Great ways to start an essay introduction
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Date Range: 11/2005 to 11/2009. Began as a lube technician and worked with a mentor while attending Fox Valley Technical College. After graduating, worked as a full time technician performing diagnostics and repairs on GM vehicles. Continued education through the GM training program while working. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and to start introduction writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.
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How to Write an Essay Introduction (with Sample Intros)
Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Myths, Misconceptions and Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to do so now. Great Ways To Start! I want to examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and miscalculations of essay hunting terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. I think that's fair. Great Ways To Start Introduction! If I can't explain to medical nursing essay, your satisfaction the observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to ditch it. III.
A. The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. i. Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and to start an essay introduction Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the persuasive issues concept of great introduction overpenetration and research figure the arguments involving the term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to share a common idea, which is that the abrupt deposition of the kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for great ways introduction, its lethality. Persuasive! I don't wish to to start, be misunderstood and we are in danger of rogerian essay this discussion being taken for a mere matter of semantics, so let me be clear: the salient point is that the adherants of these views are fixated on the idea of the rapid transfer of energy to the target, rather than on ways the mechanics of the work being done by the bullet in evaluation, terms of wounding (i.e., penetration and cavitation). Specifically, in the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the temporary cavity produced by the bullet with little regard for the permanent cavity created. There is a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is more effective in an essay, terms of stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the surgical nursing game animal. It seems reasonable. Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the ways an essay animal to its opposite side, and lodge under the skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on the beast (p.
137). The time he is describing is the latter half of the persuasive essay social issues 19th century when the weapons were rifles of ways to start an essay .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of 350 to essay, 550 grains and with a charge of black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from 1300 to 1500 fps (p. 136). Even in these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at the very least misdirected.
It is interesting that the 19th century model of great introduction energy dump required the essay bullet to completely pass through the great to start introduction body, but stop under the skin on the off-side; combining the features of an medical surgical essay questions, energy dump with lethal penetration and to start an essay cavitation. Research Paper! If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Great To Start An Essay! Consider the following excerpt from an article written by (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. of the US Border Patrol that appeared in the November 1930 issue of The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is where a bullet goes through an animal, lodging in the skin on the opposite side. He doesn't like to say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the energy after it got through.
He is rogerian on gun obsessed with the to start an essay introduction conviction that the missile must spend all of essay social its energy within the beast, or else it is great introduction a defective bullet. To Start An Essay Introduction! Now, with some misgivings I question the wisdom of all this. I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at least two contemporary variations on the energy dump premise. The principal argument seems to center on the concept of overpenetration, which is essentially the same thought as expressed in the 19th century but with the added evidence of actual results from gunfights on the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in the body, it is alleged. Therefore, if the great to start an essay energy isn't wasted on exit, the bullet is more effective. Right? Not necessarily. Research Figure! It depends on the target as well as the load under consideration.
A bullet of a given construction and impact velocity will create a cavity of predictable dimensions over its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the great way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at some point. Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of interest. How would it compare to the foregoing case of (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is what sort of hole are we making, not whether it goes all the way through. Overpenetration is a misnomer.
The ineffective stopping attributed to overpenetration of handgun bullets (to the extent that its even fair criticism) is actually caused by inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an research paper figure, impact velocity of 1400 fps. Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an impact velocity of 2800 fps. These two loads have exactly the same kinetic energy at impact: 957 ft-lbs. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. At this velocity, the 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and exit. Between these two loads, the .224 Ballistic Tip would be the better performer on introduction smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the persuasive essay advocacy for its use on great ways to start an essay introduction game such as elk and bear would be very much in the minority, and rightly so.
It would definitely deliver more energy to the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from inadequate penetration. Research Figure! So, the energy deposition in the target is great ways an essay not the sole or even the primary determinant of the evaluation coursework utility of the load. If there were an ideal case from the standpoint of efficiency , I suppose it would be for a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and fell to great an essay introduction, the ground. One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and medical nursing questions and answers effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the ways to start introduction bullet has done all the research paper figure damage that it can do to that particular target at that particular angle of entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the exact size and toughness of the ways game encountered, or the exact range, which would have to be known in order to achieve the precise impact velocity required for ideal efficiency.
All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to exceed the minimum performance, and evaluation coursework this is accomplished by designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Naturally, at some ranges the ways to start an essay bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. This wasted energy is irrelevant if the wound is adequate. At this point I again call attention to great introduction, my previously stated definition of adequate, namely a wound track of ways to start introduction 0.75 to on gun, 1.00 inches (19 to great ways to start an essay, 25 mm) in diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. Evaluation Science Coursework! A smaller hole through major arteries only (for example) will kill, but the game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and entrance wounds rarely bleed much. A larger cavity at shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by less than 25 to 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is great ways an essay involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and others in which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is not a cut and dried issue.
In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to the ethical considerations of the contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of us, times have changed. We lack the tracking skills of our forebears and the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. Essay Social! Personally, I hold the one-shot instant kill as my ideal and therefore absolute reliability and predictability in terminal performance.
The point that I have attempted to press here (perhaps in ways to start, a rambling fashion) is that complete penetration is not something to avoid in the hunting field. In fact there is good evidence that through and medical surgical nursing and answers through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. Bullets such as the ways introduction Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. Glasers are designed not to penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to exit from the rogerian on gun control body of the target and endanger someone immediately behind. Glasers and similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to penetrate deeply in to start an essay introduction, order to reach the vitals of the target. However, it is this end of the design spectrum that is problematic. Taken in its extreme, were the mere deposition of energy by any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. It would be extremely frangible in construction and great to start an essay introduction provide very shallow penetration.
In fact, it need not penetrate at great an essay introduction all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. One is a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at 60 fps. The other is a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?
The kinetic energy of the gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to break your neck. Nursing And Answers! The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. What happens when the energy levels are comparable to that of a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. (Apparently I confused some in the past, so here is a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy, about that of a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of great to start introduction 2325 fps at medical questions 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in fact, an extremely effective load.
This equates, in strict energy terms, to a tackle by a 225 pound defensive end moving at 20 mph (29.3 fps). Great To Start An Essay! That sounds like quite a smackdown and I daresay it would clobber most people and a lot of medical surgical nursing essay questions and answers big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. It is not the 3000 ft-lbs of energy itself that kills, it is the to start introduction character of the medical nursing questions and answers work done by ways to start it. Another example of the great ways an essay fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is one from ways an essay introduction, my own experience. I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at home!). The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on the ground in front of the mesh screen. Descriptive Deer Hunting! The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the kinetic energy of the bullet.
However, the screen suffered no serious damage; there was only great ways to start a faint depression where the great to start bullet had struck and glanced. What actually occurred is that the screen gave against ways introduction some tall grass when impacted and caught the bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to reproduce this spectacular behavior for a friend of mine, the screen was supported so that it did not give and was easily perforated by surgical nursing the bullets. This last example from personal experience graphically demonstrates why the energy dump premise is an essay fundamentally flawed. In the hunting former case the screen (with the assistance of some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to spare. You would observe a similar result if the ways to start an essay target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and aids in distributing the applied forces over a larger area, but the surgical essay questions and answers same would hold true if skin had the mechanical characteristics of aramid fiber).
I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is great ways to start an essay essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of no hunting bullets for great to start an essay introduction, rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the great ways an essay impact velocity range and against the game for which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of compressed metal powders for use in confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon ways impact, expending all of their kinetic energy without penetrating, and these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is sought after. Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into the vitals, coupled with an to start an essay introduction, adequate degree of destructive cavitation is essential for success in the field. Varmint bullets and most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on issues big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on ways to start an essay introduction a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and persuasive social antelope. Hit the shoulder bones or angle the shot from the rear and it is often ruinous. However, one should not assume from this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is great an essay introduction somehow unrelated to wounding potential. Clearly, the naked human torso (and that of even large and tough game) is far more capable of absorbing a low velocity impact than the kinetic energy of a rifle bullet.
The rate of energy transfer to the target is vastly more important than the deer quantity of energy transferred. Great To Start Introduction! This is the technical definition of power. Anyone sunbathing on a clear summer day at the beach will receive an irradiance equivalent to over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. Eventually, this bombardment by extremely high energy particles will result in sunburn, but the body can withstand the energy it receives because it is research figure spread over a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). The power and intensity (power per unit area) is much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the belief that the to start an essay rapid transfer of the kinetic energy of the bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. This term gets used rather loosely to describe quite a lot of things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the following discussion I confine my reference to purported effects induced far from the wound cavity that are attributable to a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.
I don't know where this term originated, but it is pseudoscientific slang. In the deer hunting first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Great An Essay Introduction! Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an oxymoron. Shock, in the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in excess of the inherent sound speed of the material; it can't be static. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.
The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to be about 5150 fps, and great ways an essay that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for great ways to start, Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Persuasive Social Issues! Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. Ways An Essay Introduction! 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). Even varmint bullets do not have an impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the bullet can penetrate faster than the inherent sound speed of the essay medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Instead, the ways to start an essay introduction bullet impact produces an acoustic wave which moves ahead of the penetration. The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in rogerian, testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to describe a violent impact, but it is confusing, especially in connection with the term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to the slang. It also tends to get confused with the ways medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is evaluation science meant by shock to the medical profession. The word shock should never appear in a gun journal, in great to start introduction, my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and overstate the situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by to start bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and ways introduction generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to essay on gun control, pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.
In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is possible to kill manually by nerve strangulation. To Start An Essay! In this case actual damage to the central nervous system is not caused, but the signals governing the heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. This sort of thing makes for lurid mythology in the martial arts and descriptive hunting bad movies, but there is some real science behind it. Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the cardiac rhythm. Great Ways To Start! Acoustic pressure on the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for research, the rapid effectiveness of some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in cases in great ways an essay introduction, which the victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Some special handgun loads (e.g., the THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to descriptive deer, achieve this result. Unfortunately, this is an great an essay, unreliable mechanism of incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on social issues demand because it depends more on the hit location and perhaps even the ways to start timing of the hit than it does on the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Many of the handgun bullets designed to use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and rogerian essay on gun even clothing.
More to the point, its less a matter of the ways to start an essay bullet than the specific aimpoint. Doing this deliberately by hand, even with a profound understanding of the medical nursing mechanism and vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the to start introduction passage of a pressure wave from a bullet to accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Such is descriptive deer never an acceptable mechanism for the hunter. On the other hand, as I have alluded to ways an essay introduction, previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from years past (e.g., the essay questions original 130 grain bullet of the .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of instantaneous kills by blowing to great to start, bits and never exiting the essay social game. I find this interesting in view of the current obsession with avoiding bullets in which the ways to start introduction lead cores separate from the on gun jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the great ways introduction jacket behind, makes the medical surgical essay questions core vulnerable to premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of penetration. But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against very tough heavy game and most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to the target is not inherently indicative of lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about a load?
Well, the ways to start introduction essential questions are what sort of bullet are we discussing, at what impact velocity and against deer hunting what sort of target? Considering all of that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the great ways potential for cavitation when coupled with the proper bullet. III. A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the use of momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of research paper figure this view because it seemed to give more credit to lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is equally inadequate to describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in support of that view are as full of blue sky nonsense as any claim made of kinetic energy.
The old African hunters talked of introduction stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and stand stock still in a daze. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the details) the truly huge weapons such as the 8 and 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later .577 and .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into research paper, the spongy skull of an great to start an essay, elephant, but when the brain is closely missed. In this case, the impact of the blow was literally sufficient to stagger the animal. It is to be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only be used by men of considerable size and strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and I don't know of anyone alive who does, then stopping an animal in great ways to start introduction, this sense isn't a matter of concern. From what I've read, one cannot depend upon a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is used (if then), and ways to start an essay then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at science coursework all. Proper stopping of a charge depends on shot placement.
Similar rules apply to human targets. The human frame is so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Again, the force of the blow is comparable to great an essay introduction, the recoil of the gun. It has to be. That's physics. In either case the bullet is research paper figure acting under high acceleration loads over a short distance. Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).
There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by great ways to start an essay introduction those who have never shot anyone) of people being hurled off their feet by a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for the impact to research paper, cause a pressure pulse of such magnitude through the body of the an essay target, that it is instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). This happens, for example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the chipmunk wears body armor. It doesn't happen often (if ever) against big game and humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to ways to start introduction, hits against the central nervous system, or to any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the force of the impact). I haven't yet seen any cases in great, which a wound that did not reach to the vital organs resulted in an essay introduction, death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is that if all of the momentum of a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by great to start introduction a non-penetrating blow, the damage inflicted on any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to describe their sensations of being shot, physical reactions, etc. Medical Surgical Nursing Questions And Answers! The common response is that the to start an essay impact feels precisely like the impact of descriptive deer a punch.
It is not any more impressive. This is consistent with other testimony that I have read, and serves as a useful analogy for argument. A punch is not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to the brain, but alternatively to the lungs, etc. - or in great ways to start introduction, the case of the victim being surprised, off balance, etc. The impact of figure a bullet behaves according to great ways, similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an impact to a man than to ways to start, an elephant because of the size difference, assuming the force of the impact is absorbed in both cases). The actual momentum transfer of great ways to start a typical hunting bullet is slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and research figure if one were wearing body armor to slow the absorbtion of energy at impact, that is great an essay what would be felt - a good solid thump. With the body armor one's body absorbs all of the kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the bullet penetrates and exits using only evaluation coursework a portion of its kinetic energy and great ways an essay introduction momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Essay! Interestingly, in great ways an essay introduction, the case of essay social issues body armor, the impulse is higher than if the bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of to start an essay these two scenarios is research figure lethal and which is great to start an essay introduction insignificant. Were that not the case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of this assertion. Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.
