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"Erendira" by Thomas Kiely - Jump Cut
Brecht and Stanislavski notions of acting Essay. Bertolt Brecht and Constantin Stanislavski are regarded as two of the most influential practitioners of the erendira essay, twentieth century, both with strong opinions and what revealed, ideas about the function of the theatre and the actors within it. Both theories are considered useful and innocent essay, are used throughout the world as a means to achieve a good piece of theatre. Construction Productivity Thesis. The fact that both are so well respected is probably the only obvious similarity as their work is erendira, almost of complete opposites. Stanislavski was born in 1863 to a wealthy family who loved amateur theatricals.
In 1898 he met Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko and they founded the Moscow Art Theatre. Innocent. Stanislavski#8217;s work is centred on the notion that acting should be a total lifelike expression of what is being imitated. With regards to the role of the theatre, and of it audience, Stanislavski viewed theatre as a means of artistically expressing things, and that the audience#8217;s role was to #8216;look in#8217; on the action on the stage. He favoured the idea of the #8216;fourth wall#8217; which separated the erendira, audience and the actors, to re-create total realism on construction productivity the stage. He wanted the audience to feel the pain or joy of the actor, and that watching a performance would have brought out a feeling of empathy. Stanislavski believed in ensemble acting and wanted to take theatre away from the idea of having a star, to innocent essay create as near to naturalism as possible. (1) Bertolt Brecht was born in 1898, thirty-five years after Stanislavski, in Augsburg to a paper-mill managing director. His life was spent moving from country to country, fleeing from Nazi forces and other political pressures. In 1949 Brecht and Helene Weigel founded the Berliner Ensemble, which in 1990 (thirty-four years after Brechts death) was transformed into a public corporation with an enormous city subsidy and a collective management team of well-known directors. Brechts work is based on the concept that theatre is a means of political persuasion for construction productivity the masses.
He sees the theatre as a tool to manipulate the audience, and to influence their day-to-day living once that have thought about issues raised during the performance. Stanislavski was very sure of the role of his actors within the theatre. The actors are there to create a real, emotional and innocent, truthful imitation of the character they are playing, and to be so life-like that they seem to persuasive in 3rd person become their character. He said that the innocent erendira, #8220;Purpose of our art is to create the life of a human soul and render it in an artistic form#8221;. (2) Which is quite a clear illustration of the purpose or #8216;role#8217; of stanislavskian actors. Culture. Stanislavski set out essay a way of preparing for a role so that the the waters essay, actor could fulfil his role of pure imitation. He started off by asking the actor to essay explore the character.
He wanted to know what their objective was in buy a, each unit of innocent, action and what their super objective was. The super objective was the sum of all the units and their objectives. #8220;In a play the whole stream of individual minor objectives, all the imaginative thoughts, feelings and actions of an actor, should converge to carry out the super objective of the plot#8221; Once actors can find some direction or purpose (objective or super objective) then it is easier, according to Stanislavski, to immerse themselves in the character. He noted. #8220;You mustn#8217;t act #8216;in general#8217;, for the sake of action; always act with a purpose#8221; To develop on essay this idea, Stanislavski used the notion of the #8216;Magic if#8217; where an actor would ask, #8220;what would I do if that were me? How would I react if that had happened to me?#8221; and by doing this the actor would believe in what takes place on stage through the power of imagination. Innocent. Stanislavski called it #8216;unconscious creativeness through creative technique#8217;. He hoped that if an actor could really believe in their purpose, to the extent where they could feel it, they would have served their purpose of absolute reality and persuasive, truth.
All of these techniques amount to a pre-performance preparation, which Stanislavski believes help the actor carry out his role in the theatre. This is best summed up in essay, An Actor Prepares when he states, #8220;The actor creates his model in his imagination, and then, just as does the painter, he takes every feature of it and transfers it, not on to canvas but on to himself#8221;. (3) Brecht#8217;s idea of the buy a paper online, actor#8217;s role is innocent erendira, very much different from Stanislavski#8217;s. Brecht saw the actor as tool to simply represent an archetype. In 3rd Person. Brecht didn#8217;t want the audience taken in by the actor#8217;s performance, he wanted to alienate them from the essay, action so that they could judge the plays meanings rather than feel empathy with the culture of scotland, characters. He called this the Verfremdungseffekt, which translated from innocent erendira, German means the effect of erendira essay, a worldview. Up until Brechts revolutionary work, method acting was very common. Innocent Erendira Essay. Brecht quoted #8220;Nowadays the plays#8217; meaning is usually blurred by the fact that the actor plays to the audiences hearts. The figures portrayed are foisted on the audience and are falsified in the process. Contrary to present custom they ought to be presented quite coldly, classically and objectively. Construction. For they are not matter for empathy; they are there to be understood and politely added #8220;I#8217;m not writing for the scum who want to erendira essay have the cockles of their hearts warmed#8221; Brecht was not the sort of writer or director that wanted an exact portrayal from his actors of construction productivity, how he saw his characters. Nor did he expect the audience to take an exact interpretation from he actors.
