianity essay support this I’d expect to see the M10 still running an 18MP sensor, along with some ergonomic changes, better high ISO performance and maybe a faster shooting rate. None of that is particularly surprising if it ain’t broke don’t fix it ! Then there is the rumoured ‘compact mirrorless system’, also slated for a 2012 release. Obviously there is a broad price gap between the rogerian control X1 and the M9 and a prudent manufacturer will want to fill that gap. There are also a lot of R-Series and M-Series lenses out there so maybe we will see some sort of EVF-based camera, not unlike the X1 which takes interchangeable lenses from these two systems either by adapter or built in. I guess we will all have to wait and see!
The S2 remains a runaway success. Christianity History Orthodox! Even at its current lofty price point demand outstrips production. At the time of writing it’s almost three years since its announcement back in September 2008 so speculation is rife about introduction of writing essays, a possible replacement model (S3?). Again, given the success of the orthodox current model and the clearly stated position of not following the megapixel race, I’d not expect to see a quantum leap, more of a refinement. Think in terms of even better high ISO performance, longer bulb exposures (please!), maybe a faster shooting rate and faster AF. With all that going on maybe Photokina 2012 will probably see a whole raft of new Leica products but in the meantime the of biotechnology guys (and gals) at christianity church orthodox, Leica are not giving much away! About The Author. Nick Rains has been photographing landscapes all over the world since leaving University in 1983. In 1986 he spent a year in Perth, Western Australia covering the thesis paper Americas Cup for orthodox, a variety of International magazines such as Yachting World, London Times, and Boat International. Images from this event also appeared in Sports Illustrated, Stern, Paris Match, Regatta and many other well known publications.
Over the thesis of biotechnology last 20 years Nick has traveled the christianity essay history orthodox length and breadth of Australia covering over 500,000km in his search for fine “Australian” images for the stock photography market. Thesis! He makes his home in Brisbane, Queensland. Nick is now concentrating on photographic books of his favourite places, the latest title, “Australia’s A Photographer’s Eye” was published by christianity church essay history orthodox Explore Australia Publishing in late 2009. An Essay Are Novels Underlined! In between outback trips, Nick shoots commercial and stock photographs at home and overseas as well as editing the magazine Better Digital Camera. He is a Leica S2 Ambassador and christianity church history, a Canon Training Lecturer.
You may also wish to visit Nick’s Web Site (www.nickrains.com), or contact him by of biotechnology e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org). Nick Rains has been a professional photographer for the past 31 years during which time he has worked for well known publications such as Australian Geographic, Outback, GEO, Sports Illustrated, TIME, BBC and m. [ Author’s Page and christianity church essay, Articles ] Nick Rains has been a professional photographer for the past 31 years during which time he has worked for well known publications such as Australian Geographic, Outback, GEO, Sports Illustrated, TIME, BBC and m. [ Author’s Page and Articles ]