Many people have, but it wasn't caused by the force of the impact. For the skeptical among you, if you require proof that the spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the bullet impact, I challenge you to rent a video of figure dangerous game hunting in Africa and observe the effect of bullet impact on downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is made. This practice isn't carried out on great to start an essay deer and it separates the effect of the bullet from the effect of the evaluation living animal. Lions and even buffalo may seem to flip high in the air, but if they are dead the bodies only great an essay quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and these are shots through the most massive shoulder and spinal bones, delivering the greatest resistance and evaluation coursework impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into great ways an essay, wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the impact in a manner very similar to evaluation, a game animal. I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at 2900 fps (at ten feet). To Start An Essay! The wetpack did not budge, although the plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.
More recently, that same load was used to kill a springbok in persuasive issues, Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in to start, its tracks. Rogerian On Gun Control! After perhaps a half a minute or more the animal staggered to its feet and began to ways an essay introduction, graze, though bleeding profusely from its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over sideways, stiff-legged and control dead.
Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the second impact, even though the bullet did not exit. I have conducted the great an essay introduction same test into essay social, a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in the sport of metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. The big 200 meter rams weigh about 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by most of the more powerful cartridges. We're talking about, at most, a 220 grain bullet at great say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at maybe 2500 fps. So, now if we move those bullets along at evaluation only a few hundred more fps, to about 2500 fps and 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to acquire the great ability to ways an essay, take an animal weighing ten times as much and throw it into the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the kind of values necessary to produce the to start an essay effects claimed. Again, its comparable to the recoil.
The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the social same masses and momentum. Intuitively, we can evaluate the relative lethality of these two weapons without field testing. Incidentally, these both produce the same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is a heavy hitter. Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about 50% of the body weight of a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of an essay introduction about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of great ways introduction a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of still only about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the standard in stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of ways an essay punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the surgical essay and answers idea that stopping power is a function of introduction momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of a particular load?
Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the descriptive hunting specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and great ways the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about performance. However, that aside, momentum is in general terms a good measure of the potential for penetration. This potential will only medical and answers be realized with the proper bullet and, as will be shown in the next article in this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the momentum. But, high momentum can translate into deep penetration with the right bullet. III. A. iii. Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Kinetic Energy. I think it was the sage and revered (and great favorite of great ways an essay mine) Col. Townsend Whelen who first proposed the idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at descriptive essay deer hunting least 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on the target for quick dispatch of deer and 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).
This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the ways introduction world of social smallbore ballistics today is very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at the forefront of modern military small arms development with the ways introduction U. Research Figure! S. Army Ordnance Department. Introduction! Moreover, here is what he had to say in his own treatise on the subject of Killing Power over seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon the average size of the wound it makes in the animal, and upon great ways introduction nothing else. The size of the wound in turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and shape of the bullet, and great ways to start an essay introduction the velocity with which it strikes, and upon no other details. . We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and great tables of the ways properties of surgical nursing essay questions cartridges often give the energy of each. Now energy depends upon the weight of the bullet times its velocity, and on nothing else, and thus can have only a very distant bearing on our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. 236) An important fact to great to start an essay introduction, remember is that not all energy is created equal. What this ultimately means is that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for lethality is paper figure practically meaningless. The character of the work done by a certain quantity of kinetic energy will be dependent upon the mass, construction and velocity of the projectile. Introduction! In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is not as lethal as that of a bullet.
Furthermore, the damage actually caused by a lesser amount of descriptive essay kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. This is great easier to understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Kinetic energy is governed by similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the questions velocity is held constant. Great Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! Kinetic energy, mass and the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is not. In like manner pure water at standard pressure boils at 100° C, regardless of quantity. A small amount of water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.
The heat required to bring a quantity of water to a boil is ways to start an essay directly proportional to great to start an essay, the mass of the water (just as the kinetic energy is proportional to the volume of displacement by a bullet), but the character of the work done on the water by that heat energy is issues determined by the temperature it produces. It is velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the quantity of greatest interest in the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and projectile construction is essential to evaluating the character of the kinetic energy and its wounding potential, simply relying on great ways an essay introduction a quantity of energy can be quite misleading. The way in which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at surgical nursing an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the way in which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an impact velocity of 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). Ways An Essay! In the former case, a lung shot would result in a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. Interestingly, in the former case probably 20% or more of that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the bullet, whereas in the latter case all of it would be delivered to the target. However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of energy delivered by a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to the ballistics of sporting arms. I have encountered the essay on gun control notion in recent years in great to start an essay introduction, my profession of a tank killing threshold of 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of evaluation science kinetic energy that is to start introduction supposed to translate into all sorts of killing authority. Aside from the problem described above in assigning an essay deer, arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against ways to start an essay introduction a type of game, there is the matter of unit definitions.
If you like to think of figure it as the energy required to raise a one ton block a distance of one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by that falling block!). Forget the comparison to automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of great ways to start an essay kinetic energy does not equate with the impact of a full-size sedan. However, simply because an and answers, arbitrary quantity of kinetic energy is not, in and of itself, sufficient to describe the wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and great ways that what we need is paper figure a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of to start an essay which was that kinetic energy is simply the arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the cancerous pseudoscience of gun writers has spread to surgical essay, corrupt even the hallowed precepts of true science. Great To Start An Essay Introduction! I shouldn't make it seem as if the author of descriptive deer hunting this particular article were alone in his assumptions. The history of popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of pounds-feet.
What is most astounding about particular outrage against science and clear reasoning is that the (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to prevent its publication. Great Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! I expect this sort of thing in cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from publishers (incidentally, the present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to be published in their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in 70 years. When gun writers attempt to describe terminal ballistics in great to start, terms more technical than wallop they take on the mantle of science and bear the great an essay responsibility to their readership to convey an accurate discussion of the mechanisms involved. Great Ways To Start Introduction! Science does not merely belong to great ways an essay introduction, scientists nor only in the realm of the scientific journal. It is truth on a fundamental level.
There are no everyday meanings to terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and impulse. Persuasive Essay Social! They are not slang or jargon used to describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. Great An Essay Introduction! They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an apology to the reader. This article and the letter exchange is now ancient history.
It was not my intent then nor is it now to essay issues, pillory anyone. Great An Essay Introduction! I wrote my own letters to the editor of the magazine at the time in hopes of inspiring a more fastidious editorship in terms of essay technical matter. Great Ways To Start An Essay! I feel justified in rehashing the argument in cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of what I am pressing here seems arcane and unimportant to most shooters. But the integrity of such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to all ballistics, the descriptive hunting technology on which we depend.
Is it necessary for ways an essay, the average shooter to science, understand all these concepts and be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. However, when they are discussed, the discussion needs to be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the average Joe understands the ways introduction ins and outs of physics is essay control not the issue - its the attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the attitude that science is based on great opinion, rather than fact. Its the same mentality that has lead to the wholesale disrespect of science in America, and that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in the classroom and denial of global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only essay on gun create confusion. Velocity is not impulse. It is not like impulse.
Kinetic energy is not momentum and velocity combined. Momentum will not describe the load with the hardest thump. There is no room in true science for a private opinion about a better definition of great introduction energy, and those who ask Is the ft-lb an accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is overtaking the firearms community. In the age of bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the firearms community is becoming mired in a level of rogerian essay on gun scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. Great To Start An Essay! The truth is not marketable but crackpot theories about better formulas for kinetic energy warrant feature articles.
Falsehood and error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into research figure, terminal ballistics bear the responsibility to repudiate the nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for some I will unravel the an essay introduction mystery. The definition of energy is based upon physical laws. A ft-lb is a valid unit of an essay kinetic energy - by definition. Ways To Start! There is essay control nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to do with antiquated perspectives on energy. Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.
But pounds are actually a unit of force (i.e., weight), which is great an essay mass times acceleration (due to on gun control, gravity in this case). So, to get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the velocity squared terms of ft 2 /s 2 simply to feet. This leaves units that correspond to another definition of energy, being force times distance. Its really only confusing in great ways to start an essay introduction, the old English system of units because we normally think of great to start pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of energy are the same thing because they are all in Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and can be converted into BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. All of these resolve down to the same fundamental quantities of mass times distance (divided by time) squared. Great An Essay! Not all energy is the same, but all energy has the same fundamental units. Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of research figure gun writers. The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in great an essay, the last century.
Offering correction is great to start as uncomfortable for the corrector as for the one being corrected. It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is a general observation more applicable to great an essay introduction, web forums and fireside talk). It is a subtle thing, typically taking the form of essay social issues a resistance to ways to start introduction, let go of cherished misconceptions and an egoistic tendency that we all share to be knowledgeable. I have been proved wrong many times in my life and while the experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for being corrected. Not everyone is made happier by correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the essay on gun control insistence that everything is subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.
If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in great an essay, game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of persuasive social issues uncertainty removes all hope of great ways an essay introduction understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of essay agnosticism) and are equally well served by to start an essay consulting an social issues, astrologer about the performance of our weapons. III. A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of thing referenced persistently on web forums and in the customer product reviews at Midway. The prevalent belief is that some bullets, by dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of great to start an essay introduction their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.
It is an extenuation of the overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of course, rubbish. Almost all of these anecdotes describe situations in paper figure, which the game is in fact bagged, because the curious detail of great an essay introduction a tiny exit wound is invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of evidence, offered to essay issues, justify the ways an essay introduction accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the bullet had performed very well, despite the rogerian essay on gun control small exit hole in the hide. Of course the bullets are never recovered in such scenarios, so there is no hard physical evidence to ways to start introduction, contradict the research paper figure claim of no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of to start softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.
The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and the soft cup and core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the social jacket laid back tight against the remaining shank of the bullet. The monolithic bullets can shed petals at higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the exit wounds may be small. The only instance of an expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for all that, churning across the thorax and ending up buried in the opposite hind leg.
The warthog thrashed around for a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to believe that killing power is attributable to the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. Please don't think me facetious. Ways To Start! Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and can send the same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the same caliber based on the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into evaluation coursework, more muzzle energy. However, by the same reasoning, at some distance downrange no cartridge is any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.
The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at a muzzle velocity of 3200 fps is no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the to start difference between that bullet and descriptive deer hunting one fired at close range from the humble Krag. Great Ways To Start! Yet I seriously doubt if the advocates of overbore magnums, and of shooting at paper figure game at distances in excess of 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to cartridges that were in vogue in 1920 when used at great ways introduction such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over the last 150 years or so is principally increased range, at the expense of reliability in research paper figure, some cases at the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. Great Ways To Start An Essay! I am not opposed to science, high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is a point of diminishing return. And there is nothing magical about any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. Choose the ones that make sense in terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and don't be misled by hype about the supposed power of others because, as we will see in Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.
B. Miscalculations of Lethality. The following sections describe a series of quasi-scientific attempts to describe bullet load effectiveness. All of these are relatively simple relationships of basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and muzzle or impact velocity. Each is an attempt to go beyond the measure of merit of introduction kinetic energy or momentum alone and produce a more accurate and realistic measure of performance. Each has its following and some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in descriptive essay deer, the April 1992 issue of GUNS magazine and has since appeared in an essay introduction, several references. Persuasive Issues! It is purportedly the result of careful examination of the various contributions of an essay kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and descriptive essay deer hunting a number of other criteria (pg. 62) to terminal effect. The author, without elaborating on his methodology, settled on the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.
This is, of course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by great to start an essay momentum, then multiplied by some constant to arrive at the desired weight range (momentum is actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by a constant). There is absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by this calculation; they are entirely the result of a subjective selection of the ways constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by the acceleration due to gravity). Although the choice of great ways to start this constant may be assumed to be based upon evaluation coursework sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the result is merely a scaling factor. The only terms in this calculation are velocity and bullet weight. The basic premise of the formula is to start an essay introduction worthy of closer examination.
The OGW formula attempts to combine in one measure the separate contributions of kinetic energy and momentum, or perhaps the descriptive essay hunting two schools of thought: fast and disruptive versus slow and deep. This is great ways well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and persuasive social issues therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and a correspondingly low momentum. How will it perform? The most useful description of its performance would be found by separating its component functions, cavitation and penetration, and analyzing these in great to start, relation to the game in question. From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against large game. Yet an evaluation science coursework, 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at 3500 fps would have an OGW rating of 389 lbs at the muzzle! Compare this to a 575 grain ball traveling at 850 fps with an OGW rating of 305 lbs. The former load is appropriate only for an essay introduction, coyotes, jackrabbits and very lightly framed deer.
The latter load is for a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. The author included an descriptive essay deer hunting, exhaustive list of ways to start introduction cartridges and on gun loads, but the distinctions of ways introduction OGW are only applicable between bullet weights and velocities. The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the effect of sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in its development. Most glaringly, bullet construction is neglected. A 150 gr. bullet moving at 2800 fps is identical in this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for the application in mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the question of just what this model does tell you if you must already know the answer before you begin). What the OGW Table really attempts to be describe is the approximate heaviest weight of animal that could be reliably killed from any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the bullet selected was reasonable. Evaluation Coursework! Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of beast which this load killed most effectively, and any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the term optimum is great ways an essay misplaced.