He wanted the audience to draw some sort of moral from the story that would arouse their sense of reason to affect their own lives. He noted #8220;I leave the maximum freedom of innocent, interpretation. The sense of the waters revealed, my play is immanent. You have to fish it out for yourself#8221; (4) Although this sounds as if he wanted maximum concentration from innocent essay, his audience, Brecht encouraged his audience to the waters essay discuss things during a performance and to enter and leave during a performance at their will. Brechts Epic Theatre used varied means of conveying the verfremdungseffekt. He often had characters speaking in the third person or reading out stage directions. Sometimes he even used masks or makeup on the actors to draw the audience#8217;s attention away from the actor#8217;s faces. Innocent Erendira Essay. Anything that could be used to take away imitation of dissertation, actual reality was used.
Placards were used before scenes to introduce ideas or new characters. Non-naturalistic lighting was used to create effects, and erendira, usually the rig was in full view of the audience. The National Theatre#8217;s 2002 interpretation of The Good Person of Setzuan saw an old fashioned bicycle at what the waters revealed the front of the stage. At regular intervals the light would go down and innocent, the actors would abandon their scene and come into the audience to find someone to cycle on the bike to re-generate the lights (which were, you guessed it, on a low hanging visible rig). This is persuasive essay in 3rd, a typical example of how Brecht saw the role of the actor as a tool. (5) At first glance, Brecht and Stanislavski seem to be at opposite ends on innocent the acting theories scale.
For example, Stanislavski believed in the actor portraying total truth and culture of scotland dissertation, reality, whereas Brecht believed the actor should simply represent a social archetype. Stanislavski didn#8217;t see the need for props or other means of presenting information, that the actor only needs his body to express things. Brecht on the other hand thought that the actor should be concerned with presenting issues through props, lighting, placards etc, to detract from the actor#8217;s expression. Essay. However, there are some similarities between these two practitioners. For example, neither Stanislavski nor Brecht see life or art as peachy or perfect, they both respect the different sides of human nature that drive through actors, plots, plays, and real life. Stanislavski says, #8220;Nothing in life is more beautiful than nature, and it should be the object of constant observation#8230; And do not shun the darker side of nature#8230; What. is truly beautiful has nothing to fear from disfigurement. Indeed disfigurement often emphasizes and sets off beauty in higher relief#8221; (6) Similarly, Brecht was not afraid to show blatant poverty, evil or selfishness in his plays, he didn#8217;t want to put on #8216;fluffy-pink#8217; shows to abstract critique please the masses. In fact, Brecht wanted realism just as much as Stanislavski did, the key difference being that Stanislavski wanted it from his actors, and Brecht wanted it from his gritty, resolute plays. Another difference, which is small enough to be overlooked, is the fact that both Stanislavski and Brecht believed in ensemble acting and did not favour the #8216;star#8217; system.
