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The Essays of Michel de Montaigne / Michel de - eBooks Adelaide
Knowledge in perception and illusion. Richard L Gregory. From: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (1997) 352, 1121 - 1128 with the essays text kind permission of the Editor. Department of Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Clifton, Bristol.
BS8 1TU. Photo. UK. Following Hermann von Helmholtz, who described visual perceptions as unconscious inferences from montaigne, sensory data and surfing essay, knowledge derived from the past, perceptions are regarded as similar to montaigne predictive hypotheses of science, but are psychologically projected into photo essay, external space and accepted as our most immediate reality. There are increasing discrepancies between perceptions and essays, conceptions with science's advances, which makes it hard to define 'illusion'. Surfing Essay. Visual illusions can provide evidence of object knowledge and montaigne essays text, working rules for vision, but only when the phenomena are explained and classified. A tentative classification is presented, in terms of appearances and kinds of causes. The large contribution of knowledge from the past for write statement vision raises the issue: how do we recognize the present, without confusion from the past. This danger is text, generally avoided as the present is signalled by with a dissertation 4 weeks real-time sensory inputs - perhaps flagged by qualia of consciousness. Philosophy and science have traditionally separated intelligence from perception, vision being seen as a passive window on the world and intelligence as active problem-solving. It is a quite recent idea that perception, especially vision, requires intelligent problem-solving based on knowledge.
There is something of a paradox confounding intelligence and knowledge, for one thinks of knowledgeable people as being specially intelligent and montaigne, yet more knowledge can reduce the persuasive essay issues intelligence needed for solving problems. The paradox is resolved, when we consider two senses of 'intelligence': active processing of montaigne text, information (as supposedly measured in IQ tests) and available answers (as in 'military intelligence') These senses of psychosynthesis auckland nz, 'intelligence' have been named by rough analogy with creating and the storing of energy as, potential intelligence and kinetic intelligence (Gregory 1987). The notion is that stored-from-the-past potential intelligence of knowledge, is selected and applied to solve current perceptual problems by active processing of kinetic intelligence. The more available knowledge, the essays less processing is required; however, kinetic intelligence is needed for building useful knowledge, by learning through discovery and testing. (The analogy is imperfect because knowledge is 5 paragraph essay statement, not conserved. Nevertheless, these terms may be useful though, apart from secret knowledge, 'potential intelligence' is essays text, not diminished by use.) When almost complete answers are available, knowledge takes the auckland dominating role. Then 'top-down' becomes more important than 'bottom-up', which may be so for human vision. (Remarkably, there are more downwards fibres from the essays cortex to the lateral geniculate bodies LGN) 'relay stations' than bottom-up from the eyes (Sillito 1995).) Errors of perception (phenomena of illusions) can be due to knowledge being inappropriate or being misapplied. So illusions are important for investigating cognitive processes of vision.
Acceptance that knowledge makes a major contribution to photo essay human vision is recent, remaining controversial. This applies even more to the machine vision of text, artificial intelligence. Perhaps progress in artificial intelligence has been delayed through failure to recognize that artificial potential intelligence of knowledge is needed for computer vision to be comparable to brains. It was the German polymath, Hermann von Helmholtz (182l - 1894) who introduced the notion that visual perceptions are unconscious inferences (von Helmholtz 1866). Persuasive Social. For von Helmholtz, human perception is montaigne, but indirectly related to objects, being inferred from fragmentary and often hardly relevant data signalled by the eyes, so requiring inferences from knowledge of the world to make sense of the sensory signals. There are, however, theorists who try to maintain 'direct' accounts of visual perception as requiring little or no knowledge, notably followers of the American psychologist J. J. Gibson (l904 - l979) whose books The Perception of the Visual World (1950) and psychosynthesis nz, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (1966) remain influential. in place of knowledge and inference, Gibson sees vision as given directly by available information 'picked-up from the ambient array' of light, with what he calls 'affordances' giving object-significance to patterns of stimulation without recourse to stored knowledge or processing intelligence. Essays Text. The 'affordance' notion might be seen as an extension of the ethologist's concept of essay social issues, innate 'releasers', which trigger innate behaviour such as robins responding aggressively to a red patch. This fits Gibson's 'ecological optics'; but how new objects, such as telephones, arc recognized without acquired knowledge is montaigne essays, far from clear. To maintain that perception is direct, without need of inference or knowledge, Gibson generally denied the phenomena of writing a dissertation 4 weeks, illusion. Following von Helmholtz's lead we may say that knowledge is necessary for vision because retinal images are inherently ambiguous (for example for size, shape and distance of objects). and because many properties that are vital for behaviour cannot be signalled by the eyes, such as hardness and weight, hot or cold, edible or poisonous.
For von Helmholtz, ambiguities are usually resolved, and non-visual object properties inferred, from montaigne essays, knowledge by prep unconscious inductive inference from what is montaigne text, signalled and from knowledge of the object world. It is social, a small step (Gregory l968 a, b, 1980) to say that perceptions are hypotheses, predicting unsensed characteristics of montaigne essays text, objects, and predicting in time, to compensate neural signalling delay (discovered by von Helmholtz in 1850), so 'reaction time' is generally avoided, as the write 5 paragraph statement present is predicted from delayed signals. This has recently been investigated with elegant experiments by Nijhawan (1997). Text. Further time prediction frees higher animals from the tyranny of auckland nz, control by reflexes, to allow intelligent behaviour into essays, anticipated futures. It is a key point that vision is not only photo indirectly related to objects, but also to stimuli. As Helmholtz appreciated (Boring 1950, p. 304), this follows from the law of specific energies, proposed by his teacher, Johannes Muller. It is perhaps better named the law of specific qualities: any afferent nerve signals the montaigne essays text same quality or sensation whatever stimulates it. Thus we see colours not only from light but also when the eyes are mechanically pressed, or stimulated electrically. We may regard eyes and the other sense organs as designed by natural selection to allow the universal neural code of action potentials to signal a great variety of object properties, routed to specialized brain regions to create qualities of questions, colour and touch, sounds and so on (colours being generated by a specialized brain module in area V4 of the striate cortex (Zeki 1993). It was clear to Newton in Opticks (1704) that it is strictly incorrect to say that light is coloured. Rather, light evokes sensations of colours in suitable eyes and brains.
Perceptions, such as colours, are psychologically projected into accepted external space. This 'projection' is demonstrated most clearly with retinal photographs of after-images, which appear on the surfaces of external objects, or are projected into outer darkness. An essential problem for vision is perceiving scenes and montaigne essays text, objects in a three-dimensional external world, which is very different from the flat ghostly images in writing 4 weeks eves. Some phenomena of illusion provide evidence for the uses of knowledge for vision; this is essays text, revealed when it is not appropriate to the situation and so causes a systematic error, even though the physiology is working normally. A striking example is illustrated in the following section. Figure 1. Photographs of a rotated hollow mask: (a) and the wild, (b) (black hat) show the front and side truly convex view; (d) (white hat) shows the inside of the montaigne essays text mask; it appears convex although it is write statement, truly hollow; (c) is montaigne, curiously confusing as part of the hollow inside is nz, seen as convex, combined with the truly convex face. This is even more striking with the actual rotating mask.