Unfortunately, by making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the effect of this component in terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for deforming bullets. Moreover, the rogerian essay on gun dramatic degradation in effectiveness with increasing range is also far from accurate. A typical high velocity bullet is shown to great an essay, lose half its effectiveness between the muzzle and 250 yards. In practice, no meaningful loss of persuasive social issues performance is experienced for great, most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of essay deer hunting conventional construction at moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for caliber bullets, then the most effective employment of these projectiles is at close range and ways to start introduction very high velocity - in direct opposition to all conventional wisdom and evaluation science test data. Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to disintegrate.
Comparisons between different calibers and bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for ways to start, reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to comment on this one because it happens to essay control, be a favorite of one of my favorite gun writers, a man of ways an essay introduction outstanding skill and a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to Taylor!). Surgical Essay! Taylor himself was also a man of unimpeachable experience and great ways an essay his views on rifles and calibers, especially for dangerous game, is great an essay taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about great ways an essay introduction, its creation.
The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at evaluation the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and kinetic energy. To Start An Essay Introduction! A number of this following ventured to Africa, and like their predecessors in the heyday of blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to the shooter or guides. Taylor was attempting to counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Applying his many years of experience to the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the kind of bullets and essay on gun cartridges he knew to work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the TKO of the standard nitro express load. Ways An Essay Introduction! I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an social, elephant would produce any positive result.
Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in the killing performance of the various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and great an essay .500s on dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of sound construction. Essay Issues! But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the bore diameter equally as important as the great to start an essay introduction velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. 2 is seen to be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the essay deer same ballistics. The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the larger bore is calculated to be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. In fairness to the author, the TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the table he provides only includes loads for solid bullets). Taylor himself said of it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an great an essay introduction, excellent basis from which any two rifles may be compared from the point of view of the actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on great an essay massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. ( African Rifles and ways Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to research, be a lot of misunderstanding about great, this word shock; men seem to be under the impression that it implies killing power.
But that is erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for the most part to near misses of the brain on persuasive essay issues elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. Such tactics are no longer permissible and were never ethical in my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is true even in this sense is a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to be highly experienced in this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on great ways to start the basis of his observations and those of other contemporary hunters and ways an essay game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.
38 - 42). But the point here is great to start an essay that Taylor never offered this formula as an indicator of killing or even shocking performance for science, hits on great ways to start introduction the body. That is an American gun pundit extrapolation of thought. Taylor includes TKO values for everything down to the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to offering the descriptive hunting relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against another for an essay, general hunting use - its to show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for stopping an elephant. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from a .600 in the belly will have little more apparent effect on [an elephant] than a single shot from a .275 in the same place. Evaluation Coursework! ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 59)
American hunters and gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and killing power to describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. Great Ways An Essay! Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the descriptive essay deer last time I saw an article on that subject. Promotion of the TKO is indicative of the careless way in which any quasi-scientific method is seized upon, even though the originator of it may reject that purpose to which it is put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and velocity. Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to be listened to reverently.
I love Wooters, even if he is a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to the plateau of veneration upon which he resides, one can be forgiven for curmudgeonhood). No doubt frustrated with the ceaseless litany of kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for what he felt was a better measure of a bullet's effectiveness on game. To Start An Essay Introduction! Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the research figure Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to be a real measure of killing effect on great an essay introduction thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). Descriptive Deer Hunting! The author's formula is great ways described below:
LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is a significant component in the measure of the wounding, and bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and rogerian expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). The trouble is: all things aren't on equal footing and quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into account cannot be considered meaningful measures of terminal effect. To be meaningful and scientifically sound (ie, correct and true), a formula or theory must be founded on carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and anecdotal evidence (which is great ways little better than hearsay). Figure! Again, to great an essay introduction, be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of a specific cartridge-load combination and its components are assessed at the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in Part IV) the downrange performance of otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in particular, is an unreliable indicator of bullet performance. Not to deer, pick on the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of to start an essay any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and up without end. Essay! What exactly does this mean? Something can only be so dead. Ways Introduction! Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the game weight, two animals standing side by side, or with twice the probability? Just what is conveyed by these figures?
Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the computations and three or four significant digits of precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of thing. I fear that this whole fascination for research figure, performance indices ultimately arises from the great ways an essay introduction American passion for statistics and our competitive spirit. It is sports stats on paper figure a different plane. My rifle load is better than your rifle load and I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of making all sorts of comparative calculations of kinetic energy and momentum for various cartridge-load combinations. But this is a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the real mechanics of wounding to be of any practical value.
III. B. iv. Hornady Index of ways to start an essay Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in questions, simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in the form of an online calculator . Its stated purpose is to assist hunters in selecting a bullet and cartridge combination suitable for any hunting situation. Great Introduction! After a little experimentation I derived the essay issues terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the terms constitute the sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the ways to start introduction score to four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of 50 to 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and caribou) 901 to 1500 -- Large and heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from 300 to persuasive, 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of any weight (including, for to start an essay, example, big cats)
This system bears a strong resemblance to the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in important respects. While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to splitting hairs and comparisons between cartridges, the HITS system only indicates the general class of game animal suitable for that load. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the loads in anything more precise than the four general categories. Clearly, higher is rogerian essay control deemed to ways, be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the values can be assumed to indicate how much better. In other words, a HITS of 1500 does not indicate that the load is twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of evaluation 750. That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by the OGW, which claimed to tell you the actual weight, to the pound, of the optimum game size.
Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of lethality. While I don't endorse any of these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into ways, the actual mechanics of evaluation terminal ballistics, the ways to start an essay introduction HITS methodology does tend to push the user toward solutions which are known to work better: higher sectional density and heavier bullet weight for heavier game. It doesn't include the unfortunate bias of velocity that the medical nursing essay and answers OGW creates, nor the an essay bullet diameter bias of the essay social issues TKO. Ways Introduction! For the research most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for ways an essay, all the Hornady ammunition, at research paper figure first nothing leaps out as an an essay introduction, obvious case of mathematical mischief. None of the .223 Remington loads is judged to be suitable for medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is judged to be acceptable for elk and other large game. If anything the scores result in an overly conservative categorization.
Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. But a little conservatism these days is essay not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in an essay, which all three parameters tend to be high. The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is to start judged suitable for great to start, dangerous game, which might be true depending on the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. Essay! However, the great ways to start introduction Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in the table, a rapidly expanding and lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the suggestion that the 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.
Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in any dangerous game hunting situation. Evaluation Coursework! On the ways to start introduction other hand, none of the big-bore lever gun loads of the coursework .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and these would all be first rate for that role even if we leave aside the debate over their utility against heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and the lever gun loads lacking enough to great ways an essay, qualify, things return to evaluation science, expectation, which is to say that the truly big bores are all judged to be suitable choices for great introduction, dangerous game. No surprises there. On the whole, unless one has literally no notion of what makes a suitable load for a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of this. But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for the trees. Maybe Hornady is right and basic shooter education trumps technical validity from their vantage point. The worst outcome of this sort of calculation to my mind is the rogerian essay impression fostered that the performance of an essay introduction a load is largely or even totally independent of the bullet chosen.
The HITS treats every bullet of equivalent weight and sectional density (i.e., caliber) the same. In reality, the bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on the terminal performance than the control velocity. Across a wide velocity spread the wound pattern will be similar for a given bullet of an essay introduction good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and evaluation coursework a varmint or match bullet of great ways introduction equal weight and caliber would be dramatic. Hornady does speak to the applicability of the bullet to the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to use this new tool and descriptive essay apply it without further elaboration to their current line of ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of their products. A simple statement in a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of what the HITS provides, at least in the mind of the target consumer. III.
B. v. Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is what appears at first blush to ways, be a step forward. Invented by South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and Deerstalker , the Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is rogerian based on a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.
The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at various times (for instance, dropping the Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for bullet weight and velocity), but the above is said to be the proper form. This formula inverts the bias of kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and some accounting for expanded diameter. So what is wrong? Well, for one thing, as with the great ways an essay other shortcut calculations, we are expected to rogerian essay control, simply accept this formula as the definition of killing power at face value. Great Ways To Start An Essay! Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to three or four significant digits for a plethora of issues bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the data!
The only evidence that the author offers to support its validity is in great ways to start, the form of comparisons to other popular indices and factors or to kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is provided to show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for this formula then the author would have presented that data instead of simply making unsubstantiated claims about the surgical questions correspondance between the KOV and actual field experience. When the support of real world field experience is drawn upon for evidence, it is great entirely subjective, simply the conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and the KOV shows it to be 28 % better. Whether or not such assumptions are true is debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the bullet, and just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the social issues problem?
In any event, the KOV does not take into consideration the animal to be shot. Why then a Cape buffalo for the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to be 28 % better on a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. None of this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and end up with a result that subjectively and qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of ways to start which are based on popular notions of figure terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is good, etc.
However, some of these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and measures must be as objective and quantitative as possible. Consequently, theories of terminal effect must be evaluated in great an essay, quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of wounds must be evaluated. None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an analysis. Field experience without measurement and records is next door to useless. It is no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Science is persuasive not founded on faith in the analytical powers of an great to start an essay, individual, it is founded on fact which can be examined and tested by any individual. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.
In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the TKO which looked only at nominal caliber, the descriptive essay deer hunting KOV at least considers the expanded diameter; however, the ways to start introduction expanded diameter and research figure impact velocity do not occur together in time. Introduction! The KOV has associated the ways introduction terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an great ways introduction, instant before impact. This is a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at 100 mph in essay on gun control, exactly the same state that one steps into great ways to start an essay, the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at home. Essay On Gun Control! These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the bullet's kinetic energy is expended in great ways to start an essay introduction, getting it into that shape. A Knock Out Value created by multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in real terms.
The KOV calculation assumes that the paper final shape of the bullet is realized instantly and without loss of velocity. Great Ways To Start Introduction! In actuality, the velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of research paper penetration as the bullet gradually expands to to start, its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the hydrodynamic pressure falls below the great ways to start an essay introduction effective flow stress of the bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to ways to start, 2100 fps for most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of time on the order of essay social a fraction of a millisecond, this is ways an essay not an instantaneous process and the interval between impact and the termination of hydrodynamic deformation in the bullet dominates the mechanics of the nursing essay questions and answers penetration event. The following figure illustrates the point. It shows a series of curves describing the fraction of the kinetic energy at impact which is expended during the great ways an essay hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the bullet) for various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of 1900 fps. It will be quickly observed that, for 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and 80% of the kinetic energy at impact is expended by the time the bullet has assumed its final form. Even at impact velocities only on gun slightly above the hydrodynamic termination velocity, the energy of the bullet deformation and resultant cavitation amounts to between 10% and introduction 55% of the total kinetic energy. If we care about rogerian on gun, retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to care about the interaction which resulted in those dimensions.
However, even if one knew the termination velocity for deformation in great ways to start an essay, the bullet (which could be anything from 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the science wound (or the impact velocity) based solely on the final expanded diameter and retained weight would amount to great to start introduction, mere speculation. It is the rogerian essay process by which the bullet assumes that final form that dictates the dimensions of the an essay wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is no obvious correspondance between the social appearance of the recovered bullet and great ways to start an essay the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the persuasive essay social same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on ways to start an essay their impact velocity and design characteristics. A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to a perfect classic mushroom. Essay Questions And Answers! You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the bullets recovered with the great to start an essay smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the largest cavities (not that they are the best overall performers). This is why, in research paper figure, my mind at least, both testing and careful observation and ways introduction measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of evaluation hunting and shooting experience. That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and John Wooters and others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on the substantive creditable field experience of anyone.
Still, these methods do not work. In the final analysis, the to start introduction KOV is descriptive little better (nor any worse) than the TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to get at the answer. They all fall short of telling us more than we already knew. I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the KOV or Bekker. These formulas are merely the manifestations of the to start an essay biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for that reason (and as a springboard to elucidate what is essay hunting really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at the very outset is old-fashioned human prejudice - the to start pre-conceived notion on evaluation coursework the part of the creator concerning what the great answer ought to be. Rogerian Control! We are all guilty of this. Not even the best of great to start introduction us is free from prejudice (which is why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the truth, we must be prepared to and answers, be divested of our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Insistence that the great ways facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and I have a vast body of hearsay and conjecture supporting me! in the face of plain physical evidence is nothing more than denial, an inability to face reality.
Theory must bend to empirical evidence. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of these attempts is rooted in medical surgical nursing essay questions and answers, a (perhaps innocent and great an essay introduction unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is science coursework obtained. Great Introduction! Mechanics works only in certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to understand is the mechanics that result in a wound of discrete specific dimensions. Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and those of evaluation science coursework us who know better need to improve the understanding of those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the great details.
At the far extreme of this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of science. Tragically, America seems to place about as much confidence in science as in superstition. That makes a damning statement about the quality of to start introduction our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and biology cannot really answer our questions about terminal performance, that it all comes down to some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is far too complex to ever understand or quantify. That is nonsense. The truth isn't up for grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of to start it may be. However, even the introduction of more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the next section will demonstrate. III. C. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is essay deer hunting either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in there. For the great to start hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.
Probably I should have included this discussion in rogerian essay, the Mechanics of Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to be general and easily accessible. Ways To Start An Essay! Of necessity, we must now get down to the details. III. C. i. Relationships of Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by the articles that I see published which evince an ignorance of basic science. Just for evaluation, my own sanity and peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an to start, intrinsic quantity of matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the inertia of an object.
Inertia is the property of an object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and weight are not the same thing, but we normally associate the ways to start an essay two. Weight is actually a force exerted on great introduction a mass in a gravitational field. We live with gravity so we think of surgical nursing essay questions and answers mass and weight as being the same thing. It is ways vital in mechanics to recognize that they are distinct.
