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billy budd essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Billy Budd Research Paper - Ghost Writing Essays. Herman Melville was born on August 1, 1819 in New York City. He was born to Allan and Maria Melvill (Meltzer 9). Herman grew up in a family who struggled to make enough money. The family moved around trying to run a profitable business. Allan’s efforts to feed his family did pay off but led to his death. Allan Melvill passed away in 1832 (Baym 2256). Herman faced many difficulties in finding jobs during the Panic of 1837 and eventually ended up going on voyages abroad (Baym 2256).

Collecting his adventures, Herman Melville used his stories to write poems, novels, and stories like Billy Budd. Melville became a writer and used elements from Romanticism. Romanticism is writing that relates to nature, individuality, and model rebellion towards authority or aristocratic members of society (Reuben par. 1). It can be concluded that Herman Melville uses elements of Romanticism in drug abuse essay his writings, as seen in Billy Budd.

After the passing of his father, Melville lived in rough conditions with his family. Essays. Attempting to secure a job, Melville failed and decided to go abroad. In 1839, he went on his first voyage on the St. Lawrence to Liverpool (Meltzer 28). Melville later used his voyage on the St. Lawrence as a basis for paradise women essay a story called Redburn, which was his autobiographical story (Meltzer 29). After returning from abroad and again struggling to secure a job, Melville went aboard the Acushnet as a whaler. Melville was not a very good whaler and lived in rough conditions.

Therefore he abandoned the ship and stayed with the native tribe who were cannibals (Meltzer 44). After staying with the native tribe, Melville escaped the island on Lucy Ann, an Australian whaler ship. Melville’s second journey was used as a basis for his first novel, Typee. Melville happened to return home and join the navy after. After he served in the navy, Melville heard many stories about adventures at sea, which he used in his novels (Meltzer 71). Holt Model. When he returned, Melville decided to become a writer and finally wrote his first novel, Typee. Paradise. After becoming an author, Melville amazed a woman named Elizabeth Shaw, whom he married on August 4, 1847 (Baym 2257). Model. Melville went on to write many stories and eventually, Moby-Dick. Moby-Dick was Melville’s greatest novel. However, at that time the novel was not successful (Meltzer 97).

Today, Moby-Dick is medicine statement layout, one of the greatest novels written and is well received. Another great novel by Melville was his last one, Billy Budd. Billy Budd is one of Melville’s most familiar works today. It is about an innocent sailor who is falsely accused of mutiny. The sailor kills his accuser and is condemned to holt essays death for it by the ship’s captain, Captain Vere (Meltzer 115). Melville passed away on September 28, 1891 because of a heart attack (Baym 2256). Billy Budd was left unpublished at the time of Melville’s death but it was published in 1924 (Meltzer 116). Herman Melville’s books were reprinted after his death.

Today, Melville is justifiably known as one of the greatest American writers. Melville is t creative writing, considered a great writer because he used the elements of Romanticism. Romanticism is a style of writing in which the author describes nature. Usually the holt model essays author uses nature to express his thoughts. Other aspects of romanticism are rebellion, individuality, and separation from civilization for an increase in emotion (Wilson par. 3).

There is an important focus in emotions, independence, and spirituality. Medicine Personal Statement. It is holt essays, believed that these parts of life are natural, bringing out uniqueness in humans. The movement of romanticism was a common movement in u of writing course the nineteenth century, although authors used romanticism differently when they wrote (Wilson par. ). In Billy Budd, Billy is an individual who is different but is well-liked by most of his companions. Billy is accused by the master-of-arms as a person who is planning to commit mutiny. Billy becomes very emotional and leads the model story into the climax. Billy Budd is a story about a young, handsome, and muscular sailor named Billy Budd. Billy is paradise lost, falsely accused of essays, mutiny by the master-of-arms on the ship, John Claggart. When asked to defend himself, Billy starts to stutter and cannot claim his innocence. Personal Statement Layout. Billy gets furious and punches Claggart, killing him. Captain Vere sentences Billy to death (Reuben par.

2). The story has elements of Romanticism within. Model Essays. Melville shows that Billy can rebel against the higher authority of Claggart and Captain Vere. Claggart has an lost, evil nature and is clearly jealous of Billy and therefore uses his authority to take an essays, advantage. Melville describes Claggart, “[Claggart] in whom was the drug abuse model essay mania of an evil nature, not engendered by vicious training or corrupting book or licentious living but born with him and innate, in short ‘a depravity according to nature’” (Melville 38). Melville says that Claggart was born with evil inside him and that is his nature. Claggart’s evil nature and individuality as being the villain are illustrated as the model essays elements of Romanticism.

Claggart is essay acceptance graduate, lying when he accuses Billy and holt Captain Vere knows it but he still asks for Billy to be brought in the room. Personal. Billy knows the truth but cannot speak because he is so shocked that Claggart would blame him. Model. Billy becomes angry and punches Claggart. Claggart dies and to all kind of essay be fair, Captain Vere has to give Billy a trial and decides to condemn him. Billy is hanged the next morning. But before Billy dies, he yells, “God bless Captain Vere” (Melville 80).

Captain Vere was questioning whether he should hang Billy but he knew what the authority wants him to do. Before condemning Billy, Captain Vere says, “Struck dead by essays an angel of God! Yet the angel must hang! ” (Melville 60). In this quotation, Captain Vere is trying to say that Billy is like an angel of statement layout, God but even if an angel had committed murder like Billy, the angel must hang. Holt Essays. That was the justification of Captain Vere to condemn Billy, even though he felt differently inside. Billy is shown to be a martyr for his shipmates. He shows that the shipmates should stand up for what they believe in.

Billy feels that the whippings that Claggart used to give were bad and tried to avoid them. Billy offends Claggart and dies at the end. This book portrays the rebellion against authority, which is an essay, element of Romanticism. Other elements in this scene include the individuality of Billy and aspects of life that are natural, which brings out the uniqueness of Billy. When Billy is asked to defend himself, he is speechless. Billy starts to stutter, which is holt, a natural defect that he has. The stuttering issue makes Billy unique and an individual. Paradise Women Essay. If Melville had not given Billy the stuttering problem, Billy might have not killed Claggart. Holt. The plot of the research divorce papers story could be affected by just one detail. This is how Melville uses Romanticism in Billy Budd.

Billy Budd was also analyzed, criticized, and enjoyed by other people, such as Albert Camus. Camus believed that the story was a “flawless story that can be ranked with certain Greek tragedies” (Camus par. 2). Camus also says that Captain Vere gives his heart to the law by condemning Billy. Vere could have let Billy live but he wanted to be fair and do what the holt model essays authority would want him to. Vere follows nature by doing what everyone would expect him to do which portrays an element of Romanticism.

Captain Vere also represents authority as in the highest official aboard the ship. All Kind. Camus is correct when he compares Billy Budd to Greek tragedies because the holt model essays story has a plot which creates emotion during many moments like Greek stories which is why it is an element of Romanticism. Roger Shattuck says that Captain Vere, Claggart, and Billy are f one individual broken into three parts, “Captain Vere standing for graduate school the pride of both reason and authority, Claggart, who represents ‘depravity according to model nature,’ and Billy, who embodies ingenuous goodness” (Shattuck 82). Essay Acceptance Graduate. Shattuck shows that all three of these characters stand for something and rebel. Vere rebels against pride and therefore condemns Billy, Claggart rebels against morals and therefore is unmoral as seen when he whips other sailors. Billy rebels against the authority of Vere and Claggart when he does not speak and punches Claggart, killing him. Holt Model. All three of divorce papers, these characters embody elements of Romanticism. Holt Model. Also, Claggart and Billy represent the Devil and paradise lost women Adam. W. H. Auden writes that Claggart is like the holt model essays Devil because he tempts Billy, who is like Adam.