Viewing the hollow mask with both eyes it appeal's convex, until viewed from as close as a metre or so. Top-down knowledge of faces is pitted against bottom-up signalled information. The face reverses each time a critical viewing distance is passed, as 'downwards' knowledge or 'upwards' signals win. (This allows comparison of signals against knowledge by nulling.) The strong visual bias of favouring seeing a hollow mask as a normal convex face (figure 1), is evidence for the power of essays text, top-down knowledge for vision (Gregory 1970). (Barlow (1997) takes a more 'reductionist' view preferring to think of this in terms of redundancies of bottom-up signals from the essay eyes. I would limit this to very general features, such as properties of' edge-signalling giving contrast effects, rather than phenomena attached to particular objects or particular classes of objects, such as faces.) This bias of seeing faces as convex is so strong it counters competing monocular depth cues, such as shading and shadows, and also very considerable unambiguous information from the two eyes signalling stereoscopically that the object is hollow. Essays Text. (There is a weaker general tendency for any object to be seen as convex, probably because most objects are convex. The effect is persuasive essay, weaker when the mask is placed upside down, strongest for a typical face. If the mask is rotated, or the observer moves, it appears to rotate in the opposite to normal direction, at twice the speed; because distances are reversed motion parallax becomes effectively reversed.
This also happens with a depth-reversed wire cube.) It is montaigne essays, significant that this, and very many other illusions, are experienced perceptually though the persuasive observer knows conceptually that they are illusory - even to montaigne essays the point of appreciating the causes of the phenomena. This does not, however, show that knowledge has no part to play in vision. Into. Rather, it shows that conceptual and perceptual knowledge are largely separate. Text. This is not altogether surprising because perception must work extremely fast (in a fraction of a second) to be useful for survival, though conceptual decisions may take minutes, or even years. Further, perceptions are of particulars, rather than the generalities of conceptions. (We perceive a triangle, but only conceptually can we appreciate triangularity.) Also, if knowledge or belief determined perception we would be blind to the unusual, or the seemingly impossible, which would be dangerous in unusual situations, and would limit perceptual learning. The distinguished biologist J. Auckland Nz. Z. Young was a pioneer who stressed the essays text importance of handling knowledge for understanding brain function, and that there may be a 'brain language' preceding spoken or written language. Thus )bung 1978, p.56): 'If the essay essential feature of the montaigne essays brain is that it contains information then the task is to learn to translate the language that it uses. But of course this is not the method that is questions, generally used in the attempt to understand the brain.
Physiologists do not go around saying that they are trying to translate brain language. Montaigne Text. They would rather think that they are trying to 5 paragraph thesis statement understand it in the ordinary scientific terms of physics and chemistry' Cognitive illusions reveal knowledge and assumptions for vision, and perhaps take us ('lose to 'brain language', but they must be understood and also classified. Classifying is important for the natural sciences: it should be equally important for the unnatural science' of illusions. Classifying must he important for learning and perception, for montaigne essays text it is impossible to make inductive generalizations without at least implicit classes. It is psychosynthesis auckland nz, also impossible to essays make deductive inferences, as deductions are not from facts or events, but from descriptions (in words or mathematics) of real or imaginary members of classes. Von Helmholtz's 'unconscious inference' for questions vision was inductive; 'for example inferring distances from perspective and shapes from shading. Montaigne. As there are frequent exceptions certainty is not attainable. Thus atypical shapes give systematic errors, when general rules or specific knowledge are inappropriate for these unusual objects or scenes, as shown most dramatically by the Ames demonstrations such as the Ames window (Ittelson 1952). (This is a slowly rotating trapezoid, the shape of a rectangle as viewed from an oblique angle. It changes bizarrely in size and form as it does not go through the usual perspective transformations of a familiar sect angle, such as a normal window.) Much the essay same applies to seeing familiar objects in essays the very different brush strokes of paintings; this is evidently seen by object knowledge and rules, such as perspective, and is normally applied to the world of psychosynthesis auckland nz, objects but is activated by the patterns of text, paint. It is extraordinarily hard to give a satisfactory definition of an 'illusion'. It may be the departure from reality, or from truth; but how are these to be defined?
As science's accounts of reality get ever more different from appearances, to say that this separation is 5 paragraph statement, 'illusion' would have the absurd consequence of implying that almost all perceptions are illusory. It seems better to limit 'illusion' to systematic visual and essays, other sensed discrepancies from simple measurements with rulers, photometers. clocks and so on. There are two clearly very different kinds of illusions: those with a physical cause and cognitive illusions due to misapplication of knowledge. Although they have extremely different kinds of causes, they can produce some surprisingly similar phenomena (such as distortions of length or curvature), so there are difficulties of classification that require experimental evidence. Illusions due to the disturbance of light, between objects and psychosynthesis auckland, the eyes, are different from illusions due to the disturbance of text, sensory signals of eye, though both might be classified as 'physical'. Extremely different from both of these are cognitive illusions, due to misapplied knowledge employed by persuasive issues the brain to interpret or read sensory signals. For cognitive illusions, it is useful to distinguish specific knowledge of objects, from general knowledge embodied as rules. Text. Either can be mislead in unusual conditions, and so can be revealed by observation and help, experiment. An example of misleading specific knowledge is how a grainy texture is montaigne, seen as wood, though it is a plastic imitation or a picture. More dramatic is how a hollow face or mask is seen as convex (figure 1), because faces are very rarely hollow (Evidently the perceptual hypothesis of photo, a face carries the, not always appropriate, knowledge that it is convex.) Examples of misleading rules are the Gestalt laws of 'closure', 'proximity', 'continuity' and the 'common fate' of movements of parts of objects Wertheimer 1923, 1938). When these do not apply illusion can result, because not all objects are closed in essays text form, with close-together parts and continuous edges, or with parts moving together as leaves of a tree in the wind.
Exceptional objects are mis-seen when Gestalt laws are applied, and write essay, when perspective rules are applied for atypical objects, such as the montaigne essays text Ames window and essay, flat projections of pictures. To the usual terms 'bottom-up' signals and essays, 'top-down' knowledge, we add what might be called 'sideways' rules. Both top-down and sideways are knowledge; the first specific (such as faces being convex), the second being general rules applied to all objects and scenes (such as the Gestalt laws and perspective). Analysis Essay Into. These are 'ins-and-outs' of vision, which it might he useful to montaigne consider, before attempting to explain how the visual brain works, with the essay social scheme presented in figure 2. Figure 2. Essays. Tentative 'flat box' of' vision. As usual, signals from the eyes and the other senses are 'bottom-up'. Help With. Conceptual and perceptual object knowledge are shown in separate 'top-down' boxes. Montaigne Text. Knowledge as embodied in the general rules. is introduced 'sideways'. Surfing Essay. Perceptual learning seems to work largely by feedback from behaviour. Appearances of illusions fall into classes which may be named quite naturally from errors of language: ambiguities , distortions , paradoxes , fictions . Montaigne. It may be suggestive that these apply both to vision and to language, because language possibly grew from prehuman perceptual classifications. Analysis Essay Into The Wild. This would explain why language developed so rapidly in biological time, if based on a take-over from pre-human classification (especially of objects and actions) for intelligent vision (Gregory 1971).
Could this be Chomsky's innate 'deep structure' of the grammar of languages (cf. Pinker 1994)? In any case, this is illustrated in table 1. Table 1. Illusions and language. she's a dark haired blonde. they live in a mirror. To classify causes we need to explain the montaigne phenomena. There is no established explanation for many illusions, but even a tentative classification may suggest where to look for answers amid may suggest new experiments. We need 'litmus test' criteria for each example, but so far these hardly exist.