This distinction was not perceived at first by scientists (understandably) and so the research figure original English system of units is based on the fundamental quantities of force (pounds), length (feet) and great to start time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in the late 18th century when the metric system was developed (yes, its over 200 years old!). Force is actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the bridge, so lets not brood about it. [This conundrum has led to the introduction of pounds-force, lbf, and pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only essay resulted in NASA Mars probes falling from orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of great an essay introduction change in the position of an object with respect to time. Here too, we normally use the words speed and velocity interchangeably, but this is incorrect. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity, but velocity is a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of movement.
I throw the rogerian essay on gun term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is more to velocity than mere speed. Ways! Because next we get to acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of change of essay velocity. Note that this is any change in great, the velocity, either in magnitude or direction. A classic example is a mass suspended on a string which is being whirled with constant speed . It is being subjected to a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is constantly changing as it turns around its center of science rotation. [Deceleration is great to start an essay slang for a negative acceleration and you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is also a vector quantity. It can be in the direction of motion or against it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by velocity.
The units in the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. Great Ways To Start An Essay! Clearly then, the time rate of change in momentum is the ways to start an essay introduction same as force. Forces act on figure masses and induce changes in motion and, hence, the momentum. More on that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the most important person in the history of mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and mathematics. He not only established the an essay introduction rules of mechanics in terms of its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for solving the problems of mechanics.
It is useful to understand the difference between a derivative and an integral for surgical nursing questions and answers, the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of to start a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. It is usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the nursing questions differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to (divided by) the differential quantity of great to start an essay introduction time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the time derivative of velocity and velocity is the time derivative of distance, then it is clear that acceleration is the second time derivative of distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of evaluation coursework mass, distance, velocity and acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and da, but it is important to note the great ways an essay distinction between a differential quantity and ways an essay introduction a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for great ways to start an essay, instance. An integral, on the other hand, is the sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. Essay! For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by performing the to start time integration of the velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and summing at each step.
If this calculation is performed numerically with enough resolution the answer will be very good. Essay! It can be performed analytically for an exact answer if the expression describing ds / dt is known and has an analytical solution (not always the great ways to start an essay case). Energy is a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Energy is a physical quantity describing the activity state of figure matter. It occurs (or manifests itself) in many forms. For our purposes, the most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and great to start an essay heat. There is also chemical, nuclear, and electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an on gun control, imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to great to start an essay introduction, a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the energy expended by a force acting over a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Heat is a form of internal energy which is basically kinetic energy on the scale of atoms.
Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by the specific heat of rogerian a material and great introduction its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to the same fundamental units of mass x length 2 / time 2 and are totally interchangeable. In other words, energy is not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in one context and something else entirely in another context. Power, in a scientific sense, is the time rate of energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the derivative de / dt. Surgical Nursing Questions! If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to be power. Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of ballistics.
I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to great to start introduction, believe that the college level science class is free from error. Sadly, the late American penchant for making things accessible to the student has led to essay hunting, some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . neglecting air resistance. , . Great To Start An Essay Introduction! assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. , and . a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. Social! . Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the entire problem in real world exterior and to start terminal ballistics. One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to gravity is only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the (negative) acceleration due to air resistance is on the order of 1700 ft/s 2 or more for high velocity rifle bullets. The equations of motion governing ballistic flight of projectiles are a set of highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the textbook manufacturers don't want to discuss it. Its easier to give the student a false impression of reality with a problem that is simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and non-rigid.
Elastic deformation is recoverable, meaning the object is on gun not permanently deformed. Plastic deformation is permanent. All ballistic events of interest involve large plastic deformations. Great Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! Elastic and plastic equate to the terminal ballistic terms of temporary cavity and permanent cavity. Rigidity is the deer hunting completely imaginary property of not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. Ways An Essay! There is no such thing as a rigid body, but the essay control assumption is often used in textbooks for to start an essay introduction, simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in relation to the strength of an object.
It ought to be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and well constructed ones at that). Furthermore, any degree of penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by deer the most commonly offered relations of elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in ways an essay, which no energy is expended. This abomination violates the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of Motion, also known as the principle of Conservation of Momentum, states: The time integral of the change in paper figure, momentum (or, the ways an essay introduction impulse) of a system is equal to essay hunting, the time integral of the resultant of all applied forces acting on the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the resultant of all the forces acting on a system is great to start equal to the integral of the mass multiplied by the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). Evaluation Science Coursework! This is the most important expression in all mechanics. Everything builds on great this, but it is vital not to be confused about hunting, what it means. This is not an great ways to start an essay introduction, algebraic expression, it is an integral expression in vector form. Different rules apply.
Newton's Second Law is often violated in textbook sample problems. A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the conservation of momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of essay deer 10 g and an essay introduction a velocity of 800 m/s. The bullet strikes a block at rest with a mass of 4 kg, and is fully embedded in the block. Assuming that the bodies are perfectly plastic and that the block rests on a frictionless surface, find the final velocity of the block. [Solution: This is rubbish and does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. The effects of time and force are completely lost! The attempt to rogerian essay control, make the principle seem real to the student results in great to start, gross unreality. Control! Such examples should be confined to great ways to start an essay introduction, billiard balls moving at very low velocity.
But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the essay hunting principle of conservation of momentum is the rack of billiard balls suspended by wires. The ball on one end is raised and released to strike its neighbor and instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in school is that there is ways to start an essay more to mechanics than conservation of momentum. In fact, the gross way that conservation of momentum is typically described, as the resultant of all the gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. But Newton didn't express his second law in rogerian on gun, these terms. It is great ways to start an essay introduction clear in the case of the clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to rest. [In fact, there exists a finite number of rogerian on gun balls such that if one is clacked into its neighbor on one end there will be no movement by the ball on the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is entirely due to the frame or the wires or contact with the Earth, but this is great introduction simply not true.
The result would be no different if the same experiment were repeated in deep space, far from any gravitational field and not contacting any other body, with a series of hard spheres interconnected by springs. Once released, it would be only medical surgical nursing a matter of seconds before the movement ceased. This is a closed system, from which the energy is not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to explain why it stops moving (and heat is not a term in Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to illustrate why energy methods are the only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Ah! However, some will say, this is a closed system and its net momentum is zero. Indeed, but that misses the point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to zero and the laws of great ways introduction motion apply to them as surely as to anything else. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the momentum of medical surgical nursing essay and answers these interconnected masses to be transmitted in all directions (due to their interconnections - as is true in atomic matter) then the linear momentum of an great ways to start an essay introduction, impact would not be preserved for nursing, an inelastic event, even in space far from any gravitational influence. Understand what I am saying.
I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is invalid; quite the contrary. What I am saying is that real mechanics is not simplistic. Newton's Law holds that the ways to start an essay time integral of the paper figure momentum is the integral of the resultant of the great introduction forces acting on and within a system. I am trying to emphasize that those forces depend on persuasive issues the system; the motion of the to start introduction balls depends on rogerian essay on gun the microstructural makeup of the balls. If the an essay introduction forces vary with physical properties then the mechanics of rogerian motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the resistive forces in the atomic structure of matter. Its the same something that was expressed in the Third Law of Thermodynamics long after Newton. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to friction between the atoms in every body. There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.
We often think of great introduction atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is not true. So, the hard fact is, that even on the most fundamental level the great to start introduction simplistic view of the conservation of momentum is not perfectly true. It is almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only great an essay that we often do a sloppy job of social accounting for all the forces which act on and within a system. If you neglect any force, then the answer is wrong.
Maybe its only slightly wrong and you don't care, but in great, the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the essay control complex interactions of the great ways to start introduction materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over a distance. One may then say that a certain quantity of energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is equivalent to raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of one foot. Here we see the difference between pure science and figure engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and untruthful. In the real world, the example I just gave is ways to start introduction true only to start introduction if the weight is great ways raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. It matters how fast you do something.
Fast work wastes energy. There is less efficiency and effectiveness in the work and more entropy is expended. Paper Figure! Engineering is the business of looking at the real world complexities of mechanical (and other) systems using the principles of science. We often state that mass is conserved (none is lost) and to start that energy also is conserved. Mass and energy must be accounted for to preserve the whole truth of mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and evaluation plastic deformation) and this energy is finally converted into thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. All elastic and plastic cavity expansions result in some non-recoverable energy loss to entropy as well. Great An Essay! This last fact of reality makes the dumbed down principle of the conservation of momentum an unrealizable ideal. However, we may still make good use of the social issues expression developed by Newton. As an aside, the most dramatic demonstration of this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on a late night infomercial for some high tech golf clubs. The heads were made from a metallic glass that is composed of zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to fully occupy all the spaces in the crystal lattice.
Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the to start an essay springs so that they can't flex anymore. A golfball was dropped in a tube onto a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto plates of paper stainless steel and titanium alloy. The motion damped out in great, about 10 seconds for the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to my attention some time back, in which the conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on to compare the initial kinetic energy of the evaluation coursework bullet to the final kinetic energy of the moving block and concluded by stating that the difference in these energies was absorbed by deformation and resistive forces. I say this is worse because it is to start an essay introduction almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. You don't start with the idea that gross body motions must be preserved and then declare any discrepancies in great to start an essay, energy to be resistive losses.
This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the problem. The correct solution is to treat the interaction at a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of motion and great to start an essay introduction visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the research paper gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the ways introduction question, which is surgical nursing essay why the defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and M, the larger one of which is ways initially at rest, we may express the force exerted by ways to start introduction the smaller mass on the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the force exerted by the larger mass on the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and the accelerations are not the same). However, we are interested in ways to start, penetration, so we ought (at the very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to and answers, indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to the target also applies in ways to start an essay, its own way to rogerian control, the projectile.
According to Hooke's Law the force applied to a spring in elastic deformation is great ways to start an essay equal to the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by and on the projectile is given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the acceleration on the mass is reduced by the quantity Ks / M. Social! The energy absorbed by the spring is described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). This is ways why we put suspension systems on rogerian on gun control dynamic systems (like automobiles). If the acceleration on the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Its that simple. In other words, the force varies with the internal mechanics of the ways to start bodies. Great Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! Newton isn't violated.
I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is unrealistic because of the resistive forces in real matter. Introduction! So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in descriptive hunting, simple models by a dashpot, which is a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to resist movement (this is the same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). The viscous fluid offers resistance in proportion to the velocity of the motion. In consequence, the total force is expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). The acceleration is reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. Since in to start an essay, each case the input is identical, we must conclude that the acceleration on essay hunting the mass in the case of the viscous damped spring-mass system is less than the acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the damping is great ways to start an essay governed by and answers a velocity squared function.
Therefore, neglecting the damping and elastic dissipation of energy results in to start introduction, an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an article entitled, Where Do the Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is much improved over the pseudoscience of four years before, and even begins to essay deer, address the conversion of kinetic and strain energy into residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by melting the steel. This sort of great ways to start introduction mythology is great ways prevalent in my field and seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the soft pure copper jet melted (this is not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and density. The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the strength of the an essay steel and research figure the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the to start an essay steel effectively has no strength at ways to start all.
Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the force per unit area still governs the great ways behavior. Deer Hunting! I have shot slabs of 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of to start small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and evaluation science M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to great to start an essay introduction, the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). At no stage in figure, any of these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in the bullets (aluminum, copper and great an essay lead have much lower melting points than steel). Medical Essay And Answers! The bullets were recovered and exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. The target exhibited similar behavior. Any bullet capable of melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the steam generated by all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. Ways To Start Introduction! One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is essay on gun responsible for cavitation in hydrodynamic penetration. Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is 2700 J or just enough energy to light a 100 W bulb for 27 seconds.
I don't fault the author of that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to great ways an essay, be authoritative in the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to evaluation science coursework, shaped charges producing plasma jets, and that sort of misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is (according to Bernoulli's Law) proportional to the fluid density and the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure multiplied by the presented area of the projectile in the direction of the flow, F = P A. The first thing that this tells you is that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on the diameter of the ways to start an essay introduction cavity created - rather, that is governed by shape and velocity. Great Ways! The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by the force exerted over the distance of travel by the bullet, or: E = F ds. So, the differential penetration depth, ds, is simply the great ways to start an essay introduction kinetic energy divided by the force acting on the projectile, ds = E / F. Penetration depth then clearly does depend on bullet mass (a component of kinetic energy). This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in terms of essay on gun velocity. Unfortunately, for all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is still too simplistic. Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. Great To Start Introduction! It is solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. It obeys non-linear behavior laws. It is viscous and exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.
We need a velocity dependent drag function and a constitutive relation governing the strength, elasticity, compressibility and failure mechanisms of the evaluation coursework target material(s). So, where do we go from great ways to start, here? Can we have an objective assessment of the effectiveness of medical questions and answers our weapons? I think the answer is in the affirmative and hopefully the next two sections will begin to give some hint as to that understanding.
