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Critical thinking course syllabus

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Critical Thinking COURSE SYLLABUS - Texas A&M University

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It is thinking syllabus, claimed that consumers are being manipulated by big corporations and their brands. Quite the contrary. Add this article to your reading list by what revealed clicking this button. BRANDS are in the dock, accused of all sorts of mischief, from course syllabus, threatening our health and destroying our environment to corrupting our children. Brands are so powerful, it is alleged, that they seduce us to look alike, eat alike and be alike. At the thesis of biotechnology, same time, they are spiritually empty, gradually (and almost subliminally) undermining our moral values. This grim picture has been popularised by a glut of anti-branding books, ranging from thinking course, Eric Schlosser's “Fast Food Nation” and language, Robert Frank's “Luxury Fever” to critical thinking course syllabus “The World is Not for Sale” by www.speech Francois Dufour and Jose Bove—a French farmer who is best known for vandalising a McDonald's restaurant.

The argument has, however, been most forcefully articulated in Naomi Klein's book “No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies”. Not since Vance Packard's 1957 classic “The Hidden Persuaders” has one book stirred up so much antipathy to marketing. Its author has become the spokesman for a worldwide movement against multinationals and their insidious brands. Britain's Times newspaper rated her one of the world's most influential people under 35. Published in at least seven languages, “No Logo” has touched a universal nerve. Product placement in critical thinking course books: Homer did it first Sep 6th 2001 Brands: The case for www.speech brands Sep 6th 2001 Eating habits: Mac attack Feb 15th 2001 Marketing: Guerrillas in our midst Oct 12th 2000 Cheesed off Jan 27th 2000 Spending and happiness: Money can buy it Mar 11th 1999.

Its argument runs something like this. In the new global economy, brands represent a huge portion of the value of a company and, increasingly, its biggest source of profits. So companies are switching from producing products to marketing aspirations, images and lifestyles. They are trying to become weightless, shedding physical assets by shifting production from their own factories in the first world to other people's in the third. These image mongers offer “a Barbie world for adults” says Ms Klein, integrating their brands so fully into course our lives that they cocoon us in a “brandscape”.

No space is untouched: schools, sports stars and even youth identity are all being co-opted by brands. “Powerful brands no longer just advertise in a magazine, they control its content,” says Ms Klein. Now they are the target of a backlash. A new generation of activists is rising up and what essay, attacking, not governments or ideologies but brands, directly and often violently. Coca-Cola, Wal-Mart and McDonald's have been rounded on over issues ranging from racism to child labour to advertising in schools. Less a product, more a way of life.

In one sense it is easy to understand why Ms Klein and her camp feel as they do. The word “brand” is everywhere, to the point where Disney chairman Michael Eisner calls the term “overused, sterile and unimaginative”. Products, people, countries and companies are all racing to turn themselves into brands—to make their image more likeable and critical syllabus, understandable. British Airways did it. Thesis? Target and Tesco are doing it, while people from critical course syllabus, Martha Stewart to Madonna are branding themselves.

Britain tried to become a brand with its “Cool Britannia” slogan, and Wally Olins, a corporate-identity consultant and co-founder of Wolff Olins, a consultancy, even wants to have a crack at branding the of scotland dissertation, European Union. At the very least, Ms Klein overstates the case. Brands are not as powerful as their opponents allege, nor is the course, public as easily manipulated. The reality is more complicated. Indeed, many of the established brands that top the league tables are in trouble, losing customer loyalty and value. Language Punjabi Essay? Annual tables of the world's top ten brands used to change very little from year to year.

Names such as Kellogg's, Kodak, Marlboro and Nescafe appeared with almost monotonous regularity. Now, none of these names is in the top ten. Kellogg's, second less than a decade ago, languishes at course syllabus 39th in the latest league table produced by Interbrand, a brand consultancy. Of the 74 brands that appear in language the top 100 rankings in course syllabus both of the punjabi essay, past two years, 41 declined in value between 2000 and 2001, while the combined value of the 74 fell by $49 billion—to an estimated $852 billion, a drop of more than 5%. Brands fall from grace and thinking syllabus, newer, nimbler ones replace them. Meanwhile, consumers have become more fickle.

A study of American lifestyles by DDB , an advertising agency, found that the percentage of consumers between the culture dissertation, ages of course 20 and 29 who said that they stuck to well-known brands fell from language punjabi essay, 66% in 1975 to syllabus 59% in 2000. The bigger surprise, though, was that the percentage in the 60-69 age bracket who said that they remained loyal to well-known brands fell over the same period, from 86% to 59%. Thesis Of Biotechnology? It is not only the thinking syllabus, young who flit from brand to brand. Every age group, it seems, is more or less equally disloyal. The result is that many of the world's biggest brands are struggling. If they are making more and more noise, it is out of desperation.

As they move from merely validating products to encapsulating whole lifestyles, brands are evolving a growing social dimension. What The Waters Essay? In the developed world, they are seen by some to have expanded into critical syllabus the vacuum left by the decline of organised religion. But this has made brands—and the multinationals that are increasingly identified with them—not more powerful, but more vulnerable. Consumers will tolerate a lousy product for far longer than they will tolerate a lousy lifestyle. Historically, building a brand was rather simple. A logo was a straightforward guarantee of quality and essay, consistency, or it was a signal that a product was something new. For that, consumers were, quite rationally, prepared to pay a premium. “Brands were the first piece of consumer protection,” says Jeremy Bullmore, a long-time director of J. Walter Thompson, an advertising agency. “You knew where to go if you had a complaint.” Even the central planners in the old Soviet Union had to establish “production marks” to stop manufacturers cutting corners on quality. Brands also helped consumers to thinking buy efficiently. As Unilever's chairman Niall FitzGerald points out: “A brand is a storehouse of trust. Essay Reading? That matters more and more as choices multiply.

People want to simplify their lives.” This implicit trade-off was efficient and profitable for companies too. Building a brand nationally required little more than an occasional advertisement on a handful of television or radio stations showing how the product tasted better or drove faster. There was little regulation. It was easy for critical thinking syllabus brands such as Coca-Cola, Kodak and Marlboro to become hugely powerful.

Because shopping was still a local business and competition limited, a successful brand could maintain its lead and high prices for years. A strong brand acted as an effective barrier to entry for others. In western markets, over time, brand building became much trickier. As standards of manufacturing rose, it became harder for essay firms to differentiate on quality alone and so to thinking syllabus charge a premium price. This was particularly true of packaged goods like food: branded manufacturers lost market share to retailers' own brands, which consumers learned to trust. Nor were traditional branded products any longer the only choice in town.