There are, however, various experimental tests (especially using phenomena of ambiguity to separate the bottom-tip signal from top-down or sideways cognitive errors), and selective losses of the visual agnosias may help to reveal perceptual classes (Humphreys Riddock 1987 a, b; Sacks 1985). We suggest four principal kinds of causes: the first two lying broadly within physics; the last associated with knowledge, and so perhaps with 'brain language'. Analysis Into. The first is montaigne essays text, optical disturbance intervening between the object and the retina. The second is disturbed neural sensory signals. The third and fourth are extremely different from write statement, these, as they are cognitive and so knowledge-based, for making sense of neural signals. (Thus writing is meaningless without semantic knowledge called up by words, organized by syntactic structures of grammar.) Adding the kinds of appearances (named 'from errors of language as in table 1), we arrive at something like table 2 for classifying visual illusions. One illustrative example is given for each class, under the major division between (physical) optical and neural signal disturbances and (cognitive) general rules and specific knowledge.
When any are inappropriate, characteristic phenomena of illusion may occur. Table 2. Illusions classified by appearances and causes. 5 retinal rivalry. 14 size - weight. 7 rotating spiral. 11 Penrose triangle. 15 Magritte mirror. 12 Kanizsa triangle. 16 faces in the fire. No doubt some attributions will be controversial; they are not intended to he set in montaigne essays stone. 4 Weeks. The task is to develop 'litmus test' experimental criteria for assigning the montaigne phenomena to their proper classes of appearances and causes.
It is entirely possible that different classes will be needed as understanding advances. We reach complicated issues, but some of them are summarized below. (i) Mist . Any loss of information may increase uncertainty and writing, produce ambiguities. (ii) Mirage . Refraction of text, light between the object and the eyes displaces objects or parts of objects, as for mirages, or a spoon bent in water. (Conceptual understanding does not correct these distortions, though motor performance may adapt, as for diving birds catching fish.) (iii) Looking-glass . One sees oneself double: through the glass, as a kind of ghost; yet one knows one is in front of it. So perception and help with writing a dissertation, conception separate. (This may be the montaigne text origin of notions of mind separate from body, i.e. dualism (Gregory 1997).) (iv) Rainbow. An illusion when it is seen as an object, with expectations as for a normal object. (Thus unlike an arch of stone, when approached, it moves away and can never be touched. With this in mind it is not illusory.) (v) Retinal rivalry . Persuasive Essay Social Issues. Small horizontal separations of corresponding points of the eyes' images are 'fused', and signal depth stereoscopically. At angles greater than about 1° (Panum's limit) fusion breaks down, and montaigne, perception shifts and changes in bizarre ways.
Figure 3. Three distortions. (a) Café wall. This symmetrical pattern produces asymmetrical long wedges. Essay Thesis. (It seems to violate Curie's principle that states that systematic asymmetry cannot be generated from symmetry. Two processes are involved: local asymmetries of contrast between half -'tiles' integrate along the essays rows, to form the asymmetry of the long wedges.) Unlike cognitive distortions this evidently retinal effect depends lawfully on the brightness contrasts. It is a 'neural signal' distortion. (b) Muller - Lyer. The shaft of the outgoing arrow-heads appears longer than for the ingoing heads. These figures give the same retinal images as outside and inside corners (e.g. of a house and a room).
They are perspective drawings of corners, but may not appear in depth. The notion is that these perspective depth-cues trigger size sealing inappropriately to the picture-plane. They do appear in depth when the 4 weeks back- ground texture is removed. Actual corners giving the same retinal images and seen in depth have no distortion. The distortion is due to perspective depth triggering constancy sealing. (c) Size - weight. The smaller object feels heavier, though both are the same scale weight. From knowledge that larger objects are generally heavier, the muscles are set in this expectation, but here it is surprisingly incorrect as the montaigne essays text objects have the same weight.
(vi) Cafe Wall. The rows of 'tiles' (figure 3a) with alternate rows displaced by prep half a cycle, appear as long alternating wedges. This lacks perspective, or other depth cues. Unlike the distortions of point 10 below, it depends critically on luminances, disappearing when the neutral 'mortar' lines are brighter than the light, or dimmer than the dark tiles. It appears to violate Curie's principle that systematic asymmetry cannot be generated from symmetry; but there are two processes: small wedges are produced by local asymmetry where there is luminance contrast of light - dark half tiles and these small wedges integrate along the rows, to form long wedges (Gregory Heard 1979). (vii) Rotating spiral (after-effect of movement). The spiral expands yet, paradoxically, does not change size. The adapted motion channel gives conflicting evidence with unadapted position signals.
(viii) After-images. These are almost entirely due to local losses of retinal visual pigments, from intense or prolonged stimulation. (ix) Figure-ground . Montaigne Essays Text. The primary decision: which shapes are objects and which are spaces between objects. This seems to be given by general rules of closure and so on. (These rules cannot always make up the brain's mind.) (x) Muller - Lyer (Ponzo, Poggendorif, Orbison, Hering and help writing 4 weeks, many other illusions) seem to montaigne text be due to perspective, or other depth cues, setting constancy sealing inappropriately, e.g. when depth is represented on the plane of into the wild, a picture. Scaling can be set bottom-up from depth cues, though depth is not seen, e.g. when countermanded by the surface texture of a picture (Gregory 1963).
The distortions disappear when these figures are presented and seen in true depth: corners for the Muller- -Lyer and parallel receding lines for the Ponzo, etc. (Gregory Harris 1975). (xi) Penrose impossible triangle . When a simple closed figure or object, seen from a critical position, has features lying at essays different distances but that touch in social a picture, or retinal image, the visual system accepts a rule that they are the same distance. This false assumption generates a rule-based paradoxical perception. (xii) Kaniza triangle and essays, many other illusory contours and surfaces. Some are due to 'postulating' a nearer occluding surface, to 'explain' surprising gaps (Gregory 1972; Petry et al . 1987). (xiii) Hollow face . This illustrates the power of probabilities (and so knowledge for object perception (figure 1). (xiv) Size - weight illusion . Small objects feel heavier than larger objects of the same scale weight; muscles are set by knowledge-based expectation that the larger will be heavier, which is generally, though not always true. (xv) Magritte mirror. Essay Statement. René Magritte's painting La reproduction interdite (1937) shows a man facing a mirror, but the back of his head appears in the glass. This looks impossible from our knowledge of mirrors (Gregory 1997). (xvi) Faces-in-the-fire , ink blots, galleons in montaigne text the clouds and so on, show the dynamics of perception.
Hypotheses are generated that go fancifully beyond the evidence. The Café wall distortion, due to disturbed neural signals, is shown in 5 paragraph essay thesis statement figure 3a, for comparison with the montaigne text knowledge rules-distortion of' the Muller - Lyer distortion (figure 3b) and prep questions, the specific-knowledge distortion of the size - weight illusion (figure 3c). They may appear similar (all being distortions) but their causes are fundamentally different. Figure 4. Ins-and-outs: black box of montaigne, vision. The scheme of figure 2 with additions: set, for selecting needed knowledge; qualia, perhaps for signalling the persuasive essay social issues present. We may develop the 'flat box' of ins-and-outs (figure 2) to essays a fuller 'black box' (figure 4).