For Claggart to punish Billy for the sins of the rest of the ship, Billy must know what sin is. So Billy sees the whipping that Claggart gives to other sailors (Auden 86). In the essay graduate school end, Billy is an individual who dies because of the nature of society, of his uniqueness and defects, and holt essays his separation from civilization. Billy is separate than his civilization because he is the only civil one. Claggart abuses the crew on the ship and all kind Captain Vere hangs Billy which is still uncivil. Billy dies a martyr for the reason that he saves his shipmates from being abused and model punished. These are the reasons why many critics agree that Billy Budd is a great piece of literature and that Melville uses elements of Romanticism in Billy Budd. Herman Melville lived a very interesting life, ranging from going on expeditions around the world to writing great American novels. Following the Romantic ideas, Melville used those elements in all kind of essay his writings. The elements of holt model, Romanticism were shown in course his last novel, Billy Budd. Romanticism includes the holt idea of nature, rebellions, and individualism as seen in paradise essay Billy Budd.

Herman Melville used Romanticism to write great novels such as Typee, Redburn, and Moby-Dick. Melville is now considered one of the greatest American authors. Melville may have not succeeded in the beginning of his career but since his death he is regarded as one of the greatest American writers. Throughout his life, Melville was poor and model essays barely survived but he was rich with ideas and thoughts that led him to write great stories, poems, and novels such as Billy Budd.

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Cinna ou le paradoxe de la Clemence. Pages : 176 ISBN : 9782130526148 DOI : 10.3917/rhlf.023.0443 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Revue d'histoire litteraire de la France. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Cinna ou la clemence d’Auguste est un texte tres — trop ? — connu, un classique consacre, un chef-d’?uvre intouchable. Essays? Et pourtant cette tragedie ne cesse d’intriguer les critiques. Drug Abuse Model Essay? C. Model? Venesoen n’hesite pas a ecrire que « toute relecture de Cinna risque de reserver quelques surprises » [1] [1] « Cinna et les avatars de l’heroisme cornelien », Papers. Medicine Statement Layout? . Holt Model Essays? Il n’y a pas si longtemps, l’interpretation du denouement de cette piece a encore provoque une polemique entre trois critiques de qualite, A. Drug Model Essay? Georges, R. Holt Model Essays? Pommier et C. Divorce? J. Holt? Gossip [2] [2] A. Graduate? Georges, « L’Evolution morale d’Auguste dans Cinna ». Model Essays? . Of Essay? Par ailleurs, on model, peut se faire une idee du foisonnement des commentaires contradictoires de cette ?uvre en consultant le panorama qu’en brossent W. Research? Leiner et S. Holt? Bayne dans leur etude : « Cinna ou l’agenouillement d’Emilie devant la clemence d’Auguste » [3] [3] Dans Onze etudes sur l’image de la femme…, reunies. Acceptance Graduate School? . Les travaux de ces chercheurs ont, semble-t-il, ouvert la voie a une interpretation globale de la piece, une interpretation qui prendrait en compte a la fois la dramaturgie et la signification (ethique, philosophique, spirituelle) du texte. Model? Il s’agit donc de tenter de montrer que le pardon d’Auguste est a la fois un effet dramatique — un « coup de theatre » — et un acte d’une portee morale profonde, qui revele toute une philosophie de l’existence. La premiere remarque qui s’impose au spectateur de Cinna concerne le poids du passe, un poids qui marque tous les protagonistes et qui finit par les ecraser.

Parmi les personnages, il en est un pour qui cela parait peu evident, c’est Cinna. Essay Acceptance? Et pourtant, comment oublier qu’il porte en lui le souvenir de son aieul, Pompee ? On peut considerer que c’est parfois un souvenir commode, qui lui offre un argument politique facile, comme dans son discours aux conjures. Holt? Il termine en effet sa harangue par le rappel des liens qui le rattachent a ce glorieux ancetre, et affirme que sa conduite est dictee par la fidelite a cet exemple illustre : Ainsi d’un coup mortel la victime frappee. Cinna se situe ici dans une logique de la vengeance : le sang appelle le sang. U Of T Creative Writing Course? Le personnage se range dans la typologie topique du « heros vengeur ». Essays? Meme si l’on sait que le personnage obeit a un autre motif — plus profond — celui de meriter Emilie, il n’en reste pas moins que le rappel de cette heredite va marquer tout son role. Writing Course? Apres sa palinodie du deuxieme acte, pour convaincre Auguste de rester sur le trone imperial, Maxime lui rappelle precisement le souvenir et l’exemple de son « aieul Pompee » [5] [5] II, 1, v. Holt Model Essays? 563. Of Essay? . Holt Model? De la meme facon, Emilie lui reproche de trahir l’ideal de son ancetre, de n’etre pas digne de lui : Pardonnez-moi, grands dieux, si je me suis trompee. Quand j’ai pense cherir un neveu de Pompee, Et si d’un faux-semblant mon esprit abuse. A fait choix d’un esclave en son lieu suppose [6] [6] III, 4, v. Model? 1029-1032. Holt Essays? . Peut-etre n’a-t-on pas examine ces vers avec assez d’attention : c’est sans doute, de la part d’Emilie, l’aveu qu’elle a d’abord aime Cinna parce qu’il etait le descendant de Pompee. Drug Essay? Leur amour ainsi aurait eu une origine ideologique et historique. Holt? Decidement, le poids du passe est encore plus lourd qu’on ne le supposait…

Enfin, a l’acte V, c’est Auguste qui rappelle encore a Cinna son lien avec Pompee : Tu vois le jour, Cinna ; mais ceux dont tu le tiens. Furent les ennemis de mon pere, et les miens : Au milieu de leur camp tu recus la naissance, Et lorsqu’apres leur mort tu vins en ma puissance, Leur haine enracinee au milieu de ton sein. T’avait mis contre moi les armes a la main; Tu fus mon ennemi meme avant que de naitre [7] [7] V, 1, v. Drug Model? 1435-1441. Holt Model Essays? . Et Cinna, loin de renier ce schema, l’assume et le revendique : Seigneur, je suis Romain, et du sang de Pompee. Le pere et les deux fils, lachement egorges, Par la mort de Cesar etaient trop peu venges. C’est la d’un beau dessein l’illustre et seule cause […] [8] [8] V, 1, v. Drug Model? 1546-1549. Holt? . Meme s’il essaie ainsi de sauver Emilie en cachant les vrais motifs de son engagement dans le complot, Cinna n’en exprime pas moins une partie de la verite. Medicine Personal? Car la piece est bien d’abord une tragedie de la vengeance, de la vengeance familiale. Model Essays? On se rappelle que les conjures avaient accepte cette explication, y avaient meme adhere avec enthousiasme.

Le sens est clair : la vengeance est consideree par la doxa comme un comportement naturel, normal et necessaire, en quelque sorte un mobile noble, digne d’une tragedie deja classique. Il est evidemment plus facile de montrer qu’Emilie est hantee par le passe. All Kind? Elle est litteralement obsedee par le meurtre de son pere, Toranius, assassine par Auguste. Holt Essays? Elle vit dans le souvenir de ce drame. Lost Women Essay? Sa memoire et son imagination s’unissent pour donner a ce souvenir une force singuliere exprimee des l’ouverture de l’?uvre par la plus energique des figures, l’hypotypose. Holt Model Essays? Citons simplement ce court passage : […] par sa propre main mon pere massacre. Du trone ou je le vois fait le premier degre [9] [9] I, 1, v. Personal Layout? 11-12. Model? . Sa volonte de se venger, d’obtenir une « illustre vengeance » (v. Drug Abuse Model? 1), est pour elle un veritable devoir de memoire. Holt? Tout son role decline ce theme : « la sanglante image » de son pere (v.

13) emplit et obsede sa « triste memoire » (v. Writing? 10), elle est « la cause de [sa] haine » (v. Model Essays? 14), elle lui dicte sa mission. On peut observer qu’elle va loin, singulierement loin, en ce sens, comme le montre la discrete erotisation de son discours de vengeance : « impatients desirs » (v. Research? 1), « embrasse » (v.

4), « Vous prenez sur mon ame un trop puissant empire » (v. Holt Model? 5), « Je m’abandonne toute a vos ardents transports » (v. Divorce? 15). Model? Le langage du meurtre rejoint celui de la pulsion erotique ; il n’est donc pas etonnant que la vengeance soit la condiion de son union avec Cinna. Divorce Papers? En tout cas, Corneille montre admirablement que le passe obsede Emilie au point de la faire entrer dans une veritable mystique de la vengeance.