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Essay Writing: Writing: The introduction of the essay - Unilearning - UOW
317 Power Words That#8217;ll Instantly Make You a Better Writer. Great Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! Ever noticed how some writers have an uncanny ability to evaluation coursework toy with your emotions? Within the span of a few pages, you can go from shaking with excitement to bawling your eyes out to flying into to start an essay, a rage and throwing the book across the room. It#8217;s the surgical nursing, hallmark of great writing, proof of mastery of the craft, and the yardstick by to start, which aspiring writers measure their work. And it goes beyond storytelling. Sure, taking the reader on an emotional roller coaster ride is essential in novels and paper figure, short stories, but what about great ways to start an essay emails, resumes, blog posts, proposals? They#8217;re all designed to influence the reader in some way. You want to pass along information, yes, but you also want the reader to feel a certain way about that information. Maybe you want to impress them, get them excited, make them cautious, get them angry, encourage them to keep going, or any number of emotions. The better a job you do at making them feel, the more influential you are, and the better your chances of getting what you want. So, you might wonder#8230; how?
The world is full of people who can scribble down their ideas, but to medical surgical nursing essay and answers bring those ideas to life, to make them take up residence in great to start an essay introduction the mind of the reader, lurking in descriptive essay deer hunting the background, tugging, pulling, and ways to start an essay introduction, cajoling their emotions until they think and feel exactly as you want? That#8217;s a rare skill indeed. The good news is it can be yours. Medical Surgical Nursing Essay And Answers! There#8217;s even a shortcut. How to Instantly Become a Better Writer. Use power words. An Essay! Rather than describe what I mean, let#8217;s deconstruct an example from the great Winston Churchill: We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. You ask, what is our policy?
I can say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the persuasive essay social, strength that God can give us; to wage war against an essay, a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark, lamentable catalogue of human crime. Evaluation Coursework! That is an essay our policy. Surgical Essay Questions And Answers! You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is victory, victory at ways an essay introduction, all costs, victory in evaluation coursework spite of all terror, victory, however long and great to start an essay, hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. Well, there was a lot on the line.
Under attack from Germany, Britain was fighting for its survival, and somehow, someway, Churchill had to find a way to inspire his countrymen to great to start an essay greatness. An Essay! He chose words. Or, to be more accurate, power words . Let#8217;s take a look at the passage again, this time with all the power words underlined: We have before us an science, ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering . You ask, what is our policy? I can say: It is to wage war , by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the to start an essay introduction, strength that God can give us; to wage war against essay, a monstrous tyranny , never surpassed in the dark , lamentable catalogue of human crime . That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: It is great victory , victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror , victory , however long and hard the road may be; for without victory , there is no survival . Each underlined word makes the audience feel something.
In this case, Churchill intermixes words that cause fear, such as #8220;struggle,#8221; #8220;tyranny,#8221; and #8220;terror,#8221; with words that cause hope, such as #8220;strength,#8221; #8220;God,#8221; and #8220;victory.#8221; The last, in particular, is repeated over great to start an essay introduction, and over, practically drilling the emotion into the minds of the audience. Ways Introduction! It#8217;s no accident. Smart speakers, as well as their speechwriters, sprinkle their speeches with carefully-chosen power words, drawing the audience from one emotion to another as skillfully as any novelist or screenwriter. Granted, that#8217;s not all they do. The best writers use an entire tool chest of techniques to rogerian on gun create emotion, and power words are only one such tool.
But there#8217;s good news. For beginning writers, power words are one of the easiest tools to master. Unlike many storytelling strategies which can take years of practice to master, you can start sprinkling power words into your writing, and you#8217;ll notice an immediate lift in the quality of ways to start an essay introduction, your prose. All you lack is a list of power words to use, but of research figure, course, I have you covered there too. #128578; 317 Power Words to Start Using Immediately. For years now, every time I mentioned power words to great ways to start my students, someone always asked: #8220;Where can I get a list? Is there a book I can buy?#8221; Sadly, not that I#8217;m aware of. That#8217;s why I created this list. Slowly, over a period of several weeks, I catalogued all the power words that jumped out to me, organizing them into descriptive essay deer, categories based on the emotion you want to create, so you can easily find the right word. In the future, I#8217;ll also update the list, adding new words on a regular basis to great ways introduction make it the most comprehensive list of essay, power words available anywhere.
It costs nothing. All I ask in return is you share it with your friends and readers when appropriate, helping it reach the people who need it most. Let’s do a little experiment. Just for a moment, stop reading this post, turn on great to start an essay, the television, and go to a major news channel. Persuasive Issues! Watch it for five minutes, listening for the words below. Chances are, you’ll hear dozens of them. Here’s why: Fear is introduction without a doubt the most powerful emotion for essay, grabbing and keeping an audience’s attention. To make sure you don’t change the channel, news networks load up with fear words, making you worry you might miss something important. It’s effective.
Granted, you can overdo it, but in my opinion, most writers don’t use these types of words nearly enough. They really do connect with people. Here’s a bunch to get you started: When they’re reading, most people aren’t exactly bouncing off the walls with energy and great ways to start introduction, enthusiasm. They’re probably bored, maybe a little depressed, and almost definitely tired. And they’re looking for something, anything, that’ll wake them up and make them feel better. Your writing can do that for them. Use these power words to give them a pep talk and get them charged up again: Take a Page from Cosmopolitan (or Playboy) Like it or not, lust is one of the core human emotions. Descriptive Deer! Just look at the men#8217;s and women#8217;s magazines in the checkout aisle, and you’ll see what I mean. Nearly every headline on the cover is either blatantly or indirectly about sex. And it works, not just for men#8217;s and to start an essay introduction, women’s magazines, but for anything. Ways To Start! As a writer, you can use words that inspire lust to make almost anything intriguing.
For example: take a look at these two posts I wrote for Copyblogger: Both posts use the power of lust to teach people about headlines, of all things. Proof positive that it can be used for anything. Here’s a lascivious list to get you started: As writers, sometimes our job is to anger people. Not for the fun of it, mind you, but because someone is doing something wrong, and the community needs to take action to correct it. The problem is, with wrongdoing, most people are pretty apathetic – they’ll wait until the situation becomes entirely intolerable to do anything, and by then, it’s often too late. Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! So, we have to fan the flames. By using the below power words, you can connect with people’s anger, and slowly but surely, you can work them into essay social, a frenzy. Just be careful who you target. Lawyers can eat you alive if you pick on the wrong person. #128578; The legendary copywriter Gary Halbert once said, “If you want people to ways to start an essay introduction buy something, stomp on hunting, their greed glands until they bleed.” Graphic, yes, but also true.
Skim through good sales copy, and you’ll find a lot of these power words. Many of them are so overused they’ve become cliche, but that doesn’t stop them from working. The truth is, nearly every human being on great ways to start introduction, the planet is interested in introduction either making or saving money. Great Introduction! Use these words to tap into those desires: Greed isn’t the only emotion you want buyers to feel. You also want to descriptive make them feel safe. They need to trust both you and your product or service.
They need to have confidence you’ll deliver. Great An Essay! They need to believe they’ll get results. Of course, building that kind of trust starts with having a quality brand and rogerian essay, reputation, but the words you use to describe yourself and your product or service also matter. To help your customers feel safe, try to use as many of great ways to start, these power words as possible: No Questions Asked. No Strings Attached. Try before You Buy. Remember when you were a kid, and someone told you NOT to do something?
From that point on, you could think about little else, right? The truth is, we’re all fascinated by research paper figure, the mysterious and forbidden. It’s like it’s programmed into our very nature. So why not tap into that programming? Whenever you need to create curiosity, sprinkle these power words throughout your writing, and to start introduction, readers won’t be able to help being intrigued: Behind the Scenes. Go Ahead and research paper figure, Tell Me. What Words Did I Miss? Yes, this is an enormous list, but so many power words are available, nobody can possibly catch them all on the first pass. What are some other words that seem to have that extra little spark of emotion inside them?
Leave your answer in the comments, and as time goes by, I’ll come back periodically and update the list. Eventually, I hope to have over 1,000 words here, separated and organized by category, making this the definitive resource for power words on to start an essay, the web. Persuasive Essay! Thanks in advance for commenting and sharing the post with your friends! About the great to start an essay, Author : Jon Morrow has asked repeatedly to be called #8220;His Royal Awesomeness#8221; but no one listens to him. So, he settles for CEO of Boost Blog Traffic, LLC. Poor man. Surgical! #128578; 10 Tried and True Tactics for Getting Your First Coaching Client. The Brutally Honest Guide to Being Brutally Honest. How to Write a Blog Post – The Ultimate Guide. Great Introduction! Thanks Jon, what a great resource.
I#8217;ve already tweeted it out. Excellent as always! Thanks so much Jon for this great insight. Love this post too. : ) Each post is detailed and, like you said, excellent. Jules and Esther, I started putting some of paper figure, these words into practice and I#8217;m already receiving results through more traffic when I share a new post on my blog. I simply use them in Twitter, Facebook and Linkedin shares which is introduction something you might want to persuasive essay try even if it#8217;s just for practice. Introduction! Thanks again for sharing these with us Jon and evaluation science, while I#8217;m here, thanks for ways introduction, the great webinar yesterday.
I took a lot of notes from it! #128578; Yup another post that makes your stomach churns and your mind inspired and enriched#8230; Thank you your awesomeness#8230; I have to say, I find that most self-help postings are statements of the glaringly obvious at best, and utter nonsense at on gun control, worst. But this is great to start introduction really, really good. Thanks for the list, Jon. Evaluation Science Coursework! It definitely gives me some food for thought#8230; but I will tell you that after glancing through the list, it seems like a lot of the words are negative. I#8217;m curious if anyone else noticed that, or if my scanning just grabbed the introduction, negative ones.
I read someone that our brains latch onto and hold onto the negative more than the science coursework, positive so maybe that#8217;s why? Well, I noticed the Fearmonger and great, Riot categories were negative but that#8217;s for obvious reasons. I didn#8217;t notice that to be the case with Feel Safe or Pep Talk.. Did you? My mind naturally goes to the outrageous with Headlines so for me the challenge is to make sure I#8217;m not misleading.. and to deliver what the Headline promises. The fear section is the largest one, and yes, those are definitely negative. You could argue it#8217;s a personal bias on my part,, but my guess is we have more words to describe fear than any other emotion. Not because we#8217;re afraid all the time, but because fear is one of those emotions that pretty much dominates everything else. Karen Christian (@Bountyvs) Excellent. Rogerian Essay On Gun! Copy, pasted and saved in great to start introduction my swipe file.
Thanks Jon for making life easier for the rest of us. Julie, fear is the medical surgical essay questions and answers, most powerful emotion and is so instilled in our collective conscious and great introduction, we obviously lust after it because the news media keeps peddling fear every night. Also, Hollywood is brilliant at cashing in on fear with movies like World War Z and 2012. They say sex sells but I think fear sells more and that#8217;s probably why we have more negative words than positive ones. Science Coursework! I bet Jon that if you punched every one of those 317 words into a thesaurus you will reach your 1000 word goal very quickly. You know, I think I will do just that. Or to put it more cynically, Jon, fear sell lots of stuff. Thanks for the list.
Paradoxically, sentences constructed negatively are a turn-off. Academic research has shown that the psychological impact of great ways, a negative event is approximately twice in value/significance as a positive event. In other words, we are psychologically wired to respond — at an instinctual level — to anything that could cause harm. This is why copy/words with negative themes trigger more reaction than positive themes. Can you point me to a source on this #8220;academic research#8221;? Please and thank you! Great list Jon, thank you.
You used, what I perceive to medical surgical nursing essay be, a power word in your title and sub title, but I couldn#8217;t see it in to start introduction the list#8230; In today#8217;s world where delayed gratification is descriptive essay deer hunting so last season, we all want instant results, right!? +1 brownie points for noticing that. #128578; Can I get brownie points for noticing that one too? On the topic of #8216;fear#8217; appeals, research shows that 60 per cent of the to start an essay, population is more tuned into avoiding a #8216;pain#8217; than making a #8216;gain.#8217; UNLESS you#8217;re talking to research figure people like CEOs: 90 per cent of them are tuned into making a #8216;gain.#8217; Love your work, Jon. Great Ways! Thanks for this very helpful post. Awesome list Jon. I use your #8220;52 Headline Hacks#8221; guide all the time and it has really helped my blogs get read a lot more and far more social sharing.
Thanks for ways to start an essay introduction, the great information! Awesome! Would love to see your results if there is anything in particular you#8217;d like to share. I love the great ways to start introduction, list but some of the words also make you sound sleazy. Like backdoor.
And secrets has been done to death. Okay I#8217;ll admit that everything in the forbidden fruit section is making me feel icky #128578; A power words is research paper defined by its ability to make you feel. Great Ways! If the research figure, forbidden words are making you feel icky, that just proves their power. #128578; Also, secrets may have been used to death, but that doesn#8217;t make it any less powerful. People continue using it because it works. Great! There#8217;s a branding thing at work here, isn#8217;t there? I find that with Jon#8217;s Headline Hacks #8212; some work great for me, others make me shudder and science coursework, would be off-putting to great an essay my audience (but I guess I can see that they#8217;d work for some folk!) I like #8220;little-known#8221; as a slightly tamer version of a forbidden fruit word. Also #8220;unusual#8221; and #8220;under-used#8221;. Great list, Jon, thanks for the reminders. Descriptive Deer! I#8217;m copying and pasting this one into my permanent writing file.
This is a great list! I copied it into OneNote, and I#8217;ll be sure to ways an essay come back to check for updates. Thanks so much for a great, extended list of medical surgical nursing essay, power words which I will dutifully and great to start an essay introduction, studiously commit to memory and learn how to use. Thank you for your excellent posts and continued professionalism. Essay Deer Hunting! PLEASE keep up the #8220;Confidential, Amazing, Breathtaking and Eye-Opening#8221; work. Thank you so much! I added this to my Evernote #8220;Power Words#8221; note; I have over 1,500 power words. Now I#8217;ll have over 1,800 power words to use. Great To Start Introduction! #128578; Oooh! We need to compare lists! #128578; Some of my favorites from my list are: Anyone Can Do This.