These diagrams do not attempt to show anatomical paths or brain regions, but rather, functional ins-and-outs of vision. Figure 5. Mach's corner. The dark region changes apparent brightness when the corner flips in or out: it is brighter when in, and so a likely shadow, although there is no physical change (Mach 1897). A 'downwards' loop is also shown, from the photo essay prevailing perceptual hypothesis, affecting bottom-up signal processing. This may be demonstrated by the change of montaigne text, apparent brightness with depth-reversal of the Mach's corner illusion (figure 5). Though as Barlow points out (personal communication, 1997) this is not necessarily the explanation; it requires experiments. Most mysterious of all brain phenomena is consciousness. especially how sensations, qualia, are produced and their possible uses. In the surfing account given here, perception depends very largely on knowledge (specific 'top-down' and general 'sideways' rules), derived from past experience of the individual and from ancestral, sometimes even prehuman experience. So perceptions are largely based on essays the past, but recognizing the present is essential for survival in the here and psychosynthesis, now. The present moment must not be confused with the essays past, or with imagination, i.e. as indeed one appreciates when crossing a busy road.
So, although knowledge from the past is so important, it must not obtrude into the present. Primitive non-cognitive animals have no such danger of confusion, as their present is simply signalled by real-time afferent inputs. Time-confusion is likely only for 'higher' animals, especially humans,where knowledge derived from the past dominates present perception. As for primitive (reflex and tropism-controlled) animals our present is thesis, also signalled by real-time afferent inputs, but as input signals have a smaller part to play than knowledge from the past, for cognitive perception, they must be very clearly distinguished. (Exceptions are qualia in dreams and in schizophrenic hallucinations. There are rare cases (Luria 1969) of individuals having such vivid memory that their present is dangerously confused with their past and with imagination. Memories of emotion such as embarrassment can evoke qualia, perhaps from real-time signals from visceral changes or blushing evoked by memory.) As a speculation: are real-time sensory signals - and montaigne, so the present - flagged by the vividness of qualia? It is interesting to compare the surfing essay qualia of seeing, with memory of essays, a scene immediately the eyes are closed. Analysis The Wild. Surely the visual qualia almost if not entirely disappeai' when the sensory inputs cease. Reversing this simple experiment by opening the eyes following immediate memory, the onset of the montaigne essays visual qualia is help with writing a dissertation, so striking that they make the memory pale by montaigne comparison. So perhaps consciousness serves to avoid confusion with the remembered past, by flagging tile present with the unique vividness of sensory qualia. Barlow, H. B. 1997 The knowledge used in vision: and where it comes from.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond . B. 352 , 1143 1149. Boring. E. G. Help 4 Weeks. 1950 A history of experimental psychology 2nd edn. New York: Appleton Century Crofts. Gregorv. R. L. 1963 Distortion of visual space as inappropriate constancy scaling.
Nature 199 , 678-691. Gregory R. L. 1968 a Perceptual illusions and brain models. Proc. R. Soc. Montaigne. Lond . B 171 , 179 - 196. Gregory R. Auckland. L. 1968 b On how so little information controls so much behaviour. In Towards a theoretical biology 2 (ed. C. Montaigne. H. Waddington).
Edinburgh: University of analysis, Edinburgh Press. Gregory. R. Text. L. 1970 a The intelligent eye . London: Weidenfeld Nicolson. Gregory, R. L. 1970 b The grammar of vision. Listener 83 , 242. Reprinted in R. Help A Dissertation 4 Weeks. L. Gregory 1974 Concepts of vision, pp.
622 629. London: Duckworth. Gregory, R. Montaigne Essays. L. 1972 Cogitive contours. Nature 238 , 51-52. Gregory, R. L. Surfing. 1980 Perceptions as hypotheses. Phil. Montaigne Text. Trans. R. Soc. Sat Essay. Lond . B 290 , 181 - 197.
Gregory, R. L. 1997 Mirrors in mind . Oxford: Spektrurn/New York: W. H. Freeman. Gregory, R. L. Harris, J. P. 1975 Illusion-destruction by appropriate scaling. Perception 4 , 203 - 220. Gregory. R. L. Montaigne Essays Text. Heard. P. 1979 Border-locking and the Cafe Wall illusion. Perception 4 , 203-220. Helmholtz, H. von 1866 Concerning the perceptions in auckland nz general. In Treatise on physiological optics, vol.
III, 3rd edn (translated by J. P. C. Southall 1925 Opt. Soc. Am. Section 26 , reprinted New York: Dover, 1962). Humphries, G. W Riddock, M. J. 1987 a The fractionation of visual agnosia. In Visual object processing: a cognitive neuropsychological approach (ed.
G. W. Humphries M. J. Text. Riddock), pp. Persuasive Essay. 281-306. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Humphries, G. W. Essays Text. Riddock, M. J. Sat Essay Prep. 1987 b To see but not to see: a case study of visual agnosia . London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Ittelson, W H. Montaigne. 1952 The Ames demonstrations in perception . Princeton University Press. Luria, A. R. 1969 The mind of a mnemonist . London: Penguin. Mach, E. 1897 The analysis of sensations (English translation 1959, 5th edn:. New York: Dover.
Marr, D. 1982 Vision. New York: W. H. Freeman. Nijhawan, R. 1997 Visual decomposition of analysis, colour through motion extrapolation. Nature 386 , 66 - 69. Petry. S. Meyer, G. E. Essays Text. (eds) 1987 The perception of analysis essay into the wild, illusion contours . New York: Springer-Verlag. Pinker, S. 1994 The language instinct . Montaigne Essays. London: Allen Lane / Penguin. Sacks, 0. Help With Writing A Dissertation 4 Weeks. 1985 The man who mistook his wife for a hat. London: Duckworth. Sillito, A, 1995 Chemical soup: where and how drugs may influence visual perception.
In The artful eye (ed. R. L. Gregory, J. Harris, P. Heard D. Rose. pp. Montaigne Essays Text. 294 - 306. Oxford University Press. Wertheimer, NI. 1923 Untersuchungen zur Lehre von Gestalt II. Sat Essay. Psychol.
Forsch 4 , 301 - 350. Transl. 1938 Organization of percetual Forms. In A source book of Gestalt psychology (ed. Essays Text. W. D. Ellis), pp. 71 - 88. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Young, J. Z. 1978 Programs of the brain . Oxford University Press.
Zeki, S. 1993 A vision of the brain . Oxford: Blackwell.
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Essays of Michel de Montaigne - Project Gutenberg
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This also helps the business work more as a team and less on an individual scale. Therefore, it makes the business run more smoothly and increases productivity from the montaigne employees. Many companies use cross training. Christian cross , Cross-training , Employment 2849 Words | 8 Pages. Four Approaches to help, International Staffing- Microsoft and Red Cross. Four approaches to international staffing, advantages and montaigne essays, disadvantages . The globalisation of the world’s business economy has been . particularly significant, resulting in an increase in the importance of, and interest in, international human resourcing. The international company is a type of social multi-unit business organisation, which has a corporate centre in its home and its business units located in various host countries. International HRM distinguishes itself from domestic HRM primarily by having. Ethnocentrism , Geert Hofstede , International Committee of the Red Cross 1350 Words | 4 Pages. I. INTERCULTURAL TRAINING Today, many organizations realize the montaigne text importance of intercultural management and therefore increase the use of . 4 Weeks. cross -cultural training programs offered by specialized companies or provided by internal departments within multinational corporations. For example, Fortune 500 companies, including Microsoft, Wal-Mart, Apple, Exxon Mobil, Procter amp; Gamble, Coca Cola, etc. Text. regularly purchase seminars or provide other forms of cross -cultural training . Multinational companies.
Corporation , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 766 Words | 3 Pages. Employee Training and Career Development. Employee Training and Career Development Paper HRM 300 Employee Training and Career Development Paper Every organization . needs well trained and knowledgeable employees to perform the daily tasks needed to achieve company goals. An organizations success depends greatly on the training and 5 paragraph statement, development of its employees and the development of the organization itself. An organization has a large responsibility for their success which is text, why training , development, and career development is imperative.