Le point culminant de « ce bouillant mouvement » (v. Holt Model Essays? 19) se situe evidemment dans la deuxieme scene du premier acte, quand Emilie confie a Fulvie qu’elle irait jusqu’a epouser Auguste pour avoir la possibilite d’assouvir sa haine, son desir vengeur : Je recevrais de lui la place de Livie. Comme un moyen plus sur d’attenter a sa vie [10] [10] I, 2, v. Paradise Women Essay? 81-82. Model? . Assurement, les spectateurs du XVII e siecle ont du voir ici Emilie comme une seconde Judith [11] [11] On sait la fecondite de cette histoire dans la peinture. Papers? . Holt Model Essays? Elle erige sa mission, sa vendetta, en imperatif categorique, ce qu’exprime un vers comme celui-ci : Pour qui venge son pere il n’est point de forfaits [12] [12] I, 2, v. All Kind? 83. Holt Model? . Le processus mis en scene par Corneille se comprend aisement : le pere, representant de la Loi, dicte a Emilie son devoir. T Creative Writing? Elle vit pour venger ce pere, pour accomplir un devoir qui la hante comme une memoire d’outre-tombe. Quant a Auguste, le texte de la piece est largement constitue du rappel de son passe. Model? Cinna, dans son discours aux conjures, evoque les guerres civiles et leur cortege d’horreurs; il insiste surtout sur les responsabilites d’Auguste dans ces atrocites : J’ajoute en peu de mots : « Toutes ces cruautes, La perte de nos biens et de nos libertes, Le ravage des champs, le pillage des villes, Et les proscriptions, et les guerres civiles,

Sont les degres sanglants dont Auguste a fait choix. Pour monter dans le trone et nous donner des lois […] » [13] [13] I, 3, v. Abuse Model Essay? 215-220. Essays? . Le passe d’Auguste est donc celui d’un tyran (v. Paradise Women Essay? 222), mais surtout d’un meurtrier ; en termes anachroniques, nous dirions que la piece fait de lui un veritable criminel de guerre. Holt Model Essays? Et le spectateur n’est pas surpris d’entendre Cinna prononcer une sentence qui l’exclut de l’humanite : Si l’on doit le nom d’homme a qui n’a rien d’humain, A ce tigre altere de tout le sang romain [14] [14] I, 3, v. Medicine Personal Statement Layout? 166-168. Holt? . Par ces vers, Cinna proclame la denaturation d’Auguste, le renvoie a sa brutalite essentielle et le ravale a l’animalite. Les propos d’Emilie vont evidemment dans le meme sens. All Kind Of Essay? Tous ses discours disent sa haine pour Auguste et justifient cette haine. Essays? Ses evocations du passe de l’empereur sont autant de requisitoires qui stigmatisent l’enormite de ses crimes, qui ont fait « rougir la terre et l’onde » (v. Essay School? 941). Arretons ici cet inventaire.

Il suffit largement a montrer que chaque personnage est comme prisonnier de son passe. Holt Model Essays? Chacun est engage dans l’Histoire par reference a son passe. Research Papers? Emilie et Cinna deviennent conspirateurs pour se venger d’un passe durant lequel Auguste a commis les pires exactions. Model Essays? Ce passe les constitue en ennemis irreductibles. All Kind Of Essay? La fatalite prend la forme de la vengeance, de la vengeance necessaire, imposee comme un devoir. Model? La tragedie nait de ce poids du temps ancien sur la vie presente de tous les protagonistes. C’est alors qu’intervient un element nouveau, une peripetie imprevue. Research Papers? A l’acte II apparait un Auguste inattendu, bien different de celui qu’avaient decrit Emilie et Cinna au premier acte. Essays? Auguste, lasse du pouvoir, envisage maintenant d’abdiquer.

La raison de cette lassitude reside dans la prise de conscience de la vanite des grandeurs et du pouvoir. U Of? Mais derriere cette raison s’en cache une autre, plus profonde : l’empereur traverse une crise existentielle. Holt Essays? Comme l’ont remarque S. Research Divorce? Doubrovsky et C. Essays? Venesoen, il a le sentiment d’etre « un homme hai, trompe, menace » [15] [15] C. School? Venesoen, art. Model? cit., p. U Of T Creative Course? 372. Model Essays? , un homme solitaire, abandonne. Lost Women? Auguste eprouve un vide affectif : « C’est bien ce desir d’affection […] qui meut a present Auguste en perte d’autonomie heroique » [16] [16] S. Holt Essays? Doubrovsky, Corneille et la dialectique du heros. Paradise? . Model Essays? Et en effet Auguste a besoin de rompre cette solitude, ce qui l’amene a demander, a quemander litteralement l’amitie de Cinna et de Maxime : « Traitez-moi comme ami » (v. Divorce? 399). Auguste fait donc devant les spectateurs la douloureuse experience de la dereliction. Holt Essays? A la fin de la scene, il croit avoir trouve la serenite, sinon le « repos » qu’il recherchait (v. Research? 376) ; il le croit parce qu’il est sur de l’amitie que lui portent Cinna et Maxime : Je vois trop que vos c?urs n’ont point pour moi de fard, Et que chacun de vous, dans l’avis qu’il me donne, Regarde seulement l’Etat et ma personne. Votre amour en tous deux fait ce combat d’esprits […] [17] [17] II, 1, v. Model Essays? 628-631. U Of Writing Course? . Or, par un effet d’ironie tragique, Corneille ne fait qu’enfoncer davantage Auguste dans l’illusion d’etre aime.

Et lorsqu’il apprendra la trahison de Cinna, sa reaction sera a la mesure de sa deception : « Quoi ? mes plus chers amis ! » (v. Holt? 1081). Statement? Le plus remarquable est qu’il n’analyse pas la situation en termes politiques, mais bien en termes affectifs : il est trahi par ceux a qui il ouvrait son « c?ur » et dont il avait fait « choix » (v. Holt Model Essays? 1083). Research? Ses exclamations sont revelatrices et significatives : O trop sensible coup d’une main si cherie ! [18] [18] IV, 1, v. Holt? 1098. Le monologue qui suit (IV, 2) est tout a fait eclairant. All Kind? Auguste examine sa vie, ses crimes passes et eprouve enfin le remords : Rentre en toi-meme, Octave, et cesse de te plaindre. Quoi ! tu veux qu’on t’epargne, et tu n’as rien epargne ! Songe aux fleuves de sang ou ton bras s’est baigne,

De combien ont rougi les champs de Macedoine […] [19] [19] IV, 2, v. Essays? 1130-1133. Course? . Le premier vers est capital. Model Essays? « Rentre en toi-meme » montre qu’Auguste se livre ici a un examen de conscience, a un grand exercice spirituel par lequel il passe en revue tous les crimes de son passe. T Creative? On remarque aussi qu’il se nomme spontanement « Octave », retrouvant tout a coup l’identite du coupable, du meurtrier qu’il a naguere ete. Mais, au terme de cet exercice, il n’a pas encore pris sa decision : il hesite entre le suicide et la repression sanglante. Holt Model? Remarquons simplement que ce sont deux decisions mortelles. Paradise Women Essay? Dans l’impasse ou il se trouve, seule la mort se presente a son esprit comme la solution de son probleme existentiel. Dans l’acte V, le mouvement dramatique s’accelere. Holt? La premiere scene, qui a souvent mis les critiques mal a l’aise, a une signification simple, mais profonde : elle montre qu’Auguste est toujours le meme homme. Essay? Orgueilleux, dominateur, superbe, il ecrase Cinna de son mepris et de sa superiorite. Essays? Ce dernier a bien du merite a ne pas faire trop mauvaise figure face a cet empereur redevenu lui-meme et anime par l’energie de la vengeance.

Dans cette scene, c’est encore Octave qui s’exprime. Lorsque, a la scene 2, Emilie lui annonce sa trahison, sa reaction est essentiellement affective. U Of Writing Course? C’est un pere bafoue plus qu’un empereur trahi qui s’exprime dans cette comparaison d’Emilie et de Julie : L’une m’otait l’honneur, l’autre a soif de mon sang ; Et prenant toutes deux leur passion pour guide, L’une fut impudique, et l’autre est parricide. O ma fille ! est-ce la le prix de mes bienfaits ? [20] [20] V, 2, v. Holt Essays? 1592-1595. Puis il rappelle le passe : Songe avec quel amour j’elevai ta jeunesse [21] [21] V, 2, v. Essay School? 1597. Holt Model Essays? . Mais il a toujours en lui l’energie suffisante, ou plutot la violence suffisante pour prononcer sa sentence : il condamnera au « supplice » (v.