Even so, it would seem that all of the innocent, actors were the #8216;stars#8217; in Stanislavski#8217;s work, whereas the actors in Brecht#8217;s theatre were just a means of carrying across the verfremdungseffekt, which could be seen as Brechts #8216;star#8217; in a strange in-direct way. To conclude, Brecht and Stanislavski, both highly known and respected in the world of drama, are renowned for their obvious and clear differences. One thing that they are not so renowned for being similar for is that they both take drama very seriously and see plays and online, performances not only as art but as a vital part of the human existence. Essay. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of culture, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 11 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Brecht and Stanislavski notions of acting. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Bibliographic Guide to Gabriel Garca Mrquez, 1986-1992
Is Manny Ramirez Really All That Bad? For baseball fans dismayed by innocent essay players who use steroids, human growth hormone and other banned substances, Manny Ramirez is this season’s designated pariah, while Roger Clemens has locked up that spot for the old-timers game by being linked to performance-enhancing drugs by his former trainer Brian McNamee and in abstract, Jeff Pearlman’s new book “The Rocket That Fell to Earth”). Are we right to condemn such players as unethical? There are potent arguments against the use of these substances, invoking respect for the law, esteem for baseball’s history, regard for the players’ health and innocent erendira essay, concern about poor role models for young fans. But to abstract critique, frame this problem as one of individual moral failure is erendira essay neither persuasive nor apt to abstract, yield an effective solution. Some critics assert that drugs can so alter player performance as to undermine the game itself. Assumptions about player prowess are reflected even in baseball’s physical design: the innocent, height of outfield fences, for example, was set long before hitters bulked up on steroids. The distance between the bases, 90 feet, elegantly balances human running and research online urgent, throwing ability. Erendira Essay? There would be fewer successful plays at first if a drug-fueled hitter could run 80 miles per hour: with players so swift, the base paths would have to abstract critique, be extended by, oh, let’s say half a mile, making it a tough toss from erendira third and a disappointing view for people in the stands, even from the good $50,000 seats at the new Yankee Stadium. (I may be off about the price. They could cost $100,000.)
But drugs do not and will never let players run 80 miles per hour or make them invisible or enable them to fly. (The game would be more entertaining if they did.) The boost that performance-enhancing drugs provides is significant, particularly for athletes competing at the highest levels, but limited. Even with the infiltration of banned substances, the single-season home-run record only climbed from productivity thesis Babe Ruth’s 60 in 1927 to Barry Bonds’s 73 in 2001 — not to 500. Sports evolve, and innocent, technology plays its part. In modern professional basketball, peach baskets are out and video replay is in, as is productivity thesis footwear so high-tech that James Naismith, the game’s inventor, would barely recognize those things on LeBron James’s feet as shoes. For that matter, Naismith would be astounded by the size, strength and speed of today’s players and the transformation they have wrought upon the game, changes that do not bespeak ethical failure or foretell the game’s demise. It is difficult to see a profound moral distinction between pharmaceutical science and other equally sophisticated technologies that yield even more significant improvements. In some sports, the most advanced approaches to training and diet apply biological research and computer analysis. As a consequence, Roger Bannister’s record in breaking the four-minute mile (shown here with predictable and annoying “Chariots of erendira, Fire” music) is now Hicham El Guerrouj’s 3:43 mile). Innocent? Bicycle racers train in wind tunnels, and innocent essay, bicycles themselves have gotten lighter and stronger, going from steel to innocent essay, aluminum to titanium to carbon fiber.
Many athletes wear contact lenses, and there’s nothing natural or traditional about that. More extreme still is Tiger Woods’s Lasik surgery, a deliberate and successful attempt to improve his vision to 20/15 — better than normal — a change he himself says has improved his game. If laser surgery, why not steroids? Here’s one response with ethical implications: Lasik surgery is safe; steroids present serious health risks. And while an individual player may reasonably accept that peril, he unethically imposes it on all other players: they simply cannot compete against this incredible, drug-altered specimen. In football, for instance, the number of 300-pound players increased from essay 10 in 1986 to persuasive essay in 3rd, more than 300 by 2004. Even if you regard such developments as morally dubious, the way to curtail them is not by denouncing putative failures of innocent, individual rectitude — baseball has tried that for years with unimpressive results — but to recast the issue as one of workplace safety.
Hockey shows what can be achieved by this shift. An N.H.L. player who wore a helmet was once mocked as timid. Construction Productivity? Helmet use is erendira now required and ubiquitous. Innocent Essay? This change was not achieved by Congressional bloviating about the essay, players’ ethical obligation to be role models for the kids or to stop endangering teammates by pressuring them to culture of scotland, conform to a manly bareheaded style. Instead, hockey’s authorities — owners and unions, managers, coaches and officials — established and enforced a helmet rule as a matter of employee health and erendira essay, safety. Essay? To refuse to wear one today would seem not immoral but dimwitted (perhaps the innocent, consequence of frequent blows to the head). The absence of the waters essay, a helmet is easier to detect than the presence of HGH, but the same strategy is applicable: clear rules, consistent enforcement (and requisite testing), appropriate penalties and a moratorium on consigning transgressors to eternal hellfire.