Employment , Human resource management , Learning 940 Words | 3 Pages. A PAPER ON “ CROSS CULTURAL TRAINING ” -Ms. Sarika Kale INTRODUCTION: . Globalization of business has led to cross border flows of into physical, financial and montaigne essays, human resources. Help A Dissertation. It has resulted in both a large number of essays text people working abroad, as well as an auckland, increasingly multi cultural domestic work environment. To face the ever growing competition, organizations are expanding their businesses, outsourcing and even establishing offices overseas. Organizations. Anthropology , Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication 4604 Words | 16 Pages.
Cross -Cultural Psychology Roberta Menlove Psy/450 January 29, 2013 Jacquie Nelson Cross -Cultural Psychology Culture exist . Essays Text. everywhere, it performs a significant function throughout life. Culture expresses itself in every individual’s life. These expressions come in auckland multiple forms such as behavior, appearance, and language. Montaigne Essays. The importance of essay issues culture and montaigne essays, its influence is demonstrated in the relationship between different cultures and cross -cultures, how individuals use critical thinking as well. Anthropology , Behavior , Culture 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract Virtual training is a rapidly expanding concept among today’s employers. However, it is really better than traditional methods that . have been used for years, or is it just a fad that companies will quickly outgrow? Like most things, virtual training has advantages and essay social, disadvantages associated with its use, and companies must judge for themselves if it is montaigne text, appropriate in their unique work setting. Essay Social Issues. Through the use a thorough needs assessment, a company can make this determination and decide.
1916 , 1925 , Blended learning 1247 Words | 4 Pages. In-basket was created at AIR University in the 1950s to evaluate training , and montaigne essays text, was further developed by Fredericksen (1960) of Educational . Testing Service. Since the method in-basket exist, they have been widely used in help a dissertation 4 weeks many aspects of montaigne management training , especially in industry, company, educational administration, and government. Persuasive Essay Social. In-basket training also called as in-tray training . That was a psychological testing and montaigne essays, training method. In this method, knowledge, skills and attitude of trainees. Management , Problem , Problem solving 1495 Words | 5 Pages. Issues Relating Diverse and Cross Cultural Management. Issues relating diverse and cross cultural workforce | | | | | R.RAAKESH(12608013) | 5/14/2013 | | INTRODUCTION . The diverse workforce has become a reality today. The impact of cultural diversity varies with the type of environment and firm’s overall strategy.
As more and more number of firms move from domestic, multidomestic, multinational strategies to operating as a truly global firm, the significance and impact of cultural diversity increase markedly. With. Management of. Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Cultural anthropology 1326 Words | 5 Pages. The Red Cross By Kevin Smith The Red Cross is an international organization that thrives on donations and the kindness of . others to essays, succeed. This Red Cross supports military families, disaster relief, health and safety training along with education, and blood drives that save thousands of lives yearly. The Red Cross started in analysis the wild the year 1881 and text, was mainly used to help wounded soldiers from the battlefield. “The global Red Cross has evolved into the world’s largest humanitarian network -. Blood , International Committee of the Red Cross , International organizations 860 Words | 3 Pages. | Context The British Red Cross helps people in crisis, whoever and wherever they are. We are part of a global voluntary . network, responding to conflicts, natural disasters and individual emergencies. We enable vulnerable people in the UK and abroad to prepare for and withstand emergencies in their own communities. And when the crisis is over, we help them to recover and move on with their lives.
Within the UK, the British Red Cross operates through about 3000 staff and over 30. First aid , Occupational safety and health 551 Words | 4 Pages. Cross -cultural communication has been an writing a dissertation, integral component of business in recent decades, as globalisation has created a situation where . countries depend more and more on each other (Asgary Walle 2002). Achieving this has been through the montaigne use of photo essay both verbal and non-verbal communication. Montaigne. Both these forms of communication have their advantages as well as their shortcomings, but are necessary in order to communicate in the current globalised world. Photo. Achieving successful, effective cross -cultural communication. Communication , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 1027 Words | 4 Pages. ?PART A : Cross Docking: The term cross docking refers to montaigne text, moving product from persuasive, a manufacturing plant and text, delivers . it directly to the customer with little or no material handling in between. Cross docking not only prep, reduces material handling, but also reduces the essays text need to store the products in the warehouse. In most cases the products sent from the manufacturing area to essay social issues, the loading dock has been allocated for outbound deliveries. In some instances the products will not arrive at essays text, the loading.
Department store , Inventory , Logistics 1791 Words | 6 Pages. Disadvantages of surfing photo essay in-House Training. the disadvantages as well to montaigne essays text, help you be aware of sat essay questions these and montaigne, take action to reduce the impact. The Advantages and Benefits of In-House . Write 5 Paragraph Essay. Training include: * Training Cost saving – the cost per delegate is typically less when compared to sending the same number on to public training courses. * Travel Cost saving – no need for employees to travel any further than their offices and text, incur extra costs. * More specific – generally running a course for a single client allows the training to focus. Best practice , Employment , Expense 689 Words | 2 Pages. Job Enlargement, Job Rotation, Cross Training.
Human Behavior in Organizations: An Introduction My academic training didn't really prepare me for my biggest job challenge-understanding and persuasive social issues, . motivating people. a recent Northeastern Graduate INTRODUCTION For most of us, our career success will be largely a function of our skills in understanding and influencing human behavior. This is because most of what you will be doing is shaping the behavior of others. As you can see in the chart below, a typical manager spends little of his or her. Behavior , Human behavior , Learning 715 Words | 3 Pages. Jury Advantages Disadvantages And Reforms. ?Assignment brief In 1956 Lord Devlin professed that juries are ‘the lamp that shows that freedom lives’. Evaluate the accuracy of this statement with regard . to the advantages and disadvantages of montaigne essays trial by jury, the alternatives available and any reforms that have been introduced or recommended.
You are to produce an essay as follows Critically evaluate pros and cons the arguments for and against trial by jury Discuss any reforms that have been proposed or introduced and evaluate these reforms pros. Common law , Court , Judge 1657 Words | 4 Pages. Ranked as the fifth most successful non-profit organization of 2012, the American Red Cross saves the sat essay prep questions lives of people every single day all . across the essays text globe (“Top”). They provide services such as disaster relief, support for America’s military families, health and photo essay, safety training and certification, lifesaving blood, and montaigne essays, international services. Supplying over 40% of blood and the blood products in the U.S., the Red Cross plays a critical role in the nation’s healthcare system. Without their incredible. American Red Cross , Clara Barton , Employment 2221 Words | 7 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Work. With reference to academic work on groups and teams provide a review of 500 words which outlines the essay advantages and disadvantages of working in montaigne essays . a group The aim of this essay is to show how group work can be very useful with many benefits; however, it does have downfalls which can prove individual work to be more satisfying. The dictionary definition of a group is a number of persons belonging or classed together, they come about in a psychological sense because people realize they are in the same.
Allyn Bacon , Group Emotion , Modular arithmetic 750 Words | 3 Pages. Cross cultural negotiation is one of prep questions many specialized areas within the montaigne text wider field of cross cultural communications. By taking . cross cultural negotiation training , negotiators and sales personnel give themselves an advantage over competitors. There is an nz, argument that proposes that culture is inconsequential to cross cultural negotiation. Montaigne Essays. It maintains that as long as a proposal is financially attractive it will succeed. However, this is a naive way of approaching international business. Let.
Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 941 Words | 4 Pages. of ' Cross Culture' The interaction of people from essay, different backgrounds in montaigne essays text the business world. Cross culture is a vital issue . in international business, as the psychosynthesis auckland success of essays international trade depends upon the smooth interaction of employees from different cultures and regions. A growing number of companies are consequently devoting substantial resources toward training their employees to interact effectively with those of companies in other cultures in an effort to foment a positive cross -cultural. Cross-cultural communication , Culture , Economics 1139 Words | 5 Pages. Development and Training Paper For this assignment, JP Morgan Chase (JP Morgan) will revamp its training and development . Analysis Essay. program. JP Morgan is montaigne essays, a very large company, so any new training material will go through many guidelines to ensure the analysis adequate amount of montaigne text changes are done. JP Morgan will assess what the photo training needs are. Once the training needs are identified, the montaigne essays training materials can be created.
JP Morgan being the large company that it is, will most likely use an surfing photo, internal medium to train. Cross-selling , Human resource management , JPMorgan Chase 1769 Words | 5 Pages. Cross Cultural Diversity Proposal. become cross -cultural or global. Going cross -cultural for Superior Widget Corporation is the only next step to text, take since they . are a young company growing vigorously. The growth of the company is the reason why it is necessary to become a cross -cultural company. This is why the training is necessary. This training will be different than any other training that has been given. This is going to be different because becoming a cross cultural business is something different. Prep. Normal training doesn’t.
Corporation , Cross-cultural , Culture 2630 Words | 7 Pages. Training and montaigne, development CH 11 – 15 Chapter 11 * Experimental design - Comparison is made to an untrained group; assignment of people is . random. * Quasi Experimental Design - Comparison is persuasive social issues, made to montaigne essays text, an untrained group; assignment of sat essay questions people is not random. * Non-Experimental Design – Each trained person to an absolute standard. When the comparison does not involve another group of untrained people. Essays Text. * Training evaluation – A process to assess the prep value- the essays worthiness of training programs. Cost , Cost-benefit analysis , Costs 1068 Words | 5 Pages. recommendations on establishing training and development departments in businesses large and small and improving existing . training and development departments. Thesis Statement. Companies may feel that they are able to hire experienced employees through the candidate pool that is montaigne text, currently available and that having a specialized department for this purpose will be too expensive, but training and development provide benefits to the company and essay social issues, employees alike. According to Noe (2013): The goal of essays text training is for employees to. Better , Company , Development aid 1645 Words | 5 Pages. The Influences of Cross Cultural Training on the Organisation and Staffs.
The influences of cross cultural training on questions the organisation and staffs Cross -cultural efficiency is montaigne, very . fundamental in international organisations and even in domestic organizations that have suppliers, customers and partners in other countries. We need to firm understanding of it into everything we do, when working across cultures becomes our normal way of surfing photo working. Therefore, cross cultural training becomes an important part of essays text training employees because organisations want to push their performance. Anthropology , Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication 2539 Words | 8 Pages. ?Running head: THE AMERICAN RED CROSS The American Red Cross Dr. Victor Oladapo Ethics and Advocacy for HR . Nz. Professional The American Red Cross 1. Determine impact of text this event on ARC’s “benefits of business ethics” (employee commitment, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction the, and persuasive social, bottom line). Ferrell and montaigne essays, Fraedrich (2011) states that, “business ethics relates to rules, standards, and moral principles regarding what is right or wrong in essay social issues specific. American Red Cross , Business ethics , Corporate governance 1179 Words | 4 Pages. “When starting a business a cultural analysis needs to be done if the montaigne business targets a range of audience from several locations” Globalization is an . inevitable process in photo the 21st Century, and so is the cross – culturalization. The world is becoming more and more homogeneous, and distinctions between national markets are not only fading but for essays some products its disappearing. This means that marketing is now becoming a world common discipline.
However, on the other hand, the differences among. Anthropology , Culture , India 1425 Words | 5 Pages. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAME IN RAMIND COLD FORGE PVT. LTD INTRODUCTION TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT . Training is the formal and systematic modification of behaviors through learning which occurs as a results of education, instruction, development and planed experience Development is essay, any learning activity, which is montaigne essays, directed towards future ,needs rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. Assessment , Better , Evaluation 1401 Words | 5 Pages. What Are the Advantages, Disadvantages and help with writing, Structure of an International Joint Venture (Ijv) ? International joint ventures (IJVs), the second type of equity based cross -border alliance, have experienced tremendous growth . during the last two decades as well. They will continue to represent a major means of text global expansion for help a dissertation 4 weeks MNEs.
In emerging economies such as China they represent the dominating operation mode for MNEs’ market entry. According to a well-known definition by Shenkar and Zeira an montaigne essays, IJV. Culture , Expatriate , Expatriates 1112 Words | 4 Pages. Training and Development University of Phoenix HCS/341 Training and Development Training and development in . today’s health care setting is an imperative process that must be engrained within an organizational structure. The organization’s Human Resource (HR) department must ensure that every employee in the organization is correctly trained to perform the surfing essay job duties that are assigned. Essays Text. Managers must accurately measure each employee’s competencies in order to strategically plan and implement.
Bureau of Labor Statistics , Health , Health care 1282 Words | 4 Pages. Employee Training and auckland nz, Career Development Training and Development is montaigne essays, important in an organization. It helps employees develop . their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Companies depend on human resources to help them develop superior employees so that the company as well as individual employees can accomplish his or her career goals, and surfing essay, it increases employee job satisfaction. Text. Training employees increases morale and performance because employees feel confident in their. Employment , Human resource management , Management 1208 Words | 4 Pages.
Impact of Cross Culture of essay issues a International Company. CROSS CULTURAL SOLUTIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Globalisation, the text expansion of 5 paragraph essay statement intercontinental trade, technological advances and the . increase in montaigne essays text the number of companies dealing on the international stage have brought about a dramatic change in the frequency, context and means by which people from nz, different cultural backgrounds interact. Cross cultural solutions to international business demands are increasingly being viewed as a valid and necessary method in enhancing communication and. Communication , Consultant , Cross-cultural 778 Words | 3 Pages. Training Plan Proposal: First Aid and Cpr Training. In order to discover the strengths and weaknesses of first aid and CPR training in our office, a needs assessment was conducted during a . period of several months prior to the development of this training program. The needs assessment revealed that the current staff is unfamiliar with the concepts and skills needed to properly assess and administer first aid. A pre- training assessment administered by montaigne text the American Red Cross revealed that the potential trainees displayed competency in only 1 of the. American Red Cross , Artificial respiration , Cardiac arrest 1440 Words | 4 Pages.
Please find the essay statement training and development program for the issue of high AHT (Average Handling Time) iOS Tier 2 UK/IRE department in AppleCare, . Essays Text. Apple Inc. This training is psychosynthesis auckland, designed for essays text Luisa Costello’s team of 15 Advisors who are employed 16 months+, age range 35-42. Training Needs Analysis: The average AHT is 14.19 minutes instead of the target 11 minutes. Surfing. I have taken this figure from an internal tool called “Matrix” (appendix 1); this shows the essays text teams averages for stats such as AHT, sales and. App Store , Apple Inc. , Installation 2036 Words | 7 Pages. Traditional Training Methods Bus: 375 Traditional Training Methods While today’s organizations have a variety of . training methods to choose from, the traditional training methods are holding strong and true. Technological advances have changed the way training occurs in many organizations.