Approved By Major Companies. Medical! Before and to start an essay introduction, After. Blown Away (also a good song by research, Carrie Underwood) Don#8217;t be Left Behind. Earn More Money! Find the Answer to. Get Results Now! How to (oldie but goody) Master of Your Destiny.
No Experience Necessary. Great Introduction! No Experience Necessary. No Risk (on your list) Nostalgic (I like this word) Now is the Time! People Helping People. Realize Your Dreams. Reap the Benefits.
Stand Out from the Crowd. Stop Wasting Time! Super (Savings) (Sale) Unlock (oldie but goody) Warning (an oldie but goody) You Owe it to Yourself. Ways Introduction! Great list! I even went back to read your article and noticed the power words used in it. Thanks! Amandah, Thanks for ways to start an essay, sharing the rogerian on gun control, list of words below! Some good ones in great ways to start an essay introduction there. And Jon, thank you for a great post.
Like many here, I have copied both lists into Evernote. Great list, Jon. It#8217;s not technically a word, but #8220;NSFW#8221; could fall under lust and curiosity. That one can work under the evaluation science, right circumstances. Very true. Might be interesting to ways introduction start an abbreviation category. For some reason, when I clicked on the link to this post, again, I received a #8220;Database Error Connection#8221; error.
I just thought I#8217;d let you know. Thanks. Yes, we seem to be having some technical issues. Investigating. You are so right when you say that most of us don#8217;t tend to use such powerful words in our posts or even the medical surgical nursing, daily lives because we lose touch if we don#8217;t use them regularly, and I speak as a blogger for now. Speaking of myself, even though I might use such words when I speak to someone, I am careful to ways to start an essay use words that even a 5th grade student would understand or based on the kind of readers I get over at essay on gun, my blog. Great Ways To Start Introduction! So, I do need to coursework keep the words very simple and easy to understand. This is for the purpose of blogging, though there are always exceptions. I don#8217;t say that#8217;s the case with all the an essay, words, but yes, some of research, them, especially those where a person might need to refer to a dictonary, may be tough for me to use on my blog.
I wonder if others feel the same way about great to start introduction using such words in their blog posts, even though I admit they are awesome power words, which we do use otherwise. Thanks for sharing these with us. I#8217;mm surely bookmarking this as I#8217;ve got my list of a few words I#8217;d written earlier too, so, would just keep adding onto it whenever you update this one. Coursework! Have a nice week ahead #128578; Sure. You probably wouldn#8217;t want to use #8220;lascivious#8221; around fifth-graders. I think they would understand about 75% of the words on great to start, this list, though. Like #8220;breathtaking#8221; or #8220;hero.#8221; Great post. So many good words now to learn how to put the story together. Thanks Jon once again for sharing. Another great post, Jon,and a keeper along with the #8220;52 Headline Hacks.#8221; Thanks for sharing so generously. A delicious literary stimulation, Jon.
And your About The Author text is the icing. You#8217;re a legend, Jon! This list is pure gold. I#8217;m certainly going to use it myself, and share it with my students. Evaluation Science! You set a high standard for insanely useful content. We need people like you to inspire us, Jon.
Oh, and do join Jon and myself for his awesome free Webinar: Yes, everyone go sign-up for the webinar. It#8217;s going to great ways to start an essay be stupendous. #128578; This is one of the best posts I#8217;ve ever read, Jon. Science! Since you asked us for our contributions, here. Great Ways! are a few suggestions that might make your list. My apologies in advance if you already mentioned.
Thanks for the list Michael! Petrified a great word, and I want to add more to my list, because I forgot to add them at my post on the bottom (and again, sorry for persuasive essay social issues, any accidental repeats): Crap, #8220;Eff#8221; (as in grow the an essay introduction, #8220;eff#8221; up instead of medical nursing, saying #8220;f*ck), effing (for f*cking), NMFP (not my f*cking problem), useless, lazy, menace, lethargic, r@pist, perpetrator, nuisance, leech, bloodsucker, catastrophe, trauma, terrified, Oh#8230;and one of my absolute favorite words#8230; Brinks-Truck-Safe exceptional and one for my list! Thanks. Oh! This list is awesome!
I#8217;m going to go check out my previous posts to see how often I used these words. I know I could use more for sure. I use your headline hacks and they are amazing. I like the words suggested in the comments and an essay introduction, will keep coming back for rogerian control, more! More great advice from the inimitable Jon Morrow! Thanks for the power wordsI#8217;ve added this article to my stash of great ways an essay introduction, go-to writing resources. It#8217;s so easy to get stuck in a rut using the same boring words. I appreciate the way you have expanded our vocabularies with this post! At the same time, I will proceed with caution. Descriptive Essay Deer! Some of the introduction, stock words like #8220;insider#8221; create aversion for to start, me, and I imagine they might turn off people in great ways to start introduction my audience too. In essence this post is about how to manipulate peoples#8217; emotions, which many have come to take for granted as a good way to make money.
But I personally feel this is a realm in which it#8217;s best to to start an essay proceed carefully. The main takeaway for me is about enriching my vocabulary. Ways To Start! Thanks for the kick in medical surgical nursing the right place! Yep. If you think about it, pretty much all writers manipulate the great ways to start, emotions of their readers. Research Figure! It#8217;s just part of what we do. The key is doing it in a way your readers like and enjoy. That takes careful study and a lot of thought. It#8217;s like you mentioned above in your post, it takes ages of practice to learn to an essay use all the essay, different writing techniques out there, but using good vocabulary is a good starter. Just gotta be careful that it doesn#8217;t end your career because of great ways introduction, overuse!
One of my favourites is #8220;explicit#8221;. Combination of evaluation science coursework, lust and forbidden fruit there. Great Ways To Start An Essay! #128521; Good one, Sophie! #128521; That one is definitely going in the next version. #128578; If you#8217;re going to add #8220;Explicit#8221;, Jon, then #8220;Taboo#8221; deserves strong consideration as well. It#8217;s lust and research paper, forbidden fruit all rolled into great ways, one. Descriptive Deer Hunting! Thanks for the inspiration, Sophie! See what you started. #8230;:-) I love this post. It along with your 52 Headline Hacks have given me a boatload of ideas for great ways to start an essay, my content. Here is paper one possible addition: Great list, but I have taken a vow to stop using the word #8220;amazing.#8221; It is so overused that IMO it has lost its impact. Instead I try for something more descriptive, like #8220;heart-stopping#8221; or #8220;marvelous#8221; or #8220;magical#8221;#8230; you get the picture.
Yep, heart stopping, marvelous, and magical have stronger emotional pulls too. amazing for conjures up gordon ramsey describing food so for any food might be a good word. Great To Start! marvelous goes with darling and that is ways to start Joan Crawford and Joan Rivers so anything Joan or jewelry I would think#8230; I agree. The same goes for great ways an essay, the word #8220;awesome:#8221; enough with it already! I remember when it meant something absolutely extraordinary, and essay deer, now it has been demoted down to #8220;cool.#8221; I#8217;ve never used the great introduction, word in my life except to describe schooner sailing, writing, horseback riding, rock climbing, and camping (originally only for descriptive deer hunting, sailing). Though I may have slipped a few times…I#8217;m only human, after all. Your Royal Awesomeness thank you for the awesome resource. The lists of power words I#8217;ve used in the past pale in comparison to your Awesomeness. I#8217;ve printed and an essay introduction, added to my copywriting resource file. Mucho thanks! I am super excited to get your mind-blowing list of wondrous power words.
The post was an eye opener and such a bargain considering all you want in return is an endorsed share. #128578; Thanks. Figure! Did I over do what I learned from your post? #128578; Hey, at least you got the message down! #128578; what about things like inspiring. It would be great to great an essay see this topic in an updated headline hacks, or in its own pdf. I have a God of Writing and his name is Jon. Are their statues and other symbols for worshiping in your online store. I need many to adorn my home and to spread across the land to great to start start a Morrow cult. No need for purple Kool-Aid, just meditations where we read your posts and reach higher states of writing consciousness and eventually writing nirvana. Thanks Jon, you are awesomely admirable. Great Ways An Essay! (laughing) You#8217;re welcome, man. His Royal Highness, Awesomeness, Power Influencer#8230; Just printed out the medical surgical nursing questions, power words to keep forever.
Thanks. Question: Would each industry/niche also have it#8217;s own set of power words? i.e. in the disability community I think they would be: #8220;inclusion, community, natural supports, family, jobs, friends#8230;#8221; The impossible dream we are all seeking. Great Ways To Start! Your humble servant:) I think you can use them all for evaluation science, pretty much all niches. Great Ways To Start Introduction! Jon, A very helpful post and especially timely for me because I#8217;m working on a speech to surgical essay and answers give on Saturday and ways to start, need some strong fear words. Two words you might consider adding to that category are #8220;brutal#8221; and #8220;exhausting#8221; (or #8220;exhausted#8221;). Super this collection! The only problem is how to rogerian essay keep this resource handy? #128578; THank you so much, can#8217;t think of a word you missed before I compute each one you gave us here! Be sure to give it a bookmark. Also, we are preparing a PDF version. #128578; Hi there Jon! This one really reminds me of a report Henneke Duistermaat launched way back called #8220;21 Easy Tips to great an essay introduction Turbocharge Your Web Copy and on gun, Win Customers#8221; which touches on ways to start an essay, the subject of Power Words from evaluation another scope#8230; would you call sensory words Power Words?
If so, I would put them in to start an essay introduction categories in which the senses I want to stimulate are the evaluation coursework, ones that remind me of the category#8217;s emotion right? For example: dazzling reminds me of something shiny and new so maybe I would put it in great ways to start an essay the Greed or Pep Talk category#8230; other examples would be chirpy, sizzling, bland, smelly and any colorful (maybe this is a Power Word too LOL) adjectives#8230; great post! Ha, yeah, that would be another interesting way to organize them. I was thinking exactly the same. That#8217;s one of research paper, my favorite categories #128578; A few more examples: Gloomy, shadowy, glittering, sparkling, creepy, rotten, moldy, spicy, gritty, drab, roaring, squeaky. Maybe we can create another list for the five senses?
What the hell is this list jon#8230; It#8217;s enthralling. Ways To Start Introduction! What about hunting slangs, rude words? Great List. Thanks Jon. Ways To Start Introduction! The only thing missing is a group of words that create FUD (Fear, uncertainty and doubt). The first group can probably help you with that. Thanks Jon for the hard work you#8217;ve done for evaluation science, us. When I heard that I should use power words in my headlines, headings and in copy I agreed, but when I went to find them I didn#8217;t know where to get them from. Watching news and magazine was an #8220;a-ha#8221; moment for me. Stupendous post!
Actually I was thinking of writing one along the same lines. There is so much content out there we have to grab the readers attention. Graphic, descriptive phrasing is a way to take them by introduction, the throat and force feed them what they need. #128521; Thanks for the eloquent reminder! Nice idea,Jon. Persuasive Essay! Synonyms are GOOD! Whee! (or Wow!) But, uh, didn#8217;t Roget#8217;s Thesaurus make that point rather more comprehensively, some 100 year ago? Or am I, in my imbecility,(losing, missing, dropping, overlooking) something here? I love you truly, Jon. (I do.) But please clarify#8230; and tell us, what in this post is truly new? #128578; These aren#8217;t synonyms. Great Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! They are words that cause readers to persuasive issues feel a particular emotion. Take a look again at the Winston Churchill example in the beginning.
Great! A list of powerful words that give much more impression when you used it. Thanks John for sharing. Thank you very much for your lists of powerful words. You are very kind to share them with us, your readers. A few spur of the moment suggestions: Big, Grand, Huge, Captivating, Rock Solid, Essential, One of a kind, Satisfying, Legendary, Full Access, Giant, Exquisite, Over the top, Thrilling, Momentuous, Bargain Basement, Free, Available, Now, Right Now, Low Ball, Ace, Prime, Primo, Diamond in the rough, Gem of a Deal, Envy of ways an essay, them all#8230; Nice list. Thanks Tzod. Great list of words Jon. A good resource to get the creative juices flowing in telling a story and getting a point across.
Thank you. A generous post and resource thank you Jon. Evaluation Science Coursework! For me it#8217;s a reminder to great to start write with passion to grab readers#8217; attention and engage them. The post is an explanation for why a random post I did a long while back has always been more popular (on view count) than others Confessions of A Recovering Adrenaline Junkie. As a therapist my work is ways an essay introduction all about power words. Thinking about recent sessions these come to great ways an essay mind: hunger, desperation, rage, alone, antidote, wish, dreams. Now if I can just hold on to them as move from my arm chair to my desk and write!
So true. Great insights. Thanks Jon, I am going to love putting these words into use. I think I will even use the ones others have listed. Senational post, Jon! This is up there with Headline Hacks for sheer volume of awesome suggestions. Here are a few that come to mind in descriptive essay no particular order: Exclusive (can#8217;t believe that didn#8217;t make it into the Greed category) Funny about the timing of great ways to start an essay introduction, this post. Surgical! I was about to great publish a new post tonight but I#8217;m gojng to essay go through it and sprinkle a little power fairy dust on it before it goes out.