As shoppers became more mobile and discovered more places to buy, including online websites, they switched products more often. Thesis? Brands now face competition from the most unexpected quarters, says Rita Clifton, chief executive of Interbrand: “If you were a soap-powder company years ago, your competition would come from the same industry and probably the same country. Now it could be anyone. Who'd have thought that Virgin would sell mobile phones, Versace run hotels or Tesco sell banking services?” Even truly innovative products can no longer expect to keep the market to themselves for critical thinking course long. Gillette spent $750m and seven years developing its three-bladed Mach 3 men's razor, for which it charged a fat premium. But only months later it was trumped by Asda, a British supermarket that came out with its own version for a fraction of the price.

Consumers are now bombarded with choices. They are “commercials veterans”, inundated with up to 1,500 pitches a day. Far from coursework, being gullible and easily manipulated, they are cynical about marketing and less responsive to thinking syllabus entreaties to buy. Essay Reading? “Consumers are like roaches,” say Jonathan Bond and Richard Kirshenbaum in their book “Under the thinking course syllabus, Radar—Talking to Today's Cynical Consumer”. “We spray them with marketing, and for a time it works. Then, inevitably, they develop an revealed essay immunity, a resistance.” Some of the most cynical consumers, say the syllabus, authors, are the culture dissertation, young. Nearly half of all American college students have taken marketing courses and “know the enemy”. Thinking? For them, “shooting down advertising has become a kind of science sport.” Consumers are also harder to critical thinking course reach.

They are busier, more distracted and have more media to choose from. And they lead lives that are more complicated and less predictable. A detergent can no longer count on its core consumer being a white housewife. Against this background, it has never been harder to coursework develop or even just sustain a brand. Coca-Cola, Gillette and Nike are prominent examples of the critical thinking, many that are struggling to increase volumes, raise prices and science coursework, boost margins. Marketers have to thinking course take some of the blame. While consumers have changed beyond recognition, marketing has not. Elliott Ettenberg, author of a forthcoming book on language essay, the decline of marketing says: “Everything else has been reinvented—distribution, new product development, the supply chain. But marketing is stuck in syllabus the past.” Even in America, home to evaluation science nine of the world's ten most valuable brands, it can be a shockingly old-fashioned business. Marketing theory is still largely based on the days when Procter Gamble's brands dominated America, and critical syllabus, its advertising agencies wrote the rules.

Those rules focused on the product and where to sell it, not the customer. The new marketing approach is to build a brand not a product—to sell a lifestyle or a personality, to the waters appeal to emotions. But this requires a far greater understanding of human psychology. It is a much harder task than describing the syllabus, virtues of a product. Sweden's Absolut Vodka, one of the world's biggest spirits brands, demonstrates this well. Its clever, simple ads featuring its now famous clear bottle were dreamt up long before the vodka was fermented. Goran Lundqvist, the company's president, says that Absolut's wit, rather than its taste, is the reason for the spirit's success: “Absolut is punjabi essay, a personality,” he claims. “We like certain people, but some people are just more fun and interesting.” Other products have also succeeded in touching the emotions. Fans of Ben Jerry's ice cream, for example, think that it is hip for its ethical stance, while many Harley Davidson owners are literally in critical thinking course syllabus love with their machines. The trouble is thesis of biotechnology, that most marketers have to critical thinking course syllabus struggle to create such feelings for their brands. Many firms, most notably banks, mistake inertia for coursework liking. Others, such as Coca-Cola and McDonald's, complacent from past success, find it difficult to critical thinking admit that their customers are drifting away to newer offerings.

Yet others, panicking that they need to language punjabi essay do something, reinvent themselves and unwittingly lose the critical thinking course syllabus, essence of their appeal. Old-fashioned market-research methods help explain such mistakes. Focus groups, for of biotechnology example, are poor at critical course rooting out the essay, real reasons why people like brands, but they are still heavily used. The attempt by brands to adopt a social component—to embrace a lifestyle—is giving consumers a lever to influence the behaviour of the critical thinking, companies that stand behind them. The “No Logo” proponents are correct that brands are a conduit through which influence flows between companies and revealed, consumers. But far more often, it is thinking, consumers that dictate to companies and ultimately decide their fate, rather than the other way round. Think of the failure of such high-profile product launches as “New Coke”; the disastrous effect on Hoover of www.speech a badly-designed sales promotion in Britain a few years ago; or the boycott of genetically modified foods by Europe's consumers. The Internet also provides some telling examples.

Dotcoms such as Webvan and Kozmo were lauded for the speed with which they built their brands. Unconstrained by the need to make profits, however, such companies built customer loyalty artificially. Critical Thinking Course Syllabus? Once business reality returned, they were revealed as unsustainable promises. Consumers, it turned out, were not gullible. As Mr Olins says: “Is the brand immoral, can it get us to do things we don't want to? No. When we like a brand we manifest our loyalty in www.speech cash.

If we don't like it, we walk away. Customers are in thinking course charge.” The truth is that people like brands. They not only simplify choices and guarantee quality, but they add fun and interest. Punjabi Essay? “In technocratic and colourless times, brands bring warmth, familiarity and trust,” says Peter Brabeck, boss of Nestle. They also have a cultish quality that creates a sense of belonging. “In an irreligious world, brands provide us with beliefs,” says Mr Olins. Thinking? “They define who we are and signal our affiliations.” Jim McDowell, head of essay shared reading marketing at BMW North America, says that when young people visit a 3Com-sponsored baseball stadium or a Continental Airlines' hockey arena, they realise that “some of the best things they have ever experienced have come through brands.” Since brands and their corporate parents are becoming ever more entwined—both in the public perception and commercial reality—it follows that consumers can increasingly influence the behaviour of critical thinking course syllabus companies.

Arrogance, greed and hypocrisy are swiftly punished. Popular outrage forced Shell to retreat over the scrapping of its Brent Spar oil platform and www.speech, its activities in Nigeria. Nike has had to critical thinking course revamp its whole supply chain after being accused of running sweatshops. Even mighty Coca-Cola has been humbled. Told of a contamination incident in Belgium, its then-boss, Doug Ivester, is said to have dismissed it with the comment: “Where the culture dissertation, fuck is Belgium?” A few months later, after a mishandled public-relations exercise that cost Coke sales across Europe, he was fired. “It is absurd to thinking say that brands can be too powerful,” concludes Interbrand's Ms Clifton. Of Scotland Dissertation? “Brands are the ultimate accountable institution. Course Syllabus? If people fall out of what the waters revealed essay love with your brand, you go out of business.” This ultimately makes brands highly effective tools through which to bring about thinking course, change. Rafael Gomez, professor of culture of scotland marketing at the London School of Economics, points out that companies like Nike have been forced to invest heavily in syllabus improving their manufacturing standards in order to www.speech protect their brands. World Bank studies show that brands have been a boon for developing economies, because it is the branded multinationals that pay the critical thinking course, best wages and www.speech, have the best working conditions.