With the use of technology, employers have begun to charge into new frontiers in the training arena. Persuasive. A study on montaigne essays this topic still shows that “with 203 usable responses obtained. Persuasive Social. The results suggest that. Practice , Skill , Training 756 Words | 3 Pages. Calculate the firm’s 2006 financial ratios, and then fill in the preceding table. (Assume a 365-day year.) b. Analyze the firm’s current financial position . from both a cross -sectional and montaigne essays text, a time-series viewpoint. Break your analysis into evaluations of the firm’s liquidity, activity, debt, profitability, and market.
A: From a cross -sectional series I summarized this based upon my findings. The company's P/E ration is sat essay prep questions, very low, implying that consumers and investors and montaigne text, thinking that the company. Corporate finance , Debt , Equity securities 766 Words | 3 Pages. Federico Alcocer January 18, 2013 Mrs. Analysis Essay Into The Wild. Rivera 3B The Red Cross It was during 1919 in Paris after World War 1 had just finished, . when the montaigne essays text International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies was founded (IFRC). 5 Paragraph Essay. The idea of having such a symbol as a Red Cross came from Henry Dunant in 1859. It all started when Dunant witnessed a bloody battle scene in montaigne Solferino, Italy. Analysis Into The Wild. Over 40,000 men laid dead or wounded in the battlefield without any medical help. It was from there and. American Red Cross , Battle of montaigne Solferino , Geneva 902 Words | 3 Pages.
DIVERSITY TRAINING Diversity training is training intended to increase cultural awareness, knowledge and skills, . and increase the inclusion of identity groups. This ultimately is designed to essay, assist an text, organization promote a more diverse corporate culture, protect against civil rights issues, and promote better teamwork. This is accomplished through training in analysis communications to all levels of an organization, reinforcement of policies and procedures to be more inclusive, design and implementation. Employment , Inclusion , Sociology 1767 Words | 7 Pages. Strategies to Improve Cross-Cultural Relations. trategies to improve cross -cultural relations: Here we take a systematic look at approaches people can use on their own along with . training programs designed to improve cross -cultural relations. A. Develop Cultural Sensitivity B. Focus on Individuals Rather than Groups C. Respect all Workers and text, Cultures D. Value Cultural Differences E. Minimize Cultural Bloopers/embarrassments F. Participate in Cultural Training G. Foreign language training H. Diversity training A. Develop Cultural Sensitivity: . Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 883 Words | 3 Pages. Description…………………………………………………………………….…..3 3 Week Training Plan……………………………………………………………………4 Analysis of Training Principle . Specificity………………………………………………5 Analysis of Training Principle FITT……………………………………………………..6 Analysis of Training Principle Overload………………………………………………..7 Evaluation of Performance………………………………………………………………8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….…..9 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………….…..…10 1.0 Introduction In order to acquire a more advanced knowledge on training programs, throughout this term. Aerobic exercise , Exercise , Fartlek 1386 Words | 11 Pages. Training Evaluation and psychosynthesis auckland nz, the Transfer of Training.
Training Evaluation and the Transfer of Training Genoveva Gonzalez-Jaquez MAN4350 370187 September 22, 2012 Professor Willie . R. Williams ABSTRACT After companies determine through their HR departments that their employees need training to strengthen or acquire certain knowledge, attitudes and montaigne, skills inherent in surfing the successful development of a particular job, the next step would be to text, determine what type of training is better suited to the needs of the company. In addition, they should determine. Educational psychology , Employment , Evaluation 1812 Words | 6 Pages. Topic: Human Behavior and essay, Training Experiential Method, Instructional Method, Simulation Method I. Introduction Methods are the montaigne text . means or ways that we use to teach material to writing, our students. Our choice of methods depends on what we want to montaigne essays, teach (content), who we are teaching, and the level of competence expected. A training method is the process, technique or approach which a trainer uses in teaching. II.
Lecture and Discussion Human Behavior and Training Experiential Method Experiential. Computer simulation , Education , Experiential learning 1674 Words | 7 Pages. Part I Introduction On the Job Trainee (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized and photo, conducted at . the employee’s worksite. OJT will generally be the montaigne text primary method used for persuasive social broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is montaigne essays, particularly appropriate for surfing essay developing proficiency skills unique to an employee’s job, especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally owned equipment and facilities. OJT is dependent upon. Crab , Experience , Knowledge 1009 Words | 4 Pages.
?P.E. Essay – Training Principles 1. Diogo complains that his football training sessions are boring. Describe the . training principle his coach needs to think about when planning the training session. The coach doesn’t change the classes enough making the students complain that they’re boring; this is where you apply the variance/tedium concept of the SOPPRAV principle. The teacher must prepare the training sessions so that they’re varied and that they avoid mental boredom as in the brain must. Better , Boredom , Exercise 1048 Words | 3 Pages.
Cross-Cultural Management in China. | |Individual Peer Review Research Paper . Montaigne. | | Cross -cultural management in China | | . China , Chinese culture , Cross-cultural communication 1926 Words | 7 Pages.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and text, Tips. The dreaded DBQ, or “document-based question,” is an with essay question type on the AP History exams (AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History). For the DBQ essay, you will be asked to analyze some historical issue or trend with the aid of the provided sources, or documents, as evidence. The DBQ is an unfamiliar type of in-class essay for many students, but it does not need to be a source of essays dread or panic. In this guide I'll go over the DBQ's purpose and format, what the documents are and how to use them, how this type of essay is 5 paragraph thesis statement, scored, and how to prepare.
I'll tell you everything you need to rock this unique type of essay! Note: The rubric, guidelines, and skills tested for all of the History APs are identical; only the historical source material is text, different. As a veteran of the persuasive essay issues DBQ, I'm here to answer all your questions. Montaigne Essays. Why do the AP History exams even have a document-based question? What will it look like on the exam? What are these documents, anyways? Let's dive right in. This baby is too young to be diving into the DBQ!
The point of the surfing photo document-based question is not to text torment you but actually to put you in the historian’s shoes as an interpreter of historical material. Help 4 Weeks. Cool, right? The DBQ is testing your ability to: create a strong thesis and support that thesis with the text aid of the write essay statement documents provided analyze sources for characteristics such as author’s point of view, the author's purpose, the audience, and context make connections between the documents bring in outside knowledge to strengthen the argument. This may sound like a tall order, but you probably already use all these skills all the time. Suppose your friend asks for your help in deciding whether to buy a particular new brand of soccer ball. You have used the soccer ball, so you have personal knowledge about montaigne it, but he doesn’t just want your opinion—he wants evidence! (Your friend takes buying soccer balls very seriously).
So first, you collect information (your “documents”). These could include: online reviews of the soccer ball your brother’s opinion the essay price at the store the essays cost of other soccer balls ads for the soccer ball. Next, you'll analyze these documents to make a decision about whether the psychosynthesis ball is essays text, a good purchase for your friend or not. For that, you might: Assess bias (also known as the author’s point of view): Maybe the soccer ball ad isn’t the most objective measure of the ball’s quality. Maybe your brother hates soccer. Consider the author’s audience: Maybe that review of the soccer ball was written for professional soccer players, and you want to know how it is for essay into the wild, casual players! Think about the context of your friend's decision: What time of year is it? If it’s right around Christmas, maybe your friend’s mom will get it for him as a present.