If those who govern baseball show a persistent concern for the well-being of the erendira, players and buy a paper, a respect for essay the fans’ faith in innocent, the integrity of the essay, game, they can create conditions in which right conduct can flourish, something the owners have failed to do with their a-few-immoral-apples approach. We admire athletes who work hard, even risking injury, to improve their play. It is oddly paradoxical to damn those who do just that — albeit pharmaceutically. Instead, baseball authorities must prohibit actions that are unduly dangerous, whether taking drugs or playing after a concussion, or that mar the beauty of the game (jet-packs worn by outfielders, handguns for pitchers who want to intimidate a batter), not because such things are unethical but because they are unwise. Comments are no longer being accepted. This is a classic essay – well reasoned, fair-minded, clear. It opened my mind (I have been a firm critic of players using steroids and other PEDs).
It does indeed seem that we moralize a great deal about athletes: we may not be able to do what they do but damn if we don’t know how to run our lives better and paper urgent, criticize every mistake they make. The only essay counter-argument not mentioned here about culture which I am still torn is the effect on young athletes. Surely the influence of pro athletes matters, if it leads 1 youngster to start messing up his body with drugs. I am paying a lot of money to see these baseball players, whether it is cable TV fees or stadium admission prices. Innocent Erendira? Players that use these substances are a lot better. I want to see good players, so I want the professional atheletes to innocent essay, use these substances. Who wants a team composed of puny, pencil-necked geeks? Simple truth beyond humor beyond intellectual arguemnets steriod use taints the game in three primary ways: 1) It skews records. A flyout to erendira, right becomes a homerun.
Simply put more muscle means more power. 2) It shows that players will break the law to abstract, succeed. Innocent Erendira Essay? It undermines honesty. 3) It helps players steal money. This is the one argument I have not seen picked up. Contracts are guranteed, based on performance, paid for innocent essay by the fans. If Manny hits 308, 35 and 120 he makes more than if he hit 290, 25, 98.
He has effectively stolen the money. A real fine would be negating the contract, suspending the player and subjecting them to the fine that would be given to a druggie on the street. But in a league with a players union (protecting their rights don’t you know) that will never happen. Therefore we will continue to see drug use and cheating lining the pockets of uneducated men with lot’s of erendira essay, talent hitting a ball. This is a stretch. Comparing shoes and helmets to chemically enhancing your biological makeup is ludicrous.
So when Nike’s new air pump comes out, can we finally switch from hormones to what the waters revealed essay, somatic gene therapy? Cause I’d love to be able to have my blood hold 10% more oxygen than everyone else. In Bill McKibben’s book “Enough” (2003), he cites a study in 1995 where researchers asked 200 Olympic hopefuls if they’d take a drug that would guarantee them a 5-year winning streak and then kill them. Essay? Almost half said yes. Biological performance enhancements goes beyond ruining the game… it makes us less human. Buy A Paper? We must continue to chastise those that do it. Otherwise our kids will do worse. This is a side point: Steroids may help current players skew records, but, as others have pointed out, the exclusion of African-Americans early in baseball’s history has also skewed records. This hardly makes steroid use acceptable, but perhaps it ought to have some influence when it comes to erendira essay, discussions of inclusion in construction productivity, the Hall of innocent, Fame. You seem to essay, forget that every game has a set of rules that determine the game.
You break the rules, you are NOT playing the game. Taking banned drugs is against the rules. It gives an innocent, unfair advantage to the players who break the what, rules. Personally I think it would be interesting to have both the regular Olympics and “Enhanced” Olympics (where anything, including drugs, can be done to improve performance is allowed). Erendira? Then we could see how much difference it makes. Isn’t it cheating? Is there no moral component to willfully breaking the rules of a game in abstract critique, order to innocent essay, get ahead of the competition? It is a sad state of affairs if you truly believe it is morally acceptable to cheat. New sneakers, bikes, etc are available across the whole pro field, and construction productivity, are within the rules. Innocent Erendira Essay? The use of steroids and persuasive essay in 3rd person, other such substances is outside the written rules of the game and essay, therefore not available to honest players. Steroid use is construction thesis like corking a bat or fixing a race.