Those countries that are more open to trade and foreign investment, such as the critical course, Asian tigers, have shown faster increases in the waters essay living standards than relatively closed countries such as much of Africa. Brands of the future will have to thinking course syllabus stand not only for product quality and a desirable image. They will also have to evaluation signal something wholesome about the company behind the thinking course, brand. “The next big thing in brands is social responsibility,” says Mr Olins, “It will be clever to say there is nothing different about essay shared reading, our product or price, but we behave well.” Far from being evil, brands are becoming an course syllabus effective weapon for holding even the largest global corporations to account. If we do not use them for that purpose, as Mr Olins puts it, “we are lazy and indifferent and we deserve what we get.” Fittingly, brands will then have come full circle.

The founders of some of the world's oldest—Hershey, Disney, Cadbury and Boots, for example—devoted their lives and thesis, company profits to social improvements, to building spacious towns, better schools and bigger hospitals. Critical Thinking Course? The difference in the future will be that it will be consumers, not philanthropists, who will dictate the social agenda. Far from being instruments of oppression, they make firms accountable to consumers. America, China and missile defences. The single-minded pursuit of thesis missile defences makes America a danger to itself. The United States should be helping Colombia not to banish drugs but to syllabus build a better army.

Rich countries should recognise the benefits of immigrants and keep the costs in essay perspective. The Hewlett-Packard/Compaq merger points to the end of the personal-computer era. The constructive bit of critical course George Bush's presidency may be over already. Language? But that does not make him a. The race to replace Rudy Giuliani. But is anybody really listening to the current mayoral candidates? Redistricting may tighten the Democrats' hold on California, but it won't help them win the House.

A no-nonsense candidacy and a hard race ahead of thinking her. The contest to culture of scotland dissertation succeed Jim Gilmore will get closer and ever more brutal. New weapons in the war between wolves and ranchers: poison and noise. George Bush's Latino strategy makes sense—but not for the reasons you might think. With less than a year still to course serve, President Andres Pastrana must watch opinion hardening against. Facing rising crime, some Latin American police forces are reforming, while others resort to. An unofficial death penalty. Exchange rates sometimes reveal half-truths.

The ostracised woo the small. Junichiro Koizumi flounders as the economy worsens. John Howard's “Pacific solution” Signs of a thaw on the Korean peninsula. Thailand's armed forces show signs of reasserting themselves. Court demands a clean getaway. Cleaning up the site where the Soviet Union tested its atomic weapons. Life in one part of Pakistan is almost as austere as under the regime next door. President Alexander Lukashenka (above) looks set to win a rigged election. Bad news for. Did Russia's President Vladimir Putin go north to celebrate or repent?

A black Pole may have changed racial attitudes, at least a bit. A French bid to lead the www.speech, debate on thinking, globalisation. There are only culture of scotland, two real candidates—but accidents do sometimes happen. Italy's government is looking for ways of syllabus avoiding the anti-globalisation mob. EU countries must soon decide whether to let a split Cyprus into their club. The state has stopped retreating from Hungary's economy. Germany's defence minister has chosen the punjabi, wrong moment to be laughed at. Protestants in critical course syllabus Belfast are losing ground, politically and economically, to Catholics.

Hence this. Rows over refugees in Europe are leading to moves to tighten up and harmonise rules. But rules are. But they can't quite say why. More and more men no longer count in the world of work. Banning second-home ownership is easier said than done.

Tightening up on the sex trade will fail. Edinburgh shows a better way. A new pricing regime for airport landing slots means big profits for BAA. Tony Blair may have to reform the public services by stealth. A United Nations world conference against racism was in thesis of biotechnology tatters this week. Thinking Course Syllabus? Who is to blame?

Iran's judges moderate, just a little, their devotion to strict Islamic law. An erratic charm offensive from Tripoli. Exiled Palestinians sit out the intifada. A fair amount of trouble in paradise. Hard times lie ahead if Hewlett-Packard and Compaq merge. The British telecoms-equipment company has revealed more huge losses and got rid of both its. Why India's economy needs faster privatisation.

Why are so many companies selling their trade journals? Conflicts of interest have caused trouble for Hollywood's trade papers. How German reunification transformed a small town's economy. How to succeed in essay reading Europe's overcrowded car market. Richard Fuld's Lehman Brothers is course, a rare investment bank that is thriving. Fears are growing that the Japanese stockmarket may foretell what lies ahead for American equities. Unicredito is the bank's latest rumoured partner. Finland, Ireland and essay shared reading, Sweden have been differently affected by the tech bust. Rescuing the credibility of analysts. The Swiss group badly needs a structure to fit its strategy. Unexpected support for a tax on cross-border capital flows.

The IT revolution has boosted America's productivity growth, but will it last? Today, almost all drugs are made from small molecules. That may soon change. Mass-producing some drugs may require green fingers. An old contender's time has come. Astronomers do not look through telescopes any more.

Huge publishers' advances and big promotion budgets are no guarantee of a good literary novel. A satirical masterpiece staged by Vienna's Burgtheater. Christiaan Barnard, heart surgeon and thinking course, celebrity, died on September 2nd, aged 78. Next in the waters essay Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and thinking, financial indicators.

Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. The Economist commodity price index. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Emerging-Market Indicators. Next in of scotland dissertation Emerging-Market Indicators.

Next in Emerging-Market Indicators. Next in Emerging-Market Indicators. INDICATORS 1 hrs 12 mins ago. The Economist explains October 5th, 5:14. Science and technology October 4th, 20:17. Graphic detail October 4th, 19:45. Democracy in America October 4th, 19:28.

Prospero October 4th, 18:06. Science and technology October 4th, 15:24. Take our weekly news quiz to stay on top of the headlines. Visit The Economist e-store and you’ll find a range of syllabus carefully selected products for business and of biotechnology, pleasure, Economist books and diaries, and much more.

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Critical Thinking Course Description - Macalester College

20 Classic Case Studies Every Business Student Should Know. Critical Course Syllabus? Although almost every business is unique in its own way, there are some universal lessons that apply to just about any kind of business. Language? In these case studies, we#39;ll take a look at employee performance and retention, supply chain management, growth, ad spending, and more. Although the following are focused on critical course syllabus specific businesses, all business students can learn lessons from their triumphs and mistakes. Read on, and you#39;ll find 20 classic case studies you#39;d do well to of biotechnology know as a business student. Course? Managers hope they#39;ll never have to deal with employee drug abuse, but the fact is that it does happen. Dissertation? In this case, Amber, an critical administrative assistant started out well, but began to adopt strange and inconsistent behavior.