What you already know about soccer is part of the context as well--you know your friend won’t want a ball that’s too bouncy, for example. Buying the montaigne text right soccer ball might have higher stakes than the AP exam. If you were going to go back and write an help writing essay for your friend about this after you've reviewed your documents, your thesis might be something like one of montaigne essays text these examples: “This soccer ball is a good purchase for social issues, my friend because it has all the elements of montaigne a good soccer ball at a great price point.” “This soccer is not a good purchase for my friend right now because even though it looks amazing, I know my friend’s birthday is in a week and his sister might buy it for him.” Then you would use the “documents” and your outside knowledge (for example, your experience with the soccer ball and your knowledge about soccer) to 4 weeks support that claim. That's a document-based question! In fact, I would assert that the DBQ is the easiest essay to score highly on in the AP History exams. Essays Text. As overwhelming as it might be now to psychosynthesis auckland nz think about all of that information getting thrown at you at once, think of it this way: Instead of essays relying primarily on your knowledge, the DBQ gives you a bunch of sources to use in write essay thesis statement, your analysis. This means you don’t have to be worried you’ll waste five minutes racking your brain trying to remember the name of that guy who did that thing.
It’s important to bring in some outside information for a top score, but the main thing you need to do is analyze . 95% of the info you really need is there. You just have to text learn how to use it. Let's move on surfing photo to test formatting so you know what to expect from text, document-based questions. What Does the DBQ Format Look Like? Each of the AP history tests has one DBQ, and it is always the first question in the test booklet for persuasive essay issues, the writing section (Part II of the exam). When you open your booklet and montaigne essays, turn to the DBQ, you will see the instructions, the prompt, and then the issues documents. You will have a 15-minute reading period, with a recommended 40 minutes of writing time. The test has two essays, and essays, you will have 90 minutes total to plan and help 4 weeks, write them.
You won't be forced to move on montaigne essays text from one essay to the other, so be sure to budget your time carefully. You are not required to essay social use the entire reading/planning period. You can begin writing whenever you wish. However, be sure you plan carefully because the montaigne writing will go much faster if you have a good outline. That covers the general format, but no doubt you want to hear more about sat essay prep questions these mysterious documents. Essays. Stay tuned! What's the Deal With These Documents?
You will receive up to seven sources. These could be primary or secondary, and sat essay prep, they could take almost any form: l etters, newspaper articles, maps, pictures, cartoons, charts, and so on. You will need to use all or all but one of the documents in your essay. You should go further in-depth on at least four of the documents. (See the rubric breakdown section below for more details). For US History, no DBQ will focus exclusively on the time period prior to 1607 or after 1980, although they may focus on a broader time period that includes one of those time periods. Don't worry, they won't be original copies. Now that we've discussed the purpose, format, and document protocol of the DBQ, we need to discuss scoring. How much is the DBQ worth on your exam? And how do those pesky AP graders even score it?
How Much Is the Document-Based Question Worth? The DBQ is 25% of text your total grade. The entire second section of exam is 50% of analysis into your grade, and there are two equally weighted essays. The rubric the graders use is freely available to you on the College Board website. Don't worry if these look like gibberish to you. I'll break it down briefly here, and go even more in-depth on my article about how to prepare for montaigne, and write a DBQ. There are four categories in this rubric: thesis, analysis of the document, using outside evidence, and synthesis.
You can score up to seven points. One point for having a clear, historically plausible thesis that is located in the introduction or conclusion. You can get another point here for having a particularly good thesis that presents a nuanced relationship between historical factors, and doing a good job supporting that thesis in your essay. One point for using 6-7 of the documents in your essay. Easy-peasy. One point for doing further analysis on analysis essay the wild four of the documents. Text. This further analysis could be on any of the following points: author’s point of view author’s purpose historical context audience. Just be sure to tie any further analysis back to the wild your main argument! One point is just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation.
You do need to write several sentences about it but the contextual information can be very general. One point is for being able to name an additional specific example relevant to your argument that is not mentioned in the documents. Don't stress if you freeze up and can't remember one on test day. This is only one point and it will not prevent you from getting a 5 on the exam. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to montaigne essays text a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is probably easiest to analysis into the wild do this in montaigne text, the conclusion of the essay. Still with me?
Just remember: the most important thing is having a strong thesis that is analysis into, supported by the information in montaigne essays text, the documents and whatever other related information you have around in your brain. If you are an auditory learner, I recommend the following video, which breaks down all the components you need to get a seven . If this seems like a lot to take in, don't worry. You don’t have to get a perfect score on the DBQ to thesis get a five on the AP. Somewhere in the 5-6 range can definitely get you there. To get a 3 on the exam (which still gives you course credit at a lot of colleges), you only need a 3 on montaigne the DBQ. 5 Paragraph Essay. (See page eight of this document.) Additionally, overall historical accuracy is important but not 100% necessary for essays, every tiny detail of the essay. Anything that is in the documents should be correct, but when you start to bring in outside sources for your DBQ essay on unionization and analysis, working conditions and you can’t remember if the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire was in 1911 or 1912, just pick one and don’t sweat it. Montaigne. If minor details are incorrect and don’t detract from the overall meaning of the essay, you won’t lose points. Now that you understand the purpose, format, and rubric for document-based questions, I'll give you some tips on how to get the score you're aiming for.
Two things will help you crush the DBQ: prepping beforehand, and hitting all the right notes on test day! Rock the DBQ like Jimi rocked the 1960s. Try out the essay practice DBQs available online at the College Board website: look here for AP US History (and here for a complete APUSH practice test), here for AP European History, and here for AP World History. Essays. You don’t necessarily have to write an entire essay every time you practice—it’s also helpful to essay read the question and texts and then create outlines with a thesis. Ask a trusted teacher or advisor to look over your practice drafts and/or outlines with the rubric and advise what you might be missing. Make sure you know general historical trends/periods so you can get that point for context. You can find more prep tips in my article on how to write a DBQ.
Read the question carefully . Text. Make sure you know what is being asked before you start trying to answer. Sat Essay. While you read the essays text documents, take notes on what they mean, who is writing, etc. Come up with your thesis before you start writing, or your essay will be a sad, directionless mess, like a boat with no rudder, lost at sea forever. If you aren’t sure of persuasive social issues your thesis yet, brainstorm in your notes — not while you are writing. Once you have a thesis, stay on topic. If you’re writing about how Smaug wrecked the Forbidden Mountain, don’t start talking about how amazing and clever Bilbo is, even if it’s true. Text. Make sure you use all the documents —doing so gets you easy points.
However, don’t simply regurgitate sources with no analysis. 5 Paragraph. If you find yourself doing a lot of “Source A says blah, and Source B says blah, and Source C says blah. ” make sure you are using the documents to make a point , and not letting the documents use you. Essays Text. A great way to analyze the documents is to analysis the wild make connections between them! Who agrees? Who disagrees? Why? Don’t forget to provide context, one outside example, and a connection to another period/area/historical theme if you can! That’s three points right there.
And there you have it! You are ready to montaigne essays text start prepping for success. Abraham Lincoln believes in you! I know I just threw a lot of information at you. So here are some key takeaway points: The document-based question is a way for persuasive essay, the AP to test your skills as a historian! Don’t panic! It doesn’t have to be overwhelming, even though you are getting tons of information thrown at you in text, a short time. The DBQ is essay, based on skills that you can learn and practice : writing a strong thesis, using given evidence to support an argument, making connections between different documents and pieces of essays text evidence, placing specific information in persuasive, a broader context, analyzing an author’s intent, bias, audience, etc. Need more study resources for AP World History ? See our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list.
Need more resources for essays, AP US History ? Try this article on the best notes to use for studying from surfing, one of our experts. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Or just looking for general information about your upcoming APs ? See here for montaigne essays text, instructions on persuasive social how to register for AP exams, complete 2016 test dates, and information on how much AP tests cost (and how to get AP financial aid). Want to text improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the analysis essay top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at essays text improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.
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