Yes, there is innocent essay indeed a moral component to this, and any form of cheating. I agree with the essayist. It’s not that big of a deal. Generally speaking, MLB has changed very little because of critique, steroid use. Players are not stealing the money from fans, as one comment suggests. Fans are willingly giving their money to MLB teams. If anyone is taking our money unwillingly, it would be the owners that pay big salaries and turned the other way when steroid use was rampant. Innocent Erendira Essay? Manny himself may or may not have used steroids–we don’t really know–but this fact does not detract from the fact that he, like A-Rod, Clemens and Bonds, is what revealed essay one of the game’s best players. To put this debate in perspective–it seems to me that more Americans are upset about steroids than they are about the torture of detainees in US custody. Now that’s a true commentary on our ethical situation. It’s worth noting that the helmet rule in hockey had a grandfather clause; older players who hadn’t worn them before could choose not to wear them, but rookies had no choice.
It wasn’t a sudden conversion. I was beside myself with joy and excitement in essay, October of 1975 when the innocent erendira, Big Red Machine won the World Series. I experienced the same emotions in July of 2006 when cycling’s Floyd Landis won what was perhaps the innocent erendira, most dramatic single day of racing ever in the Tour De France, which allowed him to construction thesis, win the whole Tour. When it came out innocent, that Landis had won because he had almost 3 times the normal amount of testosterone in his body, indicating doping, I was broken hearted. He cheated. When it came out that Pete Rose had bet on baseball, I was disappointed.
He broke the rules. I still love Pete but would not cross the essay in 3rd, street to talk to Floyd. Bats, gloves, helmets, carbon fiber, and even bets are one thing. Chemical manipulation is another. There’s one way to put the Tiger Woods approach to innocent erendira essay, the test: have other golfers compete while wearing some sort of vision-enhancing goggles that will give them the same sight ability that Woods’ laser surgery supposedly gives him. RE: contracts and ‘roids, there’s no “stealing” involved. If a baseball player gets a higher salary because he’s able to erendira essay, whack the ball further on ‘roids, he’s still doing what he promises to be able to do in the contract. He’s simply lying about the source of his ability to erendira essay, do that. Persuasive Essay In 3rd? Maybe more analogous to lip-synching in the music industry. Britney doesn’t steal money (kind of), she just “lies” about the source of her ability to sing and dance at the same time.
Fans still get to essay, see Manny deliver, just as fans still get to buy a research online urgent, see Brit sing (kind of) and dance. I like how the essay, author lists the potent arguments at the beginning but then ignores them for the rest of the essay, as though they don’t really count in the first place. It’s alos intellectually sloppy. Two examples: 1) “It is difficult to see a profound moral distinction between pharmaceutical science and other equally sophisticated technologies that yield even more significant improvements.” Actually, no. It’s not difficult at all. Baseball bans, and has always banned, sophisticated technologies, like titanium bats and vaseline balls. Even astroturf, which doesn’t change the abstract, level playing field for any one player or team, has been rejected. Innocent? And he forgets the rather obvious problem with federal statutes surrounding drug laws. 2) “The absence of a helmet is what easier to detect than the presence of HGH, but the same strategy is applicable: clear rules, consistent enforcement (and requisite testing), appropriate penalties and a moratorium on erendira, consigning transgressors to eternal hellfire.”
Excuse me? Don’t we already have clear rules? There’s a damned list with all the drugs banned on it. How clearer than that can you get? And isn’t shunning a powerful negative reinforcement tool to paper urgent, punish transgressors?
It’s very simple. You cheat, you don’t get the rewards others earn by not cheating. Manny chose to erendira essay, cheat. Why he did it can be explained very simply: he hoped to gain personal rewards by getting a leg up n the competition. Every profession faces the same sorts of moral dilemmas: the banker who is abstract tempted to cook the books to make an essay, ugly balance sheet look better, the lawyer who conceals crucial evidence to gain a competitive advantage in a high profile case, the scientist who fabricates experimental data to make a name for himself and gain notoriety. We appropriately punish these individuals because they betray the ethics of their profession.
Usually, it’s one strike and you’re out in such instances. That ballplayers get 3 chances is already overly generous. Manny has nobody to blame but himself for the predicament he finds himself in. In my youth, we regarded athletes solely for buy a research urgent their performance. Sportswriters kept the erendira essay, lid on stories about betting, bennies, broads and booze. The writers’ livelihoods depended on our loving those players without reservation. And, truth be told, many of the players and writers were actually decent human beings. Today three things have changed. First, obscene amounts of money are involved. If you need evidence that huge gobs of abstract critique, money is a corrupting influence, look no further than Major League Baseball. Second, players who have been idolized since the erendira, age of eight (or less), seem to construction productivity thesis, require much more stroking and innocent erendira essay, petting for their fragile egos.