Thanks again, Jon for some truly helpful ideas! Awesomeness. Love #8220;diabolical.#8221; #128578; One of my faves. Great list. However, the great to start, editor in research paper me has to ask about to start an essay #8220;pommel.#8221; I bet you intended to use, #8220;pummel,#8221; which means to hit someone repeatedly. #8220;Pommel#8221; is a knob or protruding part on science, a sword or a saddle. Good catch! Fixed. Thank you Jon! I#8217;ll definitely file this for safekeeping! #128512; Thanks for this awesome resource!
Some of great ways to start an essay introduction, my favorites: If I#8217;m learning that there#8217;s one particular weakness in my writing then it#8217;s probably the headline writing so making use of #8220;power words#8221; as you call them should help me out a little! What an incredibly useful post. Many thanks for sharing. I#8217;m pleased that you have some of my favorite words on your lists. Ways To Start An Essay! I have a short memory, so if some of these I present to to start you are already lists above, I apologize in advance. Paper Figure! Some more of my favorite words: Then I list these: Scott free (as in getting away with murder, r@pe, etc.) And also mild swear words that help me keep my blog PG-13: Jerk (in place of @sshole) Tail or booty (in place of @ss) Piece of an essay, tail (instead of piece of @ss) Boink, Bang, Screw, (instead of f*ck) Frick (instead of f*ck) Freaking (instead of f*cking) Bloody freaking miracle (instead of f*cking miracle) Sweet lies from Hell.
Fresh lies from essay hell (or fresh hell) Oh, and of course #8212; last but not least #8212; Nice! I#8217;ll have to add some of to start an essay introduction, these. sweet lies from hell is my new #8220;scam#8221; phrase#8230;. thx. I use your headline hacks PDF all the time. In fact, I have officially made it is persuasive social issues mandatory reading for all new members of my team. Even if they never write a headline, I think it#8217;s super-important for to start introduction, them to learn good copy-writing skills and Headline Hacks is our go-to resource. Now the lists in these posts are the perfect supplement to help me and my team take our copy-writing to social issues the next level. Awesome! Thanks so much for continuing to great ways an essay create such great resources. All the best! Headlines as mandatory reading?
Hot damn. I want to descriptive essay deer come work at great ways to start an essay introduction, your company. #128578; I think you need a list of words that evoke an image or feeling like #8220;Gobsmacked.#8221; impressive top of my list. thx. Thanks Jon. I do know that the medical nursing and answers, power words can make a big difference. Thanks for ways to start an essay introduction, the list. Now have it printed and descriptive, good to go with more of your great help from ways to start you.
Hi Debbie, definitely some super-powerful power words in your blog title! :-]] Glad my parents, in what I presume was a back-to-the-future move ahead of its time, got hold of to start an essay introduction, your advice just in time for ways introduction, me #8230; lol. I can#8217;t take all the science, credit for great, it though. The truth is Jon pretty much came up with that one, with his blogging class I took. It sure is paying off for me. Actually i just got an email from someone that wants to advertise on my site. What can i say, Jon is good with the words.
Thanks again and paper figure, hope you have a great day or evening. Debbie, you have definitely utilized Jon#8217;s lessons well! Your headings are irresistible! I challenge the young and inexperienced to stay away…lol! Jon, a great post!
Tony Robbins also refers to power words. Looking at ways an essay, your list, I see authentic listed under #8220;safe#8221;. Persuasive Essay! I never thought of it that way before. Maybe having worked in the corporate world, authentic seems more audacious to me. Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! Now, I am going to have to evaluation science coursework change the tagline for my site. Introduction! #128539; I love the concept of juxtaposition and confluence. Other words I love are those that convey a transitory magical feeling elusive, evanescent, fleeting. I am going to have to grab your headline hacks PDF. These are delightful (would that be a power word?), but I#8217;m curious about one thing: there are a lot of adjectives in this list. Online marketers and copywriters keep saying it#8217;s best to be simple while also being compelling, which means leaving out adjectives when they#8217;re not necessary.
But it seems you#8217;re making the case that they ARE necessary to a degree, right? Otherwise people won#8217;t emotionally be pulled in medical and answers by what you#8217;re reading. That#8217;s absolutely true. #128521; Thanks! Glad to see my love of adjectives doesn#8217;t have to be ENTIRELY thrown out the to start introduction, window. #128578; I feel like I#8217;m on nursing, a radio call in show so I#8217;ll start by saying Long time reader, first time commentor. LOL.
AWESOME and I mean AWESOME list! I#8217;ll be using these for to start, sure! I have a few to add if I may: And I seem to be using this one a lot lately: Some great words there. Thanks for surgical, sharing! Your Royal Awesomeness, hi #8230; with breathtaking #8220;Thanks!#8221; for ways to start an essay, your sensational list. Evaluation! I#8217;ve been bombarded with devastatingly boring power word lists ever since the last millennium, but Your Royal Awesomeness#8217;s volatile compilation of great ways an essay introduction, power words is strikingly different.
It#8217;s eye-openingly intelligent. Re the staggering importance of (power) words. Descriptive Deer Hunting! #8220;In the beginning was the word#8221;. Not only is it tantalizingly clear #8220;what part of #8216;in the ways, beginning#8217; do you not understand?#8221; it#8217;s also a secret and therefore hypnotic wisdom of every sage and wisdom that ever existed, across all time, space and religions, gracefully discounting the usual few exceptions. Yet, I shamelessly admit [in truth I#8217;m thrilled to admit], it took my genius self a revoltingly long time to a) notice, b) to believe and c) to really believe it #8230; and experience the magic of belief in power words. Now your evil list will quadruple the rogerian, experience, no doubt about it. Hence my recession-proof thanks. But I see Your Gifted Awesomeness by now is getting over-powered or disgustingly bored likely both. So let me hurriedly take quick leave #8230; by crookedly adding the only other intelligent list of power words in my trusted hands is from Tony Robbins [Unleash the Giant Within]. He lists words in two columns: #8220;good word#8221; and #8220;great word#8221;. Cannot reproduce it here whoppingly true because I only great ways, have it as a guaranteed jpg file. But if anyone wants the bonanza of a copy, just holler and make sure it includes your prized email, and ways an essay introduction, a power word or two :-] Rebecca Scott Boddie.
Great list. My additions: Jon, mind-blowing stuff! #128578; How about #8220;because#8221;? Tony Robbins first gave me insight into the power of ways, this word. Years later, Brian Clark reminded me. Tony Robbins suggested doing a little experiment to see how powerful #8220;because#8221; was #8230; Go to the front of any line of people waiting for deer, something have a really good excuse ready for why you need to be served [or whatever] first and ways to start an essay introduction, add #8220;because#8221; like this #8230; #8220;Do you all mind if I go first because #8230;[enter good excuse] my little girl#8217;s lost her teddy and she thinks he might be in here.#8221; Or .. Other power words: Please. May I? Thank-you. Persuasive Essay Issues! You#8217;re fired! #8230; possibly not in great introduction that order #128578; Great post Jon, thanks#8230; I#8217;ll be using it with your Headline Hacks report to juice up my headlines. Tony Robbins has a very effective practice to change emotional states by changing our usual, self-talk vocabulary to one peppered with power words; they#8217;re a potent influence. Fab list. This is a really great list.
I have been working on improving my writing and this should really help. Thank you for persuasive essay social issues, posting this. Dear “His Royal Awesomeness”! What an impressive and powerful list of perfectly categorized word groups! I#8217;m sending you a H-U-G ! I#8217;m another fan of #8220;Headline Hacks#8221; that I originally downloaded in great an essay March 2012 — it#8217;s been like a word bible! Holy Forgotten Bonanza Batman! This article has titillated my limp mind!
Wow, what else can I say that hasn#8217;t already been said? Like all those before me, I copied this into a word doc (including most of the comment lists) for great ways, even more reference material! Thank you! Thanks for great to start an essay, not including curse words. They#8217;re like that broken screwdriver you keep in the drawer.
It might work, but it will probably just make someone really angry at you for using it. Also, I like: #8220;carnage#8221;, #8220;rock star#8221;, #8220;inevitable#8221;, #8220;betray#8221;, #8220;putrid#8221;, #8220;rotten#8221;, #8220;rat#8221;, #8220;patriot#8221;, #8220;made in America#8221;, #8220;Draconian#8221; (when I can get away with it), and especially #8220;insanity#8221; (because it can be good or bad depending on medical questions and answers, context). Jon, I love your article and your list of power words is incredible. I am sure I will be using it all the time. Thanks for sharing your knowledge with us. It#8217;s always greatly appreciated! Let#8217;s face it. Everything we do in life relates to to start an essay our emotions. What this list of persuasive essay social issues, words does is help us to communicate better as writers and capture those emotions from our readers. I offer my sincere appreciation for to start an essay introduction, this list and essay, will be sure to great to start an essay keep it in deer a safe place along with sharing this great article.
Wishing everyone a great inspiration filled day, Hi Jon. Another staggeringly useful post that will help us to rise to victory. Many thanks. ideals (I wonder where I got those last 3) I can#8217;t see them in your list- but I may have missed them. This list is almost as useful as Headline Hacks. Magical!
Thanks again. Jane. Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! Excellent. I am a great believer in power words and write and rewrite constantly before posting. Thanks for medical nursing and answers, your list.I will add to mine. Great post.
I#8217;m gobsmacked! (Just had to great introduction repeat that word.) Inspired to contribute an #8221; Old Coots#8217; Cahoots#8221; annex: I worry about this type of guide as it lacks so much that is research figure fundamental to the craft of great to start an essay introduction, good writing, such as pace, tempo and punctuation. Evaluation Science Coursework! #8220;How to become an instantly better writer,#8221; it says, #8220;it#8217;s simple: Use power words.#8221; If it were that simple there wouldn#8217;t be writers of the calibre we celebrate. If painting were a metaphor, it would say: #8220;it#8217;s simple. Use the colour red.#8221; Picasso painted some of his most famous works in muted blue#8217;s and grey. Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! It goes on to cite a speech of Winston Churchill#8217;s where he uses #8220;power words#8221; yet it brushes over the fact that those words were used in essay control the context of war a subject of great ways to start, power in itself. it also ignores the power of Churchill#8217;s voice his pace and research, tempo and the people who were used to imitate him (there is great an essay introduction good evidence that his radio speeches were recorded by a voice artist imitating him). Essay! I see so many bloggers applying similar rules while ignoring the power of developing their own style and voice. Great Ways To Start An Essay! It is the only way to truly stand out because too many bloggers are taking attention grabbing guides like this to heart. I understand what you#8217;re saying but blogging is an advanced form of communication that is rogerian on gun control entirely different than traditional styles of writing. Great An Essay Introduction! Blogging is meant to attract readers and medical essay and answers, gain attention because of it#8217;s intimate and quick to read format. What Jon#8217;s post does is it tells you how to be a better blogger, not to be a better #8220;writer#8221; in great ways to start an essay introduction the traditional writing sense. Go and read any newspaper and then go read their blog.
I#8217;m sure you#8217;ll find very quickly that they are merely curating content with the odd piece thrown in and calling it a blog. Deer Hunting! That#8217;s not blogging. That#8217;s Journalism. I was surfing a writers website and looked at their guest post submission guidelines. Ways To Start An Essay Introduction! It asked for a degree in communications and posts must be written in AP style.
Since when does AP style have to rogerian on gun do with blogging? I think too many people (along with the so called blogging experts)seem to confuse blogging with the writing we were all taught in school. Two completely different things. Great Ways Introduction! Jon doesn#8217;t do that. He has a very clear understanding of what a blog is and what traditional writing is. If you want to write a better fiction novel, screenplay, business letter or speech, take a college level writing class. Rogerian! If you want to learn how to blog, learn from guys who live it. Just my two cents. Ways An Essay! Thanks for descriptive hunting, your reply, Michael.
Writing forms the basis of blogging, as it does journalism, play writing, speech writing and so on. All of these forms employ words, which are crafted by what we all call WRITING, to attract readers or listeners and gain attention. ALL writing, not just blogging. Even Jon#8217;s headline states: 317 Power Words That’ll Instantly Make You a Better WRITER. Not a blogger. A WRITER. People may believe blogging needs to be shorter and punchier to retain peoples attention, but a 2000 word long blog can retain peoples attention if it is WRITTEN well. Using these so called power words does not make you a better writer. The power of to start an essay, a written piece does not come from individual words, it comes from the context the words are written in; how they relate to other words; sentences; paragraphs and the subject they are describing. Michael, You say: #8220;I think too many people (along with the so called blogging experts)seem to confuse blogging with the research, writing we were all taught in to start school.#8221; This is a ridiculous assumption. The fact that bloggers can string sentences together is a direct result of that schooling.
Without it, blogging would not exist. Indeed, Anton Crone. I#8217;m a novelist myself and come from great ways a world where good, contextual, syntactic writing is as important as vocabulary. But vocabulary#8217;s important too! This list may not touch on everything that makes a good writer, but it specializes in one thing. Why not take that college level writing class Michael mentioned if you want the rest of the picture? And I#8217;m sure there are bloggers out there who specialize in other elements… I#8217;ve got one more word that should definitely be added to your power list. Ben Casnocha just did an entire post on the power of the ways to start an essay, word #8220;yet#8221; and it#8217;s ability to motivate. Pretty convincing, no? No.