1662) le « couple ingrat et perfide » (v. U Of T Creative? 1657). Model? C’est encore un jugement digne d’Octave. Course? Cependant, Auguste est reste longtemps silencieux (entre les v. Holt? 1597 et 1657). Personal? On peut penser que la nouvelle de la trahison d’Emilie l’a profondement ebranle : son mutisme est le moyen theatral le plus approprie pour traduire ce traumatisme et le cheminement invisible qui s’effectue en lui. Holt Model? C’est donc un personnage profondement touche qui recoit la nouvelle de la derniere trahison, celle de Maxime. Lost Essay? Or Corneille a savamment mis en scene cet episode. Holt Model? Auguste accueille Maxime comme son ultime recours, le dernier refuge de son affection : Approche, seul ami que j’eprouve fidele [22] [22] V, 3, v. Paradise Lost Women? 1665. Holt Model? . On connait la suite : Maxime avoue a son tour son forfait et Auguste decouvre qu’il a atteint le fond de la solitude et de l’abandon. Lost Women? C’est alors qu’il va prendre la decision du pardon… Pour S. Model? Doubrovsky, « Auguste ne pardonne pas par charite ou par magnanimite, au sens moderne, mais par generosite , au sens du XVII e siecle, c’est-a-dire par orgueil aristocratique, pour prouver, a ses yeux comme a ceux des autres, sa propre superiorite » [23] [23] Op. Of Essay? cit., p. Model? 214. Abuse Essay? . Pour C. Holt Model? Venesoen, Auguste choisit de « dechoir sur le registre male et heroique […]. Acceptance? Son anima combat et commence a triompher de son animus » [24] [24] Art. Holt? cit., p. Women Essay? 373. Holt Model? . T Creative Writing? L’heroisme male laisse place a une sensibilite feminine, qui lui permet de passer de la force a la clemence.

Pour L. Model Essays? Herland, Auguste est brutalement saisi par la grace : le pardon n’est pas voulu, medite, decide par Auguste ; il lui est insuffle par Dieu et par la toute-puissance de sa grace [25] [25] L. Paradise Lost Women Essay? Herland, « Le pardon d’Auguste dans Cinna », La. Holt? . A notre avis, toutes ces interpretations ne font pas assez de place a la profondeur spirituelle dont Corneille a dote son personnage. Medicine Statement? Nous avons deja observe que la structure de la tragedie etait travaillee de facon a mettre en scene une veritable psychomachie. Essays? Or cette psychomachie se deroule a l’interieur meme du personnage, dans sa conscience. Paradise Women Essay? Il y a deux etres dans cet unique personnage : Octave et Auguste. Holt Essays? Octave est l’etre du passe, celui qui a commis crimes, meurtres, proscriptions. Essay Acceptance? Octave est celui qui a tue Toranius. Holt Essays? C’est encore Octave qui ecrasait Cinna de son orgueil implacable (V, 1).

Mais, parallelement, Auguste nait peu a peu en lui. Drug Abuse Essay? Il nait dans la crise morale que traverse le personnage, une crise qui le conduit jusqu’au bord de la mort (IV, 2). Model Essays? Mais surtout, cette crise consiste en une experience de depossession, de desappropriation : il se voit depouille, abandonne de tous, trahi par tous. Research Divorce Papers? Et c’est alors qu’Octave va enfin devenir Auguste. Il s’agit, par son pardon, de poser un geste d’humanite.

En effet, la piece montre comment Octave, « ce tigre […] qui n’a rien d’humain » [26] [26] I, 3, p. Model? 167-168. Essay Acceptance School? , va peu a peu reconquerir son humanite. Holt Model? Le sens de son geste de clemence est a situer dans cette perspective. Drug Model Essay? Car au centre de Cinna se pose une question qui traverse tout le theatre de Corneille : l’histoire du monde est une suite de violences, d’atrocites, d’abominations, et on model essays, ne sait comment mettre un terme a ce dechainement. Paradise Lost Essay? Ici encore la question se pose, la meme que dans Le Cid : comment arreter cet engrenage infernal ou le sang appelle le sang ? Comment changer le sens tragique de l’Histoire ? C’est alors qu’intervient le heros. Model Essays? Le heros cornelien est ce personnage qui a l’energie et la generosite necessaires pour inflechir le sens de l’Histoire.

Auguste est heroique en ce qu’il accomplit un acte qui va a contre-courant de la violence generale : il est celui qui dit non a la violence naturelle du monde. Writing? Mais pour cela il lui faut faire l’experience fondamentale de tout heros cornelien, l’experience du sacrifice. Auguste va devoir renoncer a une partie de lui-meme, a la partie violente de son etre. Essays? Il renonce ici a Octave, a l’homme des guerres civiles, des combats et des assassinats, a l’homme avide de pouvoir qu’il a ete naguere. Personal? Il lui faut tuer en lui le vieil homme. Essays? Octave doit mourir pour laisser vivre le nouvel Auguste : a l’homme de la violence succede l’homme de la clemence.

On assiste donc a une veritable conversion du personnage, a sa metanoia , a son changement d’ ethos . Essay Graduate School? Ainsi, le « tigre » Octave laisse place a Auguste, clement, plein de bonte, en un mot « humain ». Les lectures pessimistes du theatre de Corneille sont nombreuses. Holt Essays? Rappelons, par exemple, celle de R. Medicine Personal Statement Layout? Mac Bride : La gloire d’Auguste s’avere de meme nature que celle de Cinna. Holt? Dans tous deux ce n’est rien d’autre que le lyrisme du desespoir qui transcende le desespoir [27] [27] R. Medicine? Mac Bride, « Quelques reflexions sur le heros cornelien ». Model Essays? . Or il semble que le recours a la tragedie a fin heureuse (Corneille, on medicine statement layout, le sait, disait meme « la tragedie heureuse » [28] [28] Discours de l’utilite et des parties du Poeme dramatique. Essays? ) corresponde mal a ce pessimisme. Drug Model? Toute technique implique une metaphysique — ou du moins une vision du monde. Model Essays? Celle de Corneille nous semble, a la lumiere de Cinna , resolument optimiste, a cette epoque du moins. Cinna pose en fait une question qui hante l’humanite depuis des siecles : comment arreter l’engrenage du mal ? Comme l’a montre J.-L. Abuse Essay? Marion, dans ses Prolegomenes a la charite [29] [29] Ed.

La Difference, Paris, 1986. Essays? , la logique du mal est tres precisement la logique de la vengeance : en rendant le mal pour le mal, on medicine statement, l’entretient au nom de la justice. Holt Essays? Auguste se trouve exactement dans cette situation : il a le droit legitime de punir ceux qui ont voulu le tuer. Acceptance School? Et cependant, contre toute logique et meme contre toute justice, il ne le fera pas. Model Essays? Auguste a compris que le mal reside dans sa transmission et qu’il ne peut le vaincre qu’en rompant cette transmission. Drug? Il va bloquer le mal en refusant de le rendre, en arretant ainsi l’engrenage infernal, le cycle de la violence et de la repression. Model Essays? Auguste renonce donc a toute justice a son endroit. All Kind? Il choisit de pardonner, c’est-a-dire d’aimer gratuitement, d’aimer a perte, jusqu’a risquer de se perdre lui-meme plutot que de rendre le mal pour le mal. Corneille fait donc accomplir par Auguste le geste qui realise le grand reve humaniste : arreter le mal, sortir de la spirale de la violence et de la haine. Model? Tel le Serviteur souffrant de la Bible [30] [30] Isaie, 42,1-3 ; 49,1-9 ; 50,4-11 ; 53,1-12. All Kind? , il ne repond pas aux coups par des coups, ni a l’insulte par l’insulte. Holt? Au contraire, a partir du vers 1693, il repond a la trahison et a la haine par le pardon et par le don. Essay Graduate? Et la conversion en chaine de tous ses ennemis lui donne raison : il a vraiment vaincu le mal.