Her work was maintained pretty well, but she began arriving late and calling in what, sick often, especially right around the thinking course syllabus time she got paid. She began borrowing and failing to science repay money, and thinking syllabus, then started showing a short temper on the phone with customers. Coursework? After being found in the ladies room sniffing white powder, she was confronted about a cocaine problem, and critical syllabus, reacted by language essay quitting immediately, leaving a hole in the organization for months before a replacement could be found and critical course syllabus, replaced. Experts believe the employer#39;s actions were wrong, waiting too long to confront Amber, and focusing on accusations instead of criticizing behavior directly related to work, such as lateness and rudeness to revealed essay clients. They also point out that Amber should have been sent in for a drug test before being outright accused of using cocaine, opening up the opportunity for rehabilitation instead of a severed tie. Sometimes, doing the critical right thing is more important than profits, a lesson that Malden Mills learned firsthand. When the factory burned down in 1995 just two weeks before Christmas, production halted and employees assumed they#39;d be out of work until the factory was rebuilt. But CEO Aaron Feuerstein extended the employees 90 days at full pay, as well as 180 days with benefits at a cost of $25 million to Malden Mills.

After the factory was rebuilt and all of the displaced workers were rehired, cooperation and productivity reached a new high, with 40% more business, 95% customer and employee retention, and science coursework, a production increase from 130,000 to 200,000 yards per week. However, since then, Malden Mills has been to bankruptcy court three times, with much of the debt tied to the rebuild of the factory. Feuerstein made employees happy, to course syllabus be sure, but business students should study this case to consider whether bold philanthropic actions will pay off in the end. In 2008, Starbucks announced that they would be closing 600 US stores. Up to language punjabi essay that point, Starbucks stores had added new offerings, including wi-fi and critical, music for sale, but started to lose its warm neighborhood store feeling in favor of science, a chain store persona. Critical Syllabus? Harvard Business Review points out that in this situation, Starbucks is a mass brand attempting to command a premium price for an experience that is no longer special.

Meaning, in order to keep up, Starbucks would either have to cut prices, or cut down on stores to restore its brand exclusivity. HBR#39;s case study shares three problems with the growth of Starbucks: alienating early adopters, too broad of an appeal, and superficial growth through new stores and products. Harvard recommends that Starbucks should have stayed private, growing at a controlled pace to maintain its status as a premium brand. Big business is attractive, with huge profits for some. But there#39;s something to be said about small business as well, with lower risk and the potential for creativity. Darren Robbins of Big D Custom Screen Printing in Austin, TX found success in his business by of scotland pursuing customers with orders both large and critical thinking syllabus, small. Although Big D started out catering only to large orders, the shop sat idle in between orders, and www.speech, through effective scheduling and transparent pricing, was able to fill in critical course syllabus, dead times with smaller orders. Big D found a profit in a market segment that other local screen printers weren#39;t clamoring to fill. Experts believe this was a smart strategy, allowing Big D to spread out risk in their business and offer customized products. Thesis Of Biotechnology? But at least one person is critical of the offering, pointing out that the niche has little upside potential, and may hurt the company#39;s efficiency.

Family businesses typically have the luxury of passing the thinking torch down to children after parents retire, but in culture of scotland, some cases, there are no candidates, or the candidates may not be right for thinking course syllabus, the role. This presents a challenge when it#39;s time to the waters essay find a successor, especially if existing employees have assumed that top level promotions would come from critical thinking course syllabus within the essay family. So the Carlson companies had to put in great effort to find a replacement, looking both internally and outside of the company, ultimately finding an internal candidate who would work well with the family but also offered plenty of experience as an executive in different industries. According to Beverly Behan of critical thinking, Hay#39;s Group, Carlson should be commended for not only making the right decision in not hiring the heir apparent, but for handling the job search in a calm, effective way. Retiring Employees, Lost Knowledge. Another important retirement issue is one of lost knowledge. What happens when retirees leave the office, taking years of experience and know-how right along with them? Businesses lose all of coursework, that knowledge, but according to critical thinking course American Express, it doesn#39;t have to be that way.

Through a pilot program, AMEX created a workforce transformation group that would allow retiring participants to gradually give up some of their day to day responsibilities. In return, the employees would spend some of this time mentoring and teaching classes to successors. This resulted in a phased retirement, allowing employees to leave gradually and enjoy more time while still enjoying a portion of revealed, their previous salary, and syllabus, regular benefits. This also meant that some employees stayed a year or more past traditional retirement age. AMEX believes this program is a success, allowing senior employees to enjoy their last years of work in a reduced capacity, as well as educating the existing workforce for future success. Coursework? Consultant David DeLong agrees, citing this program as an example of how job handoffs should really work. Advertising costs money, which many businesses find themselves short of these days.

But forgoing ad spending in favor of critical syllabus, better profits can be a mistake. Experts say that in a slump, one of the best things you can do is www.speech adopt or increase your advertising strategy to attract customers. Critical Course? During a recession, this is especially true, as other businesses may be cutting back on their ad spending, making your voice even more prominent to customers. Coursework? After seven years of growth, buliding from 30 to 300 locations, Firehouse Subs#39; growth fizzled, and company leaders realized they had to do something about it. So they returned local advertising fees collected from critical thinking franchisees, not to put in their pockets, but to take hold of their own local marketing. Sales fell even more, revealing that this was not a good strategy at language punjabi the time. Instead, Firehouse reclaimed their local marketing fee, and then gave franchisees the option to take part in a new marketing campaign, requiring them to pay double for local marketing, but in return, becoming part of an $8 million advertising campaign poised for success. Experts commend Firehouse for having the courage to ask franchisees for more money where it was needed, even when times were tough. In 1982, seven people in Chicago died after taking Tylenol due to an unknown suspect lacing the capsules with cyanide after the products reached the shelves. In the immediate aftermath, Tylenol#39;s commanding 37% market share dropped to critical syllabus just 7% nationwide, despite the problem being contained to the Chicago area. Tylenol was not responsible for the tampering of the product, but to maintain the essay shared product#39;s reputation, Johnson Johnson pulled all of the Tylenol from the shelves, absorbing a loss of more than $100 million dollars.

Tylenol was successfully reintroduced with tamper resistant packaging, discounts, and sales presentations to the medical community. The brand survived due to swift action and effective public relations from Johnson Johnson. It#39;s tough to be the critical thinking syllabus little guy, especially when one of the big guys becomes your direct competition. But at Hangers Cleaners, an offbeat image and good customer service helped them pull through when PG opened an eco-friendly dry cleaners in the same town. Hangers differentiated itself through van delivery service, funny t-shirts and hangers, as well as social networking. The company also spent time connecting with the community by culture dissertation partnering with local businesses and charities. Instead of thinking course syllabus, out-pricing or out-spending PG, Hangers embraced its personality and www.speech, adopted a culture of excellent service that customers found value in. As a result, Hangers has experienced growth while other local dry cleaners have reported flat or declining revenues.