I don’t understand that dynamic, but it is what it is. Last, everyone in baseball (particularly) is revealed essay doing everything they can to destroy the game. Innocent? The goose that lays the golden egg is on everyone’s radar, as all want a piece – not soon, not later, but NOW. Those involved have either gotten a lot stupider or a lot meaner, probably both. The PED catastrophe is merely a symptom of any or all of the above. They use the drugs in order to abstract, maintain their numbers so that writers and fans will notice them so their legacy will become immortal. Except when they get caught. Barabara Tuchman said it best with the title of her wonderful history of innocent erendira essay, politics – The March of Folly.
One after another, the greats (or near-greats) of the abstract critique, game follow one another into questionable places and practices because of ego, selfishness and bad judjment. Fans put up with it because of the game, but we shouldn’t. One other thing – many sportswriters today didn’t grow up with the game, and erendira essay, they treat it as just another business, commodity or subject. So the intricacies of the game, which SHOULD monopolize the time of players and writers and everyone else, has become simply another facet of the business (make that BIG Business) of professional sports. Essay? With all these distractions, our leisure time pursuits are a lot less fun and erendira, fulfilling. We need to stop focusing on individual players and whack the team owners. Until they feel the pain they will turn a blind eye to the situation. I think a $ 500,000 fine for the first offense would grab their attention, followed by $ 1 million fines for essay in 3rd each failed drug test thereafter. Erendira Essay? The money collected could be used for erendira essay drug prevention programs in schools.
There is no place for humor with drugs when children are exposed to the situations. The arguments made by Cohen in this piece are certainly bizarre. Baseball players who take steroids are doing the same thing that hitters do when they use corked bats or pitchers to when they doctor the baseball with substances — they are trying to gain an advantage on innocent essay, their opponents by engagaging in behavior that is illegal within the sport. Players are permitted to wear glasses of undergo lasik surgery or wear impoved footwear. There is really no analogy here. Holding up hockey as a an aspirational standard for baseball is equally ludicrous.
Yes, players wear helmets (as do batters in baseball), but most refuse to wear faceguards, resulting in numerous facial injuries. Critique? The league does nothing to prevent this. And if hockey is seriously interested in “employee health and safety” why doesn’t it stop the constant fighting that occurs during games? What other major sport, other than boxing, tolerates fistfights during a game? The difference between Tiger Woods getting lasik surgery and erendira, Manny Ramirez taking PHD’s is that in the game of golf, all players are allowed to undergo such a procedure while in critique, baseball, Ramirez’s actions are prohibited. The key word here is unfair. Tiger Woods can get the best technology, the best surgeons, the best coachs and caddys because he is the best, he’s been the erendira, best and he will be the best for a long time. He has earned his money and has applied it to his game in the waters, a fair and innocent erendira, balanced manner.
Manny went to an out of network medical provider and bought PHD’s behind the back of the MLB and its fans and deliberately decieved the baseball populous. Innocent Erendira Essay? I understand not scapegoating the few that get caught–after all, there is innocent a larger baseball-culture issue here–and I agree with the healthy employee approach, but the essay, parralel between carbon fiber bikes and PHDs is completely absurd. The article glosses over the Golden Rule. Giving oneself an advantage through the wonders of medicine puts all other players at a disadvantage. This was never more apparent than when the Barry Bonds Circus was in town. We witnessed an already HOF-bound player past his “power prime” gain 70 pounds of muscle in a seriously abbreviated period of time and hit 27 more HR’s than his personal best.
If you haven’t seen the pictures of Bonds pre-juice, Google it – the transformation is astounding. The upper hand in athletics – and life – is only honorable when accomplished within the confines of the rules. We’ve seen bankers vilified for raking in the long green under dubious circumstances – and I’m talkin’ the essay, Madoff end of the spectrum – so why can’t the mob gather with torches and set fire to all the miscreants who’ve jobbed the system and culture, broken the rules? While the leadership of baseball is far too greedy to suspend/ban all juicers – and frankly, there wouldn’t be too many players left – the folks in YOUR industry should unite and ensure none of them ever step foot in erendira, Cooperstown. “It is difficult to see a profound moral distinction between pharmaceutical science and other equally sophisticated technologies that yield even more significant improvements.” Wow. What insight. Thesis? New basketball shoes are pretty much the same thing as performance enchancing drugs.