Le mal en effet n’a pas donne lieu a un mal plus grand; le mal ne s’est pas propage, le mal n’a pas suivi son chemin infernal. Evidemment, nous pourrions prolonger cette analyse et, en nous appuyant sur les belles etudes de M. Model Essays? Fumaroli [31] [31] Voir Heros et orateurs. U Of T Creative Writing? Rhetorique et dramaturgie corneliennes. Holt Essays? , nous pourrions remonter a la source evangelique de la meditation de Corneille. U Of T Creative Writing Course? Nous verrions alors dans le denouement de Cinna une illustration de la parole evangelique : « Aimez vos ennemis » [32] [32] Matthieu, 5,45. Holt Model? . All Kind? On y trouve, en effet, la meme folie que saint Paul assimilait a la sagesse supreme [33] [33] Premiere Epitre aux Corinthiens 1,18-25. Model Essays? . Medicine Personal Layout? Esthetiquement, nous pourrions aussi analyser le geste d’Auguste comme la mise en scene parfaitement accomplie du sublime . Cependant, nous preferons en rester a une interpretation purement ethique de l’?uvre. Essays? Corneille a mis en scene le grand exercice spirituel ou intellectuel qui permet a Auguste de comprendre que la seule solution pour creer une cite harmonieuse et pour attteindre le bonheur personnel est l’amour, l’ agape . Essay Acceptance School? Le choix d’Auguste est le resume de celui que doit effectuer l’humanite tout entiere. Essays? C’est pourquoi il est permis de considerer Cinna non seulement comme l’une des plus grandes tragedies du repertoire classique, mais aussi comme l’une des plus grandes ?uvres humanistes du patrimoine europeen.

Nous constations, au debut de cette etude, que tous les personnages etaient prisonniers de leur passe. Paradise Lost Essay? La haine, le desir de vengeance bloquaient le temps : chaque personnage etait fige dans ses positions. Holt Model Essays? Emilie disait, au premier acte : Je demeure toujours la fille d’un proscrit [34] [34] I, 2, v. Women? 72. Holt? . Elle ajoutait : « Je suis ce que j’etais » (v. Essay? 78). Holt Essays? Au troisieme acte, elle reprend le meme refrain : Je suis toujours moi-meme, et mon c?ur n’est point autre [35] [35] III, 4, v. Research? 914. Holt Model? . Et jusqu’au discours de la clemence, elle revendique sa « haine » d’Auguste et en proclame la legitimite et la continuite (v. Paradise Women Essay? 1576 et 1650). Model? Emilie est donc bloquee, arretee dans sa position.

Le pardon d’Auguste est le seul geste qui pourra briser ce figement. Personal? Le pardon seul permet de debloquer le temps, de changer les c?urs et d’ouvrir un avenir aux individus et a la cite. Holt? C’est evidemment le sens de la prophetie finale de Livie : Jamais plus d’assassins ni de conspirateurs : Vous avez trouve l’art d’etre maitre des c?urs [36] [36] V, 3, v. All Kind Of Essay? 1763-1764. Model Essays? . Le pardon a litteralement renverse — converti — le monde, qui passe de la guerre a la paix, de la violence a la douceur, de la haine a la concorde. On se rappelle qu’Auguste ressentait douloureusement un insupportable vide affectif ; maintenant, ce vide est comble : il obtient l’amour de Rome tout entiere (v. Personal Statement Layout? 1765-1768). Holt Model Essays? Desormais s’ouvre une ere de « bonheur » pour le monde (v. Drug Abuse Essay? 1768) et les dieux viennent couronner cette apotheose (v. Model Essays? 1772). Ce finale somptueux, veritable mise en scene du sublime, a tout a la fois une signification theatrale (le triomphe de la tragedie a fin heureuse), une signification morale (a la loi du Talion se substitue l’ethique du pardon) et une signification spirituelle (l’amour plus fort que la haine, l’amour plus fort que la mort).

Tout cela est symbolise par la fusion, proclamee par Livie, des trois modeles archetypes dans la personne d’Auguste : le heros, le roi, le saint. Si cette piece, par-dela les siecles, nous touche encore si profondement, c’est assurement parce qu’elle met en scene l’une des questions qui hantent depuis toujours notre civilisation, celle du pardon. Essay Graduate? Elle nous en propose une version radicale : le pardon s’impose dans sa gratuite absolue, avec tout le pouvoir paradoxal de son infinie faiblesse. La clemence d’Auguste signe donc son passage d’un individualisme clos, narcissique, a un systeme de references et de valeurs morales tout a fait different. Holt Model? Le heros passe d’un jugement fonde sur la loi institutionnelle a une decision fondee sur un humanisme profond. Medicine Layout? Il a compris que l’Autre doit etre place au-dessus de la Loi. La decouverte d’Auguste est donc une sorte d’illumination philosophique et morale : il decouvre que le bien commun et la serenite personnelle peuvent s’acquerir simultanement lorsque l’on erige l’Autre en absolu a respecter. Essays? Auguste est passe de la Loi a l’Amour.

Nul doute que les spectateurs cultives de Corneille, ses contemporains en ce « Siecle des Saints » [37] [37] On sait que cette expression est attribuee a Charles. Papers? , aient reconnu la un des enseignements majeurs de la theologie paulinienne — meme si l’on ne peut affirmer que Corneille l’ait expressement voulu. Holt Model Essays? En effet, conformement aux analyses de l’ Epitre aux Romains , tous les personnages de la piece sont coupables au regard de la loi; mais, par le geste d’Auguste, tous sont pardonnes et sauves gratuitement [38] [38] Pour saint Paul, selon la Loi, tous les hommes sont. Of Essay? . Holt Model Essays? Qu’il soit laic ou chretien, l’humanisme ainsi defini et affirme est presente par cette ?uvre comme le fondement d’une civilisation harmonieuse, d’une cite heureuse et d’une humanite reconciliee. Universite Jean-Moulin - Lyon III. « Cinna et les avatars de l’heroisme cornelien », Papers on statement, French Seventeenth Century Literature , vol. Model? XVIII, 1991, n° 35, p. Papers? 359. A. Holt? Georges, « L’Evolution morale d’Auguste dans Cinna », L’Information litteraire , marsavril 1982, p. U Of Course? 86-91 ; R. Essays? Pommier, « Quand Auguste decide-t-il de pardonner ? », XVII e Siecle , janvier-mars 1993, n° 178, p. Personal Statement? 139-155 ; C. Holt Model Essays? J. Lost Essay? Gossip, « La clemence d’Auguste, ou pour une interpretation textuelle du Cinna de Corneille », XVII e Siecle , juillet-septembre 1994, n° 184, p. Holt Model Essays? 547-554 ; reponses de R. U Of T Creative? Pommier et de C. Model? J. Acceptance? Gossip dans XVII e Siecle , janvier-mars 1996, n° 190, p. Model Essays? 219-222. Dans Onze etudes sur l’image de la femme… , reunies par W. Essay Graduate School? Leiner, Tubingen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1984, p. Holt Model Essays? 147-163. Cinna , I, 3, v. Personal? 237-238. Essays? Toutes nos citations de l’?uvre renvoient a l’edition de G. Essay Acceptance Graduate? Couton, Paris, Gallimard, « Bibliotheque de la Pleiade », 1980, t. Model? I, p. U Of Writing Course? 903-969.

III, 4, v. Model? 1029-1032. On sait la fecondite de cette histoire dans la peinture occidentale (Botticelli, Lucas Cranach, Cristoforo Allori, Caravage, Artemisia Gentileschi…). C. Research Papers? Venesoen, art. Holt Model Essays? cit., p. Essay? 372. S. Holt Model? Doubrovsky, Corneille et la dialectique du heros , Paris, Gallimard, 1963, p. Abuse Model Essay? 195. IV, 2, v. Holt Essays? 1130-1133. L. U Of Course? Herland, « Le pardon d’Auguste dans Cinna », La Table ronde , n° 15, fevrier 1961, p. Essays? 113-126. R. Drug Abuse? Mac Bride, « Quelques reflexions sur le heros cornelien », XVII e Siecle , 1974, n° 104, p. Holt Essays? 60. Discours de l’utilite et des parties du Poeme dramatique , ed. Paradise Women? G. Holt Model Essays? Couton, op. Papers? cit. Holt Model Essays? , t. Research Papers? III, p. Holt Model? 126.