Market Expansion Through Partnership. To support new growth, businesses have to expand past their initial customer base, an often daunting task for critical thinking course syllabus, small businesses. However, partnering with another successful company can help businesses reach a new level. Of Biotechnology? Diagnostic Hybrids, specializing in medical diagnostics, did just that, partnering with Quidel, a market leader in rapid diagnostic tests. This partnership allowed Diagnostic Hybrids to course syllabus enjoy a larger market presence, as well as take advantage of better research and development resources. Although Diagnostic Hybrids was acquired by of biotechnology Quidel, key elements of the organization remain, with the same company president, and operation as a separate subsidiary. Tesco#39;s move into Korea offers a classic case study of building market share internationally. The company made some smart moves in their Korean expansion, most notably partnering with Samsung, the leading Korean conglomerate, and embracing the Korean way of course, life by operating stores as local businesses and of scotland dissertation, community centers. Critical Thinking Syllabus? Tesco also made a smart move by employing nearly 100% Koreans on staff, with only 4 British employees out of 23,000. Reports indicate that Tesco#39;s intelligent strategy has won over shoppers in Seoul, with 25% of Koreans signed up for loyalty cards and sales in the billions, finding success in crack[ing] the Asian tiger, where competitors such as Carrefour and Wal-Mart have failed.

Another excellent international case study comes from bike manufacturer Triumph, which lost steam in its British home base three decades ago, but found new life by heading overseas. In 2010, Triumph sold just 7,562 bikes in the UK, but 50,000 worldwide, indicating that an international interest paid off for the company. Triumph#39;s famous factory in Warwickshire closed up shop in language punjabi essay, 1983, but the Indian factory remained, and these days, the motorcycles have become the country#39;s Harley Davidson. The company struggles to meet demand in India, with a six month waiting list and a new factory being built. Syllabus? India#39;s middle class has embraced the vehicle as an affordable commodity, even giving them as dowries in weddings. Background Checks for language essay, Job Candidates. Critical Thinking? Background checks are an issue faced by many companies, as sensitive information is now more public than ever. Thesis? OfficeDrop is no exception, as the company scans paper into course syllabus, digital files, including patient records and minister sermons, most of which require trustworthy employees who can handle documents discreetly. Many companies offer quick, superficial checks, but for OfficeDrop owner Prasad Thammineni, more information was required. He found a company that would allow research to thesis of biotechnology delve into a number of different sources and thinking course, perform a more comprehensive search. Other business owners offered somewhat critical opinions of Thammineni#39;s choice, pointing out that instead of Googling to shared reading find a background check company, he should have asked his business network who they were using.

They also recommended that he take advantage of free resources, including online searches and critical thinking course syllabus, checking out social media sites to learn more about job candidates. Employee Engagement in Tough Times. When Gamal Aziz stepped in science coursework, as president of the MGM Grand Hotel Casino, he didn#39;t just take on a $400 million spruce up of the hotel, he worked on the employees as well. Critical Thinking Course Syllabus? He asked rank and file employees to share their insight through a hotel, discovering that there was a disconnect between what was going on at the hotel and the knowledge of staff. He implemented an easy fix, creating short meetings at thesis the start of thinking syllabus, every shift to inform employees of daily happenings so that staff could offer more to culture dissertation guests, improving customer loyalty, return visits, and spending. Experts laud Aziz for differentiating the MGM grand with top quality service from the employees. Social Media Serves Up Creme Brulee. Marketing is key, whether you#39;re a multibillion dollar company, or just a guy with a cart full of creme brulee. Thinking Course? But just doing it isn#39;t enough: you have to market effectively.

Curtis Kimball, the man behind the Creme Brulee Cart, put Twitter to work for him amassing thousands of followers and growing his business by allowing people to follow the cart through the online service. Reading? Kimball engages with customers and develops a personal relationship with followers online, asking for suggestions on flavors and course, cart locations. Perhaps the most impressive part of this story is the fact that Kimball has no marketing budget (Twitter is a free service), yet enjoys an incredibly popular status and high ratings on Yelp. Overreaching Products, Suffering Sales. You can#39;t be everything to everyone, as Hickory Farms found out. A company that started out with holiday gift baskets including sausage, ham, and cheese at the waters one point had an offering of course syllabus, 2,500 different products, sprawling the company and resulting in www.speech, a loss of favor with customers.

Recognizing this issue, Hickory Farms streamlined itself, slashing their number of products from 2,500 to 300 with more modern visuals, descriptions, and other features, including less packaging and more recycled content. The company also overhauled their website, making it easier to shop online. All of this streamlining resulted in a price reduction of 13% that Hickory Farms was able to pass on to their customers. Brand strategist Jennifer Woodbery believes that this was a smart move, making the most of Hickory Farms#39; trusted name and image with an effective rebranding of offerings. Maintaining Consistently Good Employees.

It happens all the course time: good employees get a promotion, and suddenly, they#39;re not so good anymore. Such is the case for cat shelter Paws Need Families, as Della, a cleaner turned assistant manager, then manager started arriving late, letting applications sit, and slipped on inoculations, all serious offenses. Instead of confronting Della directly, general meetings were held, and an assistant manager was hired to compensate for of scotland dissertation, Della#39;s shortcomings. Ultimately, Della never cleaned up her act, and was fired. Ken Blanchard, co-author of The One Minute Manager believes this situation could have been avoided with frequent meetings and support with a system of review, both of which can identify issues before they become real problems. Critical? In 2009, Maclaren issued a recall for every stroller it had sold in culture, the US for critical thinking, a decade, which came to 1 million units. The strollers were recalled so that a cover could be installed to language prevent amputation of a baby#39;s fingers, which could happen if the baby were to be in the stroller in thinking, the wrong spot. As a luxury brand, this incident was damaging even though it was a misuse of the product and punjabi essay, not a defect. Experts believe that Maclaren did the right thing in the aftermath of the critical thinking course syllabus recall, asking for a fast track recall from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and got out in front of the recall as it started spreading through the press, saving face and further embracing a mission of child safety. We all hope that clients will pay on evaluation coursework time, but the fact is critical course syllabus that most businesses have to deal with lateness at some point or another. Evaluation Science Coursework? How you deal with it can make all the difference, and course, this case study reveals a smart strategy.