Of course, the innocent erendira essay, new basketball shoes don’t twist your body’s systems into knots, or cause early death….. You also miss another point about buy a Manny: he malingered in Boston, in innocent essay, order to construction thesis, get a new contract. His lack of character in innocent erendira essay, one area is now known to be demonstrated in another area. With all due respect, Mr. Cohen, you should stick to humor. On your attempt at a serious discussion, you are O for construction productivity 4.
Clearly, the author has never competed against doped athletes. neither have several of the people posting. when and athlete dopes, they substitute drugs for discipline and dedication. They take the short cut to “greatness” but are nothing more than cheaters. As a competitive cyclist I can appreciate the talent and dedication it takes to be as good as many of the riders are. I’ve competed against doped athletes and can tell you that seeing someone use drugs because they can’t compete any other way undermines your love for erendira essay the sport. Now, every time I see an outstanding performance I wonder if it was real or doped. A doped performance is culture no better than a staged movie scene: it’s just not real. By accepting this type of behavior randy cohen undermines every person who has ever tried to essay, play fair, every person who has competed clean, every person who wants to erendira essay, be an innocent erendira essay, athlete but does not want to damage their body and health with drugs. How can you call yourself and ethicist? Brendan says it well.
Of course records of the past are broken by new training methods, new tracks and venues, and equipment of the future. Of Scotland Dissertation? What has not changed is the even playing field on which the events are held, and the examplary goal of honest competition. Cheating with steroids ruins all that. It is time that we make this clear to athletes and, by example, to our children. This is more than a stretch, it’s ludicrous. Your arguments would be far better for getting rules enacted (such as the transition to helmets). But the rules are in place. The substances are and were banned. If breaking the consensus about how to play isn’t an ethical failure, what is?
And you gloss over a big ethical point. Erendira Essay? Users of essay, steroids not only cheat the game, but they cheat other players (taking their jobs and innocent erendira essay, pay) and pressure the other players to of scotland dissertation, risk their health and off-field lives to compete. Cheaters have always gotten beaten up, thrown out, or strung up, for good reason. This article is a great example of cultural decline. We should just have robots out there playing. Ther are some things we want to keep the same. It is the innocent erendira essay, link to culture, are history. Baseball is best played and appreciated when its done naturally the way we did it in innocent essay, little league.
The new baseball? Randy Cohen Baseball. Give me Willie Mays, Roberto Clemente, Brooks Robinson. Al Kaline, Catfish Hunter etc. Randy keep your Manny and his kind because you represent DECLINE. A player can shoot heroin into his eyeballs – it doesn’t matter. The owners know where their bread is buttered, and so do the fans. Buy A Paper? There will be boos when Manny comes back.
Wait, however, until he starts hitting home runs. Let’s see how long the boos last. I agree with essentially all of Cohen’s arguments. Innocent Erendira Essay? I have some issues with the comments: 1. The “won’t someone think of the children” argument annoys me to no end. Parents do at least in theory have a role in construction productivity, their childrens’ lives, no? Why not exercise that influence and actually do some parenting? 2. All kinds of things skew records. It is innocent erendira essay widely believed that baseball introduced a new ball in culture of scotland dissertation, the 1990s.
The pitching mound was lowered after the ludicrous pitching-heavy 1968 season. The number of innocent essay, games has changed. Black players can now play. Persuasive In 3rd? Baseball records are fun, but maybe it’s time to desacralize them. 3. The stealing argument is worth exploring. I don’t know that I really have a response to erendira, it, though I guess I don’t have a ton of sympathy for billionaire owners. Call me a socialist. 4. Honesty I don’t particularly care about in this context. 5. As for the argument that steroids, or gene therapy, make us less human, that’s a slippery slope. Does a replacement knee make my grandfather less human?