Ed. Lost Essay? La Difference, Paris, 1986. Isaie, 42,1-3 ; 49,1-9 ; 50,4-11 ; 53,1-12. Voir Heros et orateurs. Holt Model? Rhetorique et dramaturgie corneliennes , Geneve, Droz, 1990.

Premiere Epitre aux Corinthiens 1,18-25. On sait que cette expression est attribuee a Charles de Condren, l’un des maitres de l’Ecole francaise, qui succeda a Berulle comme superieur general de l’Oratoire de France, en 1629. Pour saint Paul, selon la Loi, tous les hommes sont coupables (Ro 3,9-20) mais, par le sacrifice du Christ, tous sont justifies (Ro 5,1-11). Cinna ou le paradoxe de la clemence Le denouement de Cinna a fait l’objet d’interpretations multiples et controversees. Drug Abuse Model? Le texte a pourtant tisse tout un reseau d’indices permettant de le comprendre a la fois comme un effet de theatre et comme une profonde reflexion sur le Mal. Essays? Le choix d’Auguste parvient a arreter l’engrenage de la violence et de la haine, la spirale du Mal. All Kind? Par l’experience de la desappropriation et du sacrifice, il parvient a convertir le monde aux valeurs d’un humanisme authentique : l’ancien tyran decouvre en l’Autre un absolu a respecter, et son exemple sublime fonde une humanite reconciliee. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques.

Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Holt Model? En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Abuse Model Essay? Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web. Essays? En savoir plus. Vous avez ete deconnecte car votre compte est utilise a partir d'un autre appareil.

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American parents have become obsessed with their children being good at sports. Nearly 40 million kids play organized team sports in the US. Essays! For many of u of t creative, them, that means practice multiple times a week (sometimes late into the night), weekend games, and stiff competition to win a coveted spot on the local travel team or private club. It might mean driving hours to a single game or flying around the country for tournaments. Younger siblings, meanwhile, are left vying for their parents attention. Essays! It can also extract an lost essay emotional and physical toll on the young athletes. Dr. William Meehan, director of The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention in Waltham, Massachusetts, said in the last five years, the number of essays, kids being treated there for overuse injuries has grown from zero to women 52% of the entire practice. Model Essays! “I have kids that are playing hockey at 10 at night and research papers, they are nine years old,” said Dr. Holt Model Essays! Frank Sileo, a child psychologist in Ridgewood, New Jersey. “There are games on religious holidays or Mother’s Day; there’s no boundary anymore. It’s like sports takes priority over all else.” At 13, Jack has practice every night and often three or four games on the weekends. Parents say they realize this lifestyle can be crazy, but don’t want to essay graduate let go.

Sarah Dorn’s son Jack, plays soccer, basketball, and baseball on both school and club teams in holt model, Portland, Oregon. At 13, he has practice every night and often three or four games on the weekend in multiple sports. Sometimes he has to play three games in one day. Always one of the top players, a year ago the personal pressure started to get to him. If he didn’t excel when he came up to bat in baseball, he was overcome with disappointment and anger. Instead of holt essays, taking him out of essay of the sport, Sarah and her husband Jeff took him to holt model see a sports psychologist.

The psychologist helped Jack relax and drug abuse model, stay in model essays, the game. “We questioned if we were crazy for doing this,” Dorn said. “But the sports are so good for keeping him on track with school and he has made so many friends.” Though evidence is mostly anecdotal, it’s an obsession recognized by many American parents, especially those in drug essay, the suburbs where sports seem to trump all else. Experts estimate (paywall) families spend nearly $10 billion a year on travel for youth sports . And there are enough families caught up in the frenzy to create a significant and growing $6 billion-a-year industry in holt model, private youth coaching. Divorce! Parents are also enrolling their kids in holt model essays, pricey specialty camps for the summer, and some are taking their kids to sports psychologists to help them keep their emotions under control on the field. “We questioned if we were crazy for doing this,” Dorn said. “Instead of playing sports for personal fun, there is now an emphasis on being good. The star athlete gets all the attention,” said Meehan. So what’s driving this focus on sports? If the goal was a lucrative college scholarship or even the lofty dream of going pro, it would at least make some sense. But just 1% of high school athletes in America receive a division one scholarship. Essays! Moreover, when asked, parents say they are aware of research divorce, these odds and don’t necessarily even want their kids to holt essays play in college, where the demands placed on the athletes are ramped up even further. Rather, parents say that playing team sports is a fun way to stay in shape. It helps kids develop a strong work ethic, make friends, and fill up their time with something productive so they don’t say, spend their afternoons hanging at the mall or smoking and drinking.

A recent study found that high school female athletes were 92% less likely to do drugs and all kind, three times more likely to graduate than their non-sporty peers. “Youth sports is the foundation of our culture,” said Jordan Fliegel, a former professional basketball player and the founder of Coach Up, a private coaching company that started in 2011 and already has more than 200,000 clients across the country. Holt Essays! “You get to divorce be part of a team and learn life lessons. Athletes are more successful later in life.” Other factors, beyond the health and social benefits of holt model, sports for children, could be at play too, and those are the feelings parents experience watching their child perform on the field. They become almost addictive. The combination of two deep American passions, sports and personal statement layout, kids, can result in a heady mix that pushes parents to go to great lengths to essays see their kids play. “Youth sports is the foundation of abuse essay, our culture.” “You get a high out of watching your child out model there,” said Lisa Delpy Neirotti, a professor of sports management at George Washington University, who is research papers planning a study on this subject. Denise Wilson, a Brooklyn mom with two kids in competitive sports, admits she is essays addicted to watching her children play. All Kind Of Essay! “If I can’t go to a game, I’ll have this weird sadness and I don’t know what to essays do with myself,” said Wilson.

Like so many families, the Wilsons’ lives revolve around their kids’ sports. Her 14-year-old son Liam, has been playing club soccer since he was seven, while his sister, Ella, 12, is drug model a competitive gymnast. Essays! The family doesn’t see their grandparents or attend relatives’ birthday parties during the fall and spring because there are always soccer games. Liam, now on his high school team and his club team, has practice every day and often plays two games a day on the weekends. Lost Women Essay! For a while he took additional private lessons with his coach, a special perk offered only to the best players. On holiday weekends the model family drives to tournaments up and down the East Coast, and in the summer Liam attends specialty soccer camps, some which you need to try out for. “It’s like a machine that wraps you up.

Our lives revolve around this schedule.” His sister’s schedule is just as busy, except her meets are in all kind of essay, further away places, like Orlando. She practices after school for holt three hours on Manhattan’s west side. To get her there, Ms. Wilson, who works full time, takes her lunch hour at 4:00 pm so she can buy sushi for her daughter, meet her at the subway station, and get her to practice on time before rushing back to t creative the office. “It’s like a machine that wraps you up,” Wilson said. “Our lives revolve around this schedule.” Frank Sileo, the child psychologist, said parents are actually living in fear of their kids’ coaches, to the point of neglecting their kids’ emotional health. “People are cancelling appointments for their depressed kid because they can’t miss practice because then their coach won’t play them,” Sileo said. As the demands to model play get more and more intense, some families are opting out of sports all together. But many parents seem willing to do almost anything to keep up. “Do you want to be the one who says ‘no,’ that it’s not healthy for your family to papers be spending their summer weekends at holt essays, tournaments?” said Mike DeAnzeris, a former division one coach, who is now an entrepreneur.

Both DeAnzeris’ kids, eight and five, play competitive hockey in Saratoga, New York. Though practices and games are now just a few times a week, he is medicine layout worried about the future when his kids get older and the demands on players become much greater. “We’re scared our children will be left behind if we don’t do it, ” he said.

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essay ottoman empire 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Ottoman Empire and Empire Building - Ghost Writing Essays. Compare/Contrast Essay Student Essay Samples Directions: Using the grading rubric, read the attached essays and holt model essays, score them. Be sure to read thoroughly, and paradise lost essay, remember that you are trying to find ways to GIVE the writer points, rather than trying to find ways to TAKE points away. With that said, however, the information must still be correct in order for model a point to be awarded **You MUST record the final score, as well as why you are/are not giving the writer points. **You are allowed to give the essay 2 possible scores (Example: I think the essay is either a 3 or a 4). *Please do not look at the official explanation until after you have scored the essays.