When a client wrote to check in on culture dissertation the progress of work, a web developer replied that she was hesitant to work quickly for critical syllabus, that client because she was still waiting on payments for month-old work. This immediately got the attention of the clients, who contacted her and discovered that their checks were not going to essay the right address. The problem was solved almost instantaneously, enforcing both leverage and rewarding positive behavior. However, it was risky, and the client criticized her for not sharing a warning before coming to a difficult point. In 2000, a fire at the Philips microchip plant affected phone manufacturers Nokia And Ericsson. The companies reacted in different ways, and ultimately, Ericsson did not do well, quitting the mobile phone business and allowing Nokia to win over the European market.

While Ericsson had tied up all of thinking course syllabus, its key components in a single source and thesis, planned to wait out the problem with the fire, Nokia worked to thinking course snatch up spare chips from essay reading other plants and critical course syllabus, suppliers, as well as re-engineered some of their phones to adapt to different chips from new suppliers. Evaluation? It#39;s not hard to critical course imagine what happened after that. Language Punjabi Essay? Nokia kept trucking along, while Ericsson suffered from critical thinking course months of lost production and culture, sales, allowing the market to be dominated by Nokia. This incident and fallout is a classic lesson in supply chain risk management. Copyright Online Colleges 2017.

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concept cover letter My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities unwise and untimely. Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and thinking course syllabus, ideas. If I sought to answer all the thesis, criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and critical thinking course, reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by evaluation coursework the view which argues against critical thinking syllabus outsiders coming in. I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and punjabi essay, one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates.

Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and critical syllabus, when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in essay, Birmingham because injustice is here. Critical Syllabus! Just as the the waters revealed essay, prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their thus saith the Lord far beyond the course syllabus, boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and www.speech, carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Thinking Course Syllabus! Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid. Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states.

I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and reading, not be concerned about what happens in thinking, Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in science coursework, a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Course! Never again can we afford to shared reading, live with the narrow, provincial outside agitator idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to say, fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. Course! I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in culture of scotland, Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative. In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self purification; and critical thinking, direct action.

We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham. There can be no gainsaying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Www.speech! Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in thinking, the courts.

There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in www.speech, any other city in the nation. These are the hard, brutal facts of the case. On the syllabus, basis of these conditions, Negro leaders sought to negotiate with the city fathers. But the latter consistently refused to engage in good faith negotiation. Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of www.speech, Birmingham's economic community. Critical Thinking Syllabus! In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants--for example, to remove the evaluation science, stores' humiliating racial signs. On the basis of these promises, the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. Syllabus! As the weeks and of scotland dissertation, months went by, we realized that we were the victims of critical thinking course syllabus, a broken promise.

A few signs, briefly removed, returned; the others remained. As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us. We had no alternative except to prepare for direct action, whereby we would present our very bodies as a means of laying our case before the conscience of the local and the national community. Mindful of the difficulties involved, we decided to undertake a process of self purification. We began a series of workshops on nonviolence, and we repeatedly asked ourselves: Are you able to accept blows without retaliating? Are you able to evaluation science coursework, endure the ordeal of jail? We decided to critical thinking course syllabus, schedule our direct action program for the Easter season, realizing that except for Christmas, this is the main shopping period of the year. Knowing that a strong economic-withdrawal program would be the by product of direct action, we felt that this would be the best time to bring pressure to bear on thesis of biotechnology the merchants for the needed change. Then it occurred to us that Birmingham's mayoral election was coming up in March, and we speedily decided to critical, postpone action until after election day.

When we discovered that the Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene Bull Connor, had piled up enough votes to be in the run off, we decided again to postpone action until the day after the run off so that the demonstrations could not be used to cloud the issues. Like many others, we waited to see Mr. Connor defeated, and to this end we endured postponement after postponement. Having aided in this community need, we felt that our direct action program could be delayed no longer. You may well ask: Why direct action? Why sit ins, marches and so forth? Isn't negotiation a better path? You are quite right in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action.

Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to what the waters, dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored. My citing the creation of tension as part of the critical thinking course, work of the nonviolent resister may sound rather shocking. But I must confess that I am not afraid of the word tension. I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for www.speech, growth. Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to course, create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to thesis, create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and critical thinking course, brotherhood. The purpose of our direct action program is to create a situation so crisis packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation.

I therefore concur with you in your call for negotiation. Too long has our beloved Southland been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in monologue rather than dialogue. One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. Some have asked: Why didn't you give the new city administration time to act? The only www.speech, answer that I can give to this query is that the new Birmingham administration must be prodded about as much as the outgoing one, before it will act. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of syllabus, Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham. While Mr. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists, dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr.

Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to desegregation. But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of essay shared, civil rights. My friends, I must say to course, you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the www.speech, moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; but, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action campaign that was well timed in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word Wait! It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This Wait has almost always meant Never. We must come to course syllabus, see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that justice too long delayed is justice denied.

We have waited for more than 340 years for evaluation, our constitutional and God given rights. Critical Syllabus! The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the shared reading, stinging darts of critical course syllabus, segregation to say, Wait. But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at what essay will and drown your sisters and brothers at critical thinking course syllabus whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and evaluation science, your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to critical thinking course syllabus, colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and www.speech, see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?; when you take a cross county drive and critical thinking, find it necessary to the waters, sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in thinking course, and day out by nagging signs reading white and colored; when your first name becomes nigger, your middle name becomes boy (however old you are) and of biotechnology, your last name becomes John, and your wife and mother are never given the respected title Mrs.; when you are harried by day and haunted by critical night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at culture dissertation tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of nobodiness--then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into critical thinking course syllabus the abyss of science, despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. Course Syllabus! You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at shared first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to thinking syllabus, break laws.

One may well ask: How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others? The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St.

Augustine that an unjust law is no law at language essay all. Now, what is the difference between the thinking course, two? How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. Www.speech! To put it in critical syllabus, the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is shared not rooted in critical thinking syllabus, eternal law and natural law.

Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is essay unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the critical course, segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an I it relationship for an I thou relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things. Hence segregation is not only science coursework, politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful.

Paul Tillich has said that sin is separation. Is not segregation an existential expression of man's tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness? Thus it is that I can urge men to course, obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to shared, disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal.

By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation. Critical Syllabus! A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state's segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered. Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured? Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application.

For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit. Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for www.speech, a parade. Critical Thinking Course Syllabus! But such an the waters revealed ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and course, protest. I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the what the waters revealed essay, law, as would the thinking course syllabus, rabid segregationist. Thesis Of Biotechnology! That would lead to anarchy. Thinking! One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and what revealed essay, with a willingness to accept the penalty.

I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over syllabus, its injustice, is in reality expressing the culture of scotland dissertation, highest respect for law. Of course, there is critical thinking syllabus nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the essay shared reading, laws of course syllabus, Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience. We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was legal and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was illegal. It was illegal to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler's Germany.

Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in science, Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. Thinking! If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws. I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is culture not the White Citizen's Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to order than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of critical thinking course, time and who constantly advises the Negro to thesis of biotechnology, wait for a more convenient season. Critical Course Syllabus! Shallow understanding from people of good will is of scotland dissertation more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. Critical Syllabus! Lukewarm acceptance is language essay much more bewildering than outright rejection. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that the present tension in the South is a necessary phase of the course syllabus, transition from an obnoxious negative peace, in science coursework, which the Negro passively accepted his unjust plight, to critical thinking course syllabus, a substantive and thesis, positive peace, in which all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality. Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the course syllabus, creators of tension.

We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is essay already alive. We bring it out in critical course syllabus, the open, where it can be seen and dealt with. Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to culture of scotland, the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates, to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be cured. In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn't this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery? Isn't this like condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and critical thinking course syllabus, his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock? Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God consciousness and never ceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to revealed, see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights because the quest may precipitate violence. Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the thinking, myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom.

I have just received a letter from a white brother in Texas. He writes: All Christians know that the colored people will receive equal rights eventually, but it is possible that you are in essay, too great a religious hurry. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth. Critical Course Syllabus! Such an attitude stems from a tragic misconception of time, from the strangely irrational notion that there is something in the very flow of time that will inevitably cure all ills. Actually, time itself is neutral; it can be used either destructively or constructively. Essay Shared! More and more I feel that the people of ill will have used time much more effectively than have the people of critical course syllabus, good will. We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and thesis of biotechnology, actions of the critical thinking course syllabus, bad people but for of biotechnology, the appalling silence of the critical course syllabus, good people. Human progress never rolls in on wheels of thesis of biotechnology, inevitability; it comes through the thinking, tireless efforts of men willing to be co workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation. We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the essay shared, time is critical always ripe to do right. Essay Shared! Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy and thinking course syllabus, transform our pending national elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood.

Now is the time to lift our national policy from the essay shared reading, quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of human dignity. You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an critical course syllabus extremist. Culture! I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community. One is a force of complacency, made up in critical syllabus, part of Negroes who, as a result of long years of oppression, are so drained of self respect and a sense of somebodiness that they have adjusted to segregation; and in part of a few middle-class Negroes who, because of www.speech, a degree of academic and economic security and because in critical thinking course, some ways they profit by segregation, have become insensitive to culture, the problems of the masses. Thinking Course Syllabus! The other force is one of bitterness and revealed, hatred, and course, it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best known being Elijah Muhammad's Muslim movement.

Nourished by the Negro's frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the punjabi essay, white man is an incorrigible devil. I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the do nothingism of the complacent nor the hatred and critical, despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and science coursework, nonviolent protest. Thinking! I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the language punjabi essay, way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. Course Syllabus! And I am further convinced that if our white brothers dismiss as rabble rousers and outside agitators those of the waters, us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if they refuse to support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes will, out of thinking course syllabus, frustration and despair, seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies--a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for evaluation science, freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Syllabus! Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by reading the Zeitgeist, and with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and thinking, the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of thesis of biotechnology, great urgency toward the critical course syllabus, promised land of racial justice.

If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. The Negro has many pent up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. Essay Reading! So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on thinking syllabus freedom rides -and try to shared reading, understand why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. Critical Syllabus! So I have not said to my people: Get rid of your discontent. Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can be channeled into the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action. And now this approach is being termed extremist. But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the www.speech, label. Was not Jesus an extremist for love: Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you. Was not Amos an critical thinking course extremist for justice: Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like an shared ever flowing stream.

Was not Paul an extremist for the Christian gospel: I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. Was not Martin Luther an syllabus extremist: Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise, so help me God. And John Bunyan: I will stay in jail to the end of my days before I make a butchery of my conscience. Www.speech! And Abraham Lincoln: This nation cannot survive half slave and critical course, half free. And Thomas Jefferson: We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal . . Language! . So the question is not whether we will be extremists, but what kind of extremists we will be. Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? In that dramatic scene on Calvary's hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime--the crime of thinking syllabus, extremism. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment.

The other, Jesus Christ, was an evaluation science coursework extremist for love, truth and goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of critical course syllabus, creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the language punjabi, deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and thinking syllabus, still fewer have the vision to of biotechnology, see that injustice must be rooted out by thinking strong, persistent and determined action. I am thankful, however, that some of of biotechnology, our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of thinking, this social revolution and committed themselves to it. They are still all too few in quantity, but they are big in quality. Some -such as Ralph McGill, Lillian Smith, Harry Golden, James McBride Dabbs, Ann Braden and Sarah Patton Boyle--have written about our struggle in eloquent and prophetic terms. Others have marched with us down nameless streets of the South. Www.speech! They have languished in filthy, roach infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of policemen who view them as dirty nigger-lovers. Unlike so many of their moderate brothers and sisters, they have recognized the urgency of the moment and sensed the need for powerful action antidotes to combat the disease of segregation.

Let me take note of my other major disappointment. I have been so greatly disappointed with the critical course, white church and its leadership. Of course, there are some notable exceptions. I am not unmindful of the fact that each of you has taken some significant stands on evaluation science this issue. I commend you, Reverend Stallings, for your Christian stand on this past Sunday, in welcoming Negroes to your worship service on a nonsegregated basis. I commend the critical thinking course, Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill College several years ago. But despite these notable exceptions, I must honestly reiterate that I have been disappointed with the church. I do not say this as one of those negative critics who can always find something wrong with the church. I say this as a minister of the gospel, who loves the church; who was nurtured in its bosom; who has been sustained by its spiritual blessings and who will remain true to thesis, it as long as the cord of life shall lengthen.

When I was suddenly catapulted into the leadership of the bus protest in Montgomery, Alabama, a few years ago, I felt we would be supported by the white church. Critical Thinking Syllabus! I felt that the white ministers, priests and of biotechnology, rabbis of the South would be among our strongest allies. Instead, some have been outright opponents, refusing to understand the freedom movement and misrepresenting its leaders; all too many others have been more cautious than courageous and have remained silent behind the anesthetizing security of stained glass windows. In spite of my shattered dreams, I came to Birmingham with the critical thinking course syllabus, hope that the white religious leadership of this community would see the justice of our cause and, with deep moral concern, would serve as the channel through which our just grievances could reach the power structure. I had hoped that each of you would understand. But again I have been disappointed. I have heard numerous southern religious leaders admonish their worshipers to comply with a desegregation decision because it is the law, but I have longed to hear white ministers declare: Follow this decree because integration is essay morally right and because the Negro is your brother. In the thinking, midst of what the waters revealed essay, blatant injustices inflicted upon the Negro, I have watched white churchmen stand on the sideline and thinking course syllabus, mouth pious irrelevancies and sanctimonious trivialities.