It is not a #8220;power word#8221; in the context of the blog piece above. It is made #8220;powerful#8221; by its application in the sentences or phrases mentioned in the piece you reference. It is just a word, otherwise you may as well say #8220;the#8221; is a power word, or any other word for that matter. Looking at the words above, a great number of persuasive essay social, them require context to great ways to start an essay give them #8220;power#8221;. Ways Introduction! For example: gift; mother; silly, belief. Some of them aren#8217;t even words. Great An Essay Introduction! IRS? For crying out loud. Some are more than one word: Sick and tired; marked down? I know something that would make me a better writer#8230; Taking this article as well as some of essay questions and answers, your other awesome basic writing technique articles, and great to start, putting them to practice in a system each time I write! Why do we fail to do what we know to paper do, especially when someone helps us out (gives us the answers?
DOH#8230; I am determine to great to start introduction get this right#8230;. Thanks for another great one, Jon! Thanks very much for coursework, this post. I am always looking for descriptive words to flood my readers#8217; senses. Ok, maybe that was a tad too dramatic, but I think you understand what I mean. Ways! Anyways, here is a list of words that I#8217;ve used recently: Thanks for the article and thanks to descriptive all those that took the time to comment. Great Introduction! This has given me some fresh ideas. ha! a list to research be reckoned with.
Great resource and great ways an essay, a very interesting read. Great work. Love this, thank you! I think we should petition Microsoft to add high-lightened power words to synonyms. That way it is great ways easy. Sorry. It is the lazy me. Ways! Jon, I forgot to thank you. This is a lot of hard work and the comments have added more to its value. Thanks for this great work. Cheers.
Wow! Much like your former students, I have been looking for this list for years! Thanks for putting this together and surgical questions, now I will print it out and place it in great to start front of me for surgical essay questions, reference in all my writing. I have also shared it with our writers so they too can benefit from your Uncensored, Mind-Blowing and Victorious list of power words. Great An Essay Introduction! Thansk!
Jon, my hat off to you. As a former college teacher of rhetoric a Dale Carnegie instructor and writing coach, I watch people struggle to find the right words to appeal to the right emotion. Your explanations and lists are concrete, and once again, very helpful. Research Paper Figure! Thanks for being there for us. I am the same blowing my hat off to Jon. He has all the right terms to display his thoughts on emotions and all. Well organized and great post to great an essay introduction show. Share for persuasive essay social, for more of this kind Jon. Thanks.
I write about great ways natural health and food, and I often find myself using the same old words when posting my recipes (boooring. ). Food is medical surgical essay and answers very much tied in with emotion, so I am going to try some of great ways to start an essay introduction, these #8220;new#8221; words. Evaluation Science Coursework! Thanks so much! Great list#8230;I may have overlooked it, but it seems like #8220;Insane#8221; might be a great word#8230;as in #8220;Insane Offer#8221; or #8220;you#8217;d be insane to miss this!#8221; What do you think? Thanks for a terrific boost for boring blog posts! Just thought I#8217;d pop back in to let you know that everyone I#8217;ve shared this with has given me nothing but Thanks so lets cheers to great that and keep on and answers, rockin with words! #128578; Jon, this post and all these words are awesome! What makes them all so rich and intense is the way they connect us to our feelings; the way they bring us to great ways an essay something in our lives that matters. That is hands-down, one of the BEST, most USEFUL posts I#8217;ve seen. I used your Headline Hacks with great success and this is now going to build upon great to start introduction that vision to post powerful headlines with even more powerful content. Thank you. Just found you guys and ways, am loving all the research figure, words. Ways An Essay Introduction! Smooches.
This list is great! Seems like it would be some good words to use in deer hunting sales pages as well. Thank you! Excellent article Jon .Thanks for sharing these power words. Great Ways Introduction! Varina Suellen Plonski. Reading some of the comments makes me think some of them missed the point. These words are power words because they evoke an immediate, emotional and persuasive social, visceral response. That is their power! One of the most powerful words I know is not itself a power word; it does not itself have the power of the words in your blog, it is instead a word that describes them. The word is NUANCE.
Why say #8216;red#8217; when you can evoke a more emotional, visceral response by saying #8216;scarlet#8217;? The smell of blood is one thing; the smoky copper scent of blood is entirely another. Those descriptive, nuanced words are words of power. That#8217;s what these words are. Thank you so much for adding to great ways an essay introduction my store! Favorite FB pic I saw lately: Never underestimate the descriptive essay, seductive power of a decent vocabulary! Great content! The #8220;power word#8221; in the title is what got my attention. I#8217;ll be using this for my next e-book and optin form. Thanks! Jon I cannot thank you enough for this killer list#8230;and everyone else for adding even more!
If I could bookmark this more than once, I would! Pure magic right here! This is such a helpful post, really grateful you shared. I like to throw in #8220;potentionally award-winning#8221; now and great ways to start, again. Love it! Save as Bookmark.
Great post. This is clearly valuable information. I loved reading this post and ways to start, all of your comments. They were a real source of inspiration and a great learning opportunity, as English is not my main language. This is a great way for great ways introduction, me to expand my vocabulary and cultivate a more distinguished communication style, so thank you everyone. Deer Hunting! All of the above. Incredible post and list, Jon.
Peak/peek as in summit or peaked his curiosity. Ways To Start! The latter: Get a Special Peek into Our [goods before [the masses]#8230;I#8217;ve stashed some more away and will come back and add them. Evaluation Science Coursework! Though another source is Mark Twain/Samuel Clemens.He could come up with some doozies! I#8217;ll look through those as well. We, as novelists, are taught not to use the $10 word when the ways to start introduction, $1 one would work (thank you, Hemingway). But, though similar, copywriting has its own rules and you are setting up to become the great ways, next Merriam Webster (and Mark Twain) of our time.
Love this. The other day I listened to great to start introduction a class you gave on essay, how to make $2000 per post. Great! In it, you talked about research paper figure using #8216;power words#8217;#8230;so I started making a list of what I assumed would be good power words. THANK GOODNESS I came across this! Saves a lot of time and these #8216;power#8217; words are way better than the list I had started! Awesome stuff! Thanks. Great Ways An Essay! Thanks for the list Jon. Your list is quite effective. I bookmarked this page for future use while writing new blog posts. This list of words is quite effective and easy to use.
Thanks for medical nursing and answers, sharing this list. Jon#8230; you are the most generous person, really! Sharing so much to ensure others are also successful. Pretty happy with all the word lists I got from great to start an essay introduction your page and comments. I#8217;m a month-old blogger#8230; so just getting going and finding that yes, I love writing.. but catching the attention of a sophisticated and click-happy current social media audienceI is figure not about ways to start presenting a powerful book.. Deer! it#8217;s about sound bytes and seconds of their headspace.
I agree with the #8216;devil#8217;s advocate commentator#8221; re words are really only great to start an essay introduction, powerful in their designated context.. but we still need WORDS! So thanks a bunch. Evaluation Coursework! Can#8217;t wait to wordsmith#8230; within the context and get myself and my audience stoked. Ways! I love words!! I could take each one and write and social, paragraph around it. Thanks for so many incredible ideas.
It#8217;s quite an undertaking to come up with something like this. I have used a list of words for choosing life values or inspiring a passion statement but never thought about words in this context before. Thanks to everyone for great to start, your contribution as well. Much food for thought (and pen). As someone who has really struggled with my writing, I have found that a thesaurus is truly my strongest asset. Medical Surgical Nursing Essay! But posts like these are a close second.
Some of these are words I know, but I just never think of implementing. I#8217;m glad I have a new resource to look back on great an essay introduction, now for my next blog post! Thanks! This is an to start an essay, amazing article! with that list no article will be a dull text! I learned so many new power words. And I think I#8217;ll go an fix my article like right now! Thanks a lot for the list! what a great resource. I love this list, this is pure gold for me. thanks you sooo much. especially the forbidden fruit list is really awsome and great to great ways to start an essay know these words. with these lists I?m sure I can improve my marketing and medical surgical nursing and answers, especially marketing for offline. thanks again. this blog is officially bookmarked. Wow#8230; Here#8217;s what I made for easy additions to great ways an essay introduction the list: http://prntscr.com/2nzt5m (I can share the link for those who want it :)) This was, obviously, just for rogerian on gun, starters, considering all the contributions in ways introduction the comments #128512; Yesterday I read a blog post on great ways an essay, the Internet about powerful words and the one word I think is not included maybe supposedly not included is #8220;viral#8221;.
I think the great ways an essay, viral word is also a power word. I don#8217;t want to compete with this article I#8217;m just a beginner to essay on gun control blogging so if I#8217;m wrong do let me know. A brilliant piece of work! May I post a link of this article in my blog? My friends will find it very helpful. Coooooool ! Going to try this out for my future posts.
This is an awesome list here. I have looked at it several times when trying to great to start make a query or hook for a book I am writing and found several words that have worked for me. Although during one query I was writing I found that Vigilante worked for me better than Terrorist. I did not see that in one of the deer hunting, lists and do not know if anyone else has mentioned that one yet. If not there is a new word for you.
One word that never loses its power: I have a couple to ways to start introduction add: Erotic (lascivious list) Dastardly (fear monger list) Iron clad (make #8217;em safe list) And there#8217;s one that I kinda made up #8220;toe curler#8221; as in Stephen King#8217;s novels are so scary and beautifully written that they#8217;re real toe curlers. Ways To Start Introduction! Was so glad I stumbled on this post from introduction Jodie Llyewellyn#8217;s post. Will give me food for thought as I write my next blog entry and then next 2000 words on my next books, today. Here are some power words from my writing, yesterday. I used this as an exercise to descriptive essay hunting explore my writing: Lots of good ones i don#8217;t remember seeing. Jon congrats a cracking post, that I use every week as a reference guide when creating and editing my own. Ways An Essay! It does what it says on the tin, because it absolutely HAS made me a better writer. We have to use power words and think powerful, great post bro, keep up the social issues, good writing, I#8217;m taking notes. Just so you know, I liked your blog and printed it but your #8220;Grow Your Bog to Six figures#8221; promo blocks the ways, upper left corner of each page so that the keywords behind it on every page I printed are completely blocked. Pretty frustrating!! Compelling collection of words on this page!
Here are a few that I think evoke a lot of emotion: Thanks Jon, yet another beautiful one. I have been using these now a few times, but I am struggling with how much I should emulate your style. German audiences, besides reading a different language, have a bit of great to start an essay introduction, a different rhythm. Also, you tend to hype the great to start, living gold out of your articles. Contrary to most other authors, you keep your promises of paper figure, awesomeness. But Germans are a little allergic to hype. The last time Germans believed in hype, in great particular political hype, it didn#8217;t go over so well for them and even less for the rest of the world. Maybe you heard about essay social issues it. Anyway, thanks again for making me a better writer and a more conscious promoter. People actually read my posts now. The secrets of this post can skyrocket anyone#8217;s blog to staggering heights of success.
A true gift from ways an essay introduction a true genius. Thank you. I completely Agree with some #8220;intriguing#8221; words that you suggest but for some it was too #8220;extreme#8221; so I cant use some of those words to my blog. If I want to straight #8220;extravaganza#8221; and try to attract peoples, I#8217;ll probably will use some harsh words such as N-Word, F-Word, B-Word, FG-Word and research, many more and I will get some backlash for that. A million dollar idea it would be great to have a power word thesauras online. Here are 120 more power words that I came up with for the Fear Mongering category: Great info even if you#8217;re not a PRO writer. Ways Introduction! These are great words that I can use to get my prospects motivated to call or click on my website. This was a very helpful article. Definitely going to be referring back to it. Thank you so much! This will be very helpful!
I#8217;m going to print out these lists out and ways to start an essay, stick them up on ways an essay introduction, the wall of my office! Thank you. #128578; Great post! Thank you for making the research paper figure, list so detailed and organized, and sharing it for free. I#8217;ll definitely add many of these to my posts and make them a permanent part of my vocabulary. We all know these words, but we often try to think of great introduction, new, modern, complex ones that we think will grab attention. Eventually, we realize that simplicity is the medical surgical questions, solution to everything. The simpler, the better. Awesome! Thank you for this!
Where can I get a copy to have with me at all times? Great piece here, and what#8217;s more: followed by great comments. Thanks to to start an essay all. My humble contribution primarily but not exclusively for political speeches : any term linked to physical exercise: run, rush, lift, push#8230; Hi Jon, Great list, great post! More ideas for social issues, your list of 1000 power words when you create it: flee, fan, flame, charge, fury, free (not in the no-cost sense, but in ways an essay freeing a prisoner), glory, glorify, exuberance, guffaw, volcanic, hassle, harried, hair-tearing, genius, generous, humble, zen-like, ravenous, raging, riotous.
Thanks for posting so much great content and often! Great List. I have now bookmarked it so that I can keep referring back to it when writing certain blog posts and articles. Thank you. Great topic. Love the article would consider implementing soon. thanks, these are seriously awesome words. Thank you! I#8217;m struggling to rogerian essay improve my boring headlines.
I appreciate the list being very long.
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Free Essays on A Dark Romantic Essay. Essay on Romanticism in Frankenstein All literature is influenced by the time period in which it was written; whether it be war, poverty, or any other social trends. People tend to write commentaries of political events, or just describe the time period. Whether it is intentional or subconscious. started her essay out with the first paragraph making me start to think about what ladies are actually looking for great in a guy. The writer brings out a very good point about how ladies are not asking for too much in rogerian the perfect guy in the ladies minds they are looking for a guy who is Tall, Dark , and to start Handsome. This Is Example of a First Year Essay Which Was Given a Distinction. This is an surgical essay questions example of ways to start introduction a first year essay which was given a distinction. Ways Introduction! Click on the highlights to read the comments.
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