You don’t get any special reward for lost women getting them right. Holt. The goal is to learn something. Essay Question: Within the period from 1450-1800, compare the processes (e. g. political, social, economic) of u of t creative writing course, empire building in the Spanish Empire with the empire-building processes in ONE of the following: The Ottoman Empire OR The Russian Empire. CC Essay #1 (3RR) Between the years 1400 and 1800, new empires appeared on the globe. One of these empires is the Spanish and the other is the Ottoman Empire. Both of these bear similarities but had their differences as well. They both carved out major chunks of the globe and were both major powers in the newly formed global world. Politically, economically, and socially, these empires were similar in many ways, but they had important differences that separated them apart. The Spanish were an up and coming world power in holt model essays this time period between 1400 and 1800. They soon dominated overseas and trading.

Differing from the Ottoman Empire to the east. The Spanish Empire was largely sea based. Their advanced ships and naval technologies allowed the to lost women discover new continents and model essays, claim them to be their own. The Spanish set up colonies for the economy to research papers run and holt essays, they relied heavily on imports from their distant colonies across the Atlantic. They imported large amounts of silver and food goods to women essay run their economy. Also, the holt essays, foundation of their empire was primarily focused on the spreading of drug essay, Christianity. They founded the Americas on their slogan “Gold, God and Glory” as they forcefully converted the natives in the New World. Also, their government was based on a monarchy with lesser nobles beneath him. The Spanish completely opposed the Islamic religion which can be seen it the Spanish Inquisition as they fought the Moors in model essays Spain to make it purely Christian.

The Ottoman Empire holds many differences against the Spanish Empire. Unlike the Spanish, the Ottoman Empire as a land-based empire that dominated the Middle East right up to medicine personal Eastern Europe. The economy of the Ottoman Turks was based on conquering new lands and exploiting them for their value. The Ottoman’s continued to conquer, not only holt essays so their economies wouldn’t fall but also to model essay spread their religion, Islam. Holt. Unlike the Spanish, they did have some religious tolerance in their empire, but hey mostly forcefully converted who they conquered The Ottoman Empire was an acceptance ethnocentric one, not open to too many outside ideas.

The Empire was reigned over by a religious leader know as the Sultan, but his advisors, or the viziers were the rue voices of the government. They made those who didn’t covert to Islam their military or the janissaries, unlike the Spanish who just enslaved or killed them. Though having many differences, the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire were actually quite similar. Model. Both were ruthless empires that conquered and dominated. Also, both empires wouldn’t have been established if it wasn’t for the desire to spread their religious beliefs and they both persecuted if necessary. Both of the empires had a lowe class of slaves or serfs that did all the abuse model, work to essays maintain production and they both participated in the slave trade out of Africa. The governments of the Spanish and Ottoman Empire were run by religious icons or figures who had absolute control. These empires were among the wealthiest in the world, but only the elite had the money. The economy of both the Spanish and t creative writing, the Ottoman Turks both would not prosper if they had not conquered in the first place.

Politically, economically, and socially the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Empire were similar in many ways. The Spanish and the Ottoman Empire, one dominating the sea and overseas, one dominating the land, were politically similar in governing system, but different tin the way the essays, distributed their policies. Economically, they differed in that the Ottoman’s relied on conquering and the Spanish on colonies but were similar in acceptance that they both needed to take over holt model essays, lands that weren’t originally theirs. Socially, the class system was rough and rigid in both with slaves at the bottom and absolute rulers at the top but they differed in the religion that was part of life in the two empires. Both empires would eventually see their downfall but for the time period 1400 – 1800 they made their time worthwhile, similarly and of essay, differently. CC Essay #2 (3EE) European colonialism had an enormous impact on the world, then and today. Model Essays. What most tend to overlook, however is the empire of Russia, simultaneously rising in the east. In the 350 years after 1450, Spain and medicine, Russia built their empires, each with different locations, political structures , and goals.

Spain, during this time period, was colonizing Latin America. A very small mother country, in relation to its colonies, was expanding greatly into weakly established tribal lands. The strongest threat, the Aztecs were conveniently naive and holt model essays, unlucky, leading to their fall, and the ultimately largely uncontested spread of the Spanish Empire. In Russia, however, strongly established nations bordered a large mother country. Russia’s targets were its immediate neighbors.

Russia needed careful diplomacy and established treaties and pacts to of essay craftily add land to its empire, as opposed to Spain’s method of forceful takeover. Spain, in order to maintain control of colonies so far away, appointed officials to rule over designated areas and report to the mother country directly. The landlords in the new colonies, who employed forced labor of natives, had to report to the officials. This was called the hacienda system. The Russians, by virtue of the means which they used to add to their empire, were forced to grant more power to their local governments, leaving them nearly sovereign.

The landlords, employing forced labor of serfs, had to report to their local officials, who in turn made their own decisions. Oddly enough, the holt model essays, Spanish colonial system, spread out over the globe, was more centralized than the Russian counterpart. The Spanish colonies were set up in such a manner as to yield the greatest economic benefit to the mother countries. Precious metals were exported in vast quantities to Spain, cementing Spain’s economic influence in the world market. Spain’s silver was especially valuable in China, who would soon only accept silver as currency. U Of Writing Course. Cash crops such as tobacco, sugar and holt essays, bananas brought more wealth to Spain and only served to make the colonies more dependent on the mother country to women staple foods and supplies. Russia, however assimilated the newly acquired land into their culture.

Northern Eurasia has very poor farmland and so the farther south Russia expanded, the more crops Russia could make available. Holt Model. Northern Russia’s population could not support itself farming the dirt that the cold tundras provided, but the medicine, more warmer lands added to holt model Russia’s empire, the paradise lost women essay, more surplus crop that could be sent north. The most valuable resource of Russia’s empire was the vast numbers of people who could enlisted or recruited. Spain’s empire was meant to create wealth, while Russia’s was meant to create power. Essays. Two empires, occupying the same time period, were as different as empires can be.

Spain had a spread-out, yet centralized empire governing forcefully conquered lands with the goal of creating great wealth, while Russia created her condensed, loosely organized diplomatic coalition of an empire, with the goal of accumulating power, should war become necessary. CC Essay #3 (3M) The Spanish and Otoman Empire were both involved in the process of empire building during the period of 1450 to 1800. Though both began to develop economically, politically and socially, their underlying strategies for this process differed greatly. The Spanish Empire followed and was helped along by the Catholic Church, while the Ottoman were a Muslim people that were governed by the Islamic religion. The differences between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empires stemmed from their very different religions, though the were both involved in global trade which made many of their developments similar. Economically, both the medicine statement, Spanish and Ottoman Empire had similar aspirations. During this period trade, as well as agriculture dominated. The Ottoman Empire, like the Spanish Empire cultivated their own crops and through importing received their needed goods on one of the developing trade routes such as the holt model, Indian Ocean route. However, the Spanish Empire during this period also began the process of widespread colonization along with the Portueugese. The Ottoman Empire began to conquer surrounding regions but was not a part of the major movement into the Americas. Both Empires, however, took part in personal statement layout the developing and growing slave trade during this period.

The Ottoman especially used African slaves, as it was against holt model the Islamic faith to use Muslim slaves. Economically the Ottoman and Spanish Empires followed very similar paths, though they differed significantly in their political structures. The Ottoman Empire based on Islam, and the Spanish Empire based on Christianity followed very different political paths. The Spanish Empire, for instance, began the process of colonization which meant the model essay, use of administrators as bureus. The Ottoman Empire also moved into surrounding areas in the Middle East, though they favored a more centralized form of government. Also a crucial difference was that the Ottoman Empire followed the Islamic faith. This meant strict adherence to Islamic laws.

Similarly, the Spanish Empire had no separation of church and state and received influence from the Catholic Church. This often meant that both political structures were dominated by a leader that was influenced by religious motives, rather than what was best for the state. Model. This religious backing also produced a new practice for the Ottoman, the janissaries, or an army of Christian men taken as prisoners. The Spanish Empire relied on their own men to produce an army, such as the conquistadors which were used in colonization into the Americas. The major differences between the Ottoman and all kind of essay, Spanish Empires politically was significant as were those socially. Socially, both empires saw significant influence from religion.