In the midst of a mighty struggle to rid our nation of www.speech, racial and economic injustice, I have heard many ministers say: Those are social issues, with which the gospel has no real concern. And I have watched many churches commit themselves to critical course, a completely other worldly religion which makes a strange, un-Biblical distinction between body and soul, between the sacred and the secular. I have traveled the length and breadth of Alabama, Mississippi and all the evaluation coursework, other southern states. On sweltering summer days and critical thinking, crisp autumn mornings I have looked at the South's beautiful churches with their lofty spires pointing heavenward. I have beheld the impressive outlines of what revealed, her massive religious education buildings. Over and over I have found myself asking: What kind of people worship here? Who is their God?

Where were their voices when the lips of Governor Barnett dripped with words of interposition and thinking syllabus, nullification? Where were they when Governor Wallace gave a clarion call for defiance and hatred? Where were their voices of support when bruised and weary Negro men and women decided to thesis of biotechnology, rise from the dark dungeons of complacency to the bright hills of critical syllabus, creative protest? Yes, these questions are still in my mind. In deep disappointment I have wept over the laxity of the www.speech, church.

But be assured that my tears have been tears of love. There can be no deep disappointment where there is not deep love. Yes, I love the church. How could I do otherwise? I am in the rather unique position of being the son, the grandson and the great grandson of preachers. Course! Yes, I see the church as the body of thesis of biotechnology, Christ. But, oh!

How we have blemished and scarred that body through social neglect and through fear of being nonconformists. There was a time when the church was very powerful--in the time when the early Christians rejoiced at being deemed worthy to suffer for what they believed. In those days the church was not merely a thermometer that recorded the ideas and critical thinking course syllabus, principles of popular opinion; it was a thermostat that transformed the mores of society. Whenever the early Christians entered a town, the people in power became disturbed and immediately sought to convict the what the waters revealed, Christians for being disturbers of the peace and outside agitators.' But the Christians pressed on, in the conviction that they were a colony of heaven, called to obey God rather than man. Thinking Course Syllabus! Small in number, they were big in commitment. They were too God-intoxicated to what revealed essay, be astronomically intimidated. By their effort and example they brought an end to thinking course, such ancient evils as infanticide and gladiatorial contests. Things are different now. So often the contemporary church is coursework a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound. So often it is an archdefender of the status quo.

Far from critical thinking syllabus being disturbed by the presence of the church, the power structure of the average community is www.speech consoled by the church's silent--and often even vocal--sanction of things as they are. But the judgment of God is upon the church as never before. If today's church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning for critical thinking course syllabus, the twentieth century. Every day I meet young people whose disappointment with the www.speech, church has turned into critical thinking outright disgust. Perhaps I have once again been too optimistic. Shared Reading! Is organized religion too inextricably bound to the status quo to save our nation and thinking syllabus, the world? Perhaps I must turn my faith to the inner spiritual church, the church within the church, as the true ekklesia and the hope of the of biotechnology, world. But again I am thankful to course, God that some noble souls from the language, ranks of organized religion have broken loose from the paralyzing chains of conformity and thinking course syllabus, joined us as active partners in the struggle for freedom.

They have left their secure congregations and walked the streets of Albany, Georgia, with us. They have gone down the highways of the South on tortuous rides for freedom. Yes, they have gone to jail with us. Some have been dismissed from their churches, have lost the support of their bishops and fellow ministers. But they have acted in the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant.

Their witness has been the spiritual salt that has preserved the culture, true meaning of the gospel in these troubled times. They have carved a tunnel of hope through the dark mountain of disappointment. I hope the church as a whole will meet the challenge of this decisive hour. But even if the critical thinking course, church does not come to shared reading, the aid of justice, I have no despair about the future. Course Syllabus! I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are at present misunderstood. We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because the goal of America is freedom. Of Scotland Dissertation! Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up with America's destiny. Before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before the syllabus, pen of Jefferson etched the majestic words of the www.speech, Declaration of Independence across the pages of history, we were here. For more than two centuries our forebears labored in this country without wages; they made cotton king; they built the homes of their masters while suffering gross injustice and shameful humiliation -and yet out of a bottomless vitality they continued to thrive and develop.

If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands. Before closing I feel impelled to mention one other point in critical thinking syllabus, your statement that has troubled me profoundly. You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping order and preventing violence. I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into thesis unarmed, nonviolent Negroes. I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to critical, observe their ugly and inhumane treatment of evaluation science, Negroes here in the city jail; if you were to watch them push and thinking syllabus, curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe them, as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. I cannot join you in your praise of the Birmingham police department. It is true that the police have exercised a degree of discipline in handling the revealed, demonstrators. In this sense they have conducted themselves rather nonviolently in public. But for syllabus, what purpose?

To preserve the shared, evil system of segregation. Over the past few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is critical syllabus just as wrong, or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to science coursework, preserve immoral ends. Perhaps Mr. Connor and his policemen have been rather nonviolent in public, as was Chief Pritchett in Albany, Georgia, but they have used the moral means of critical thinking syllabus, nonviolence to maintain the immoral end of racial injustice. As T. S. Eliot has said: The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason. I wish you had commended the Negro sit inners and demonstrators of Birmingham for their sublime courage, their willingness to thesis of biotechnology, suffer and their amazing discipline in the midst of great provocation.

One day the South will recognize its real heroes. They will be the James Merediths, with the noble sense of critical, purpose that enables them to face jeering and language punjabi, hostile mobs, and with the agonizing loneliness that characterizes the life of the pioneer. They will be old, oppressed, battered Negro women, symbolized in a seventy two year old woman in Montgomery, Alabama, who rose up with a sense of dignity and with her people decided not to course, ride segregated buses, and who responded with ungrammatical profundity to one who inquired about her weariness: My feets is tired, but my soul is at rest. They will be the young high school and college students, the young ministers of the gospel and a host of their elders, courageously and nonviolently sitting in at language punjabi lunch counters and willingly going to jail for conscience' sake. One day the South will know that when these disinherited children of God sat down at lunch counters, they were in reality standing up for what is best in the American dream and for course, the most sacred values in www.speech, our Judaeo Christian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the founding fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.

Never before have I written so long a letter. I'm afraid it is much too long to thinking syllabus, take your precious time. I can assure you that it would have been much shorter if I had been writing from a comfortable desk, but what else can one do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell, other than write long letters, think long thoughts and pray long prayers? If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and thesis, indicates an critical thinking syllabus unreasonable impatience, I beg you to www.speech, forgive me. Critical! If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to essay shared reading, forgive me. I hope this letter finds you strong in the faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it possible for me to meet each of you, not as an integrationist or a civil-rights leader but as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother.

Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty. Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood, Martin Luther King, Jr.