For example, the holt, Ottoman Empire followed the practices of the paradise lost women, Islamic faith, and model, remained tolerant of other religions in their Empire. Essay Graduate School. However, those that were non-Muslim were forced to pay a tax, but conversion was still not mandatory. The Spanish Empire was not as tolerant of holt model essays, other religions, and missionaries were widely used to convert others. Also in the Spanish Empire stratifications between those in Latin America and Spanish Europeans developed, along with colonization. The Ottoman Empire promoted relative equality among its people, as all were seen equal under Allah. Nonetheless, however, traditional ideas towards women remained the u of writing, norm in holt model essays both empires.

Women were seen as child-barers and remained in the home, while in the Ottoman Empire some even were convened to the Islamic faith. Socially, as in other regions, similar developments occurred among the Ottoman and Spanish Empires in their social structure. The period 1450 to 1800 saw many developments in paradise lost women essay Empire building for the Spanish and holt, Ottoman Empire. Though, like in all other empires, these were forced to go through the tedious work of building a social, political, and papers, economic structure, one major difference existed. Holt Model. In the case of the Ottoman and Spanish Empires religion had the u of t creative writing, biggest effect on the paths that were taken in building empires. CC Essay # 4 (3 AA) The Spanish Empire and Russian Empires during 1450 – 1800 were two different Empires with different goals in mind. Holt Essays. The Spanish were more oncerned with overseas expansion, while the lost women, Russians were concerned with Westernization efforts. During 1450-1800 the Spanish were one of the holt essays, leading countries in terms of overseas expansion. They were one of the lost essay, first countries to have a representative sailor reach the New World. Essays. The reason for their great success in overseas expansion was the support the government had for it. The King and Queen payed for many explorations to new lands because they knew the fruit discovery could bear.

They were rewarded with new goods and new markets of trade. Soon, Spain began colonizing these newfound lands which benefited them even more. By colonizing lands rich with resources and commodities such as silk, gold, and silver, the Spanish made themselves the primary beneficiary. They were able to control imports and exports from women these lands and open new trade routes. Also, in the colonies they made the citizens work for the prospects of Spain, for example searching for model gold, or growing prosperous cash crops. The result of all this was that Spain was becoming increasingly powerful and spreading throught the world. The Russian Empire during 1450-1800 was one that was trying to establish itself as a world. It’s leaders were focused using the ways of the essay acceptance graduate school, West to promote itself. For example Peter the holt essays, Great who greatly reformed Russia using Western European ideology.

He rebuilt buildings, roads, and government systems. Medicine Personal Statement Layout. BY 1800 Russia, although not exactly a world power, had built itself up from its lowly state 400 years earlier. The major differences between the processes of Empire building between the Spanish and essays, Russia from 1450-1800 was that Spain was already an empire to begin with which made it easier to grow. Spain was already powerful around 1450 while Russia was not. Therefore Russia and school, Spain had two different mindsets about model, building up their Empires. Russia was focused on abuse establishing itself through reforms of government, architecture and other things. Spain wanted to expand its empire and essays, did so by using their navy and by taking advantage of these newfoundlands. It was easy for the Spanish to colonize these new lands because they had superior weapons, tactics, and of essay, they brought diseases with them that killed off many of the native populations. Essays. CC Essay #5 (BBB)

Within the period 1450 to 1800 the Spanish and Russian empires grew greatly. Both had changes in political structures, social structure, and economic structure. The political structure of the Spanish empire and Russian empire both changed within 1450 to 1800. Drug Model Essay. The Spanish empire went from a monarchy to model essays a democracy after having a few very bad kings and queens. The Russian empire went also from a monarchy to a democracy. This change also changed the research divorce papers, social structure. As in most countries around this time the holt model essays, caste system was released and all kind, there was no more of it. With the holt, change of the political structure also came the divorce, change of the essays, economical structure.

Spain along with Britain, France, and the other western countries, became westernized with factories and the new trade routes faster than Russia. Model Essay. The Russian empire became westernized later because, of holt model, course, they were very far away from the major technological countries. But as Spain did Russia became very westernized. The two empires were very similar and Russia seemed to follow in Spains footsteps. AP WORLD Scoring Rubric for divorce papers 2007 CC Essay: Empire Building in essays Spain, Russia Ottoman Empire.

Sample Identifier: 3MScore: 9 Strong thesis in first paragraph. All Kind Of Essay. (1 pt) Addresses similarities at beginning of 2nd paragraph and differences in first paragraph of model essays, page 2. (2 pts) Evidence abounds. (2 pts) Direct comparison in 5th line of page 2. (1 pt) Analysis on 4th line of page 3. (1 pt) Two expanded core points for thesis and rich evidence. Acceptance. Sample Identifier: 3RRScore: 8 Thesis is found at beginning of last paragraph. (1 pt). Addresses similarities in 5th line, page 1. Address differences in 3rd line of the 2nd paragraph. (2 pts) Rich in evidence. 2 pts). Direct comparison found on page 2, 1st paragraph: “Unlike the Spanish…” (1 pt). Analysis is found on page 3, at holt, top: “Also, both empires wouldn’t have been established if…” (1 pt). Expanded core for evidence and comparisons. Of Essay. A strong 8. Sample Identifier: 3JJScore: 7 Thesis is found in holt model the last sentence of the essay: “…politically, and socially different but economically both needed to expand…” (1 pt). Similarities are addressed in the narrative just above the thesis. Differences are addressed at the beginning of the essay (2 pts).

Enough evidence for model essay (2 pts). Direct comparison is found in middle of holt model, page 1: “The Spanish however…” (1 pt). The analysis point follows immediately: “It was easier for the Spanish to expand rather than the u of t creative, Russians because…” Use asset model to ignore references to Ottoman Empire. A solid 7. Holt. Sample Identifier: 3CScore: 6 No thesis at beginning or end of the essay that compares (similarities and differences) of the process of empire building in Spain and Russia. Addresses similarities at the end of page 1, “…and Russia too felt the pull of expansionism. Beginning of the essay addresses a difference just before “because…” (2 pts). Rich in Spanish evidence on model page 1. Russian evidence is on page 2, 3rd line. (2 pts) Direct comparison in first sentence of holt model essays, page 2, which references the previous sentence. (1 pt) First sentence of last paragraph on page 1 isn’t a direct comparison because it is not true of Russia in 1450. Analysis of a comparison is abuse model essay, found in the 3rd line of page 2, “…so Russia expanded eastward…” (Evidence may be found within analysis or within a direct comparison. ) Addresses similarities on line 10 of page 1. Sample Identifier: 3EEScore: 5 No thesis. Addresses differences at beginning of essay. Holt Model Essays. (1pt) Especially strong in paradise lost Spanish evidence. 2 examples of Russian evidence. (2 pts) Direct comparison in second paragraph: “In Russia, however…” (1 pt) Analysis of differences between Spanish and Russian empires on holt essays first half of lost women essay, page 2. Sample Identifier: 3RScore: 4 No thesis.

Addresses similarities in middle of first paragraph, and differences beginning in 4th line of page 2, in regard to the way each empire accumulated wealth as they expanded. Holt. 2 pts) Evidence for Spain: silver, encomiendas, haciendas and “mining” (other than silver). Research Divorce Papers. Ottoman evidence in 2nd paragraph: “religion played a big role when building the empire. ” (2 pts) Last paragraph unscorable because the argument is unquantifiable. Sample Identifier: 3AAScore: 3 No thesis. (“…Russians were concerned with Westernization efforts” does not explicitly address empire building process). Addresses differences in first paragraph. (1 pt) Evidence for Spanish empire building on most of page 1. Russian empire building evidence begins in 1st paragraph of page 2 (2 pts). Attempt at direct comparison at bottom of holt model essays, page 2 is historically inaccurate. Essay Graduate. Sample Identifier: 3DDDScore: 2 No thesis. Addresses similarities in first two sentences of 4th paragraph. Addresses differences in first sentence of 3rd paragraph. 2 relevant examples of evidence for Spain, none for Ottoman Empire.

No direct comparison or analysis. Holt. Sample Identifier: 3BBBScore: 1 No thesis. Addresses similarity in first sentence of second paragraph. Not sufficient evidence supporting empire building in writing Spain and Russia. No direct comparison or analysis.