Would gene enhancement to cure sickle-cell anemia make a person less human? What about to of scotland, remove a gene that raises the risk of fatal breast cancer? The implications of new medical technologies are far-ranging, and I’m hesitant to risk dehumanizing or demonizing those who seek a healthier or more fulfilling life. The logic employed in this article is innocent erendira essay flawed: regardless of what professional athletes admit, or what their attorneys allow them to admit, they are well aware of the potential adverse health impacts to construction, the use of erendira essay, pharmaceutical drugs in their attempt to play better. To think otherwise is simply ridiculous. These people are adults with not only the same access to the internet as the rest of us, but also a bevy of doctors, trainers, and support staff all interested in their performance. It is simply incomprehensible to me that anyone can claim they “do not know what they put in their bodies.” Given that these athletes must be presumed to buy a research paper urgent, know what they are consuming, changing the argument for innocent essay why the league seeks to crack down on steroid use is no better than demonizing individuals. Culture Dissertation? It is, in erendira, fact, worse.
This is because athletes already ignore the known health impacts of steroid use. However, if they see their fellow players demonized (i.e. Research Online Urgent? losing the esteem of their fans who make them superstars), there is a better chance they will choose not to use, or stop using, steroid. This article is more of the same blather that has occurred by sports-interested folks for years and I am absolutely sick of essay, it. Of Scotland? Admit it, there are cheaters in the league, and it detracts from the “beauty of the innocent erendira essay, sport” (assuming there is any beauty in such a slow boring game). It is my humble opinion that the critique, writer of this article has a harder time dealing with the fact that his or her heros are cheaters than the outward perception of the innocent erendira, sport as a whole. The sad fact is that cheating is rampant in buy a research, most sports. Cyclists have cheated, by means including the use of steroids, for generations. Countless olympic athletes in a variety of sports have been caught using steroids. It has not stopped anything as the erendira essay, use continues.
The difference with American baseball is that we continue to try to mute the issue by ignoring it, as we previously did, or attempting to abstract, change the topic of erendira, conversation, as this article suggests. Muting the issue will do nothing, and will likely make the drug use worse. Accept the innocent, fact that many baseball players cheat, cheating is never pretty, and then place the onus on the players who are caught cheating. Innocent? After all, they are the ones getting paid millions of of scotland, dollars. They are the innocent erendira, ones who must take responsibility for their lack of regard for their persons, their sport, and their fans. Randy Cohen has written humor articles, essays and stories for numerous newspapers and magazines.
His first television work was writing for Late Night With David Letterman, for which he won three Emmy Awards. His fourth Emmy was for his work on TV Nation. He received a fifth Emmy as a result of productivity, a clerical error, and he kept it. For two years, he wrote and edited News Quiz for Slate, the innocent, online magazine. Productivity Thesis? Currently he writes The Ethicist for The New York Times Magazine.
Each week, in Moral of the Story, he will examine a news story from an ethical perspective. (Photo by Philip Maier) Free Speech and the Former Domestic Terrorist. How do we define the outer limits of what should be acceptable as public speech?Readmore… Returning to erendira essay, the Greco-Roman tradition of oiled nude athletes was one solution that several readers suggested.Readmore… Isn’t opening able-bodied competitions to of scotland, disabled athletes like the essay, double-amputee Oscar Pistorius, fitted out innocent, with futuristic J-shaped blade extensions, just political correctness run amok? Readmore…
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Erendira wl201 - Karen Ahiaba WL201 Charles Pace 9th November
Alzheimer’s New Jersey’s Essay Contest is Officially Closed! Winners will be announced in early May. Alzheimer’s disease impacts over 500,000 people in New Jersey including individuals who have the disease and family caregivers for innocent erendira essay those with Alzheimer’s and critique, other dementias. Alzheimer’s New Jersey ® has partnered with the New Jersey Education Association (NJEA) to recognize students who are making a difference in essay the New Jersey fight against Alzheimer’s disease. Perhaps you know students that are helping to care for culture of scotland dissertation a grandparent or other loved one, or who have organized or participated in essay an event to raise funds and awareness about Alzheimer’s? Maybe they are educating their friends and neighbors about the effect of Alzheimer’s on their family, communities and innocent erendira essay, our state?
Teachers are encouraged to have students share their story through the power of the written word. The first place winner will receive an erendira essay education scholarship in the amount of persuasive in 3rd, $500 and the runner up will receive a $100 education scholarship. Essays should be no longer than 500 words. The essay should describe what the student has done, why they did it, what it meant to them and innocent erendira essay, the impact it has had on others or their community. Essays must be typed and double-spaced. The student must include his/her name, age, grade level, address, email address, phone number, parent/guardian’s name, school name, and construction thesis, school district.
If the erendira, essay is abstract critique, a school project, the student should also include the name of the teacher who assigned the activity. Nominations must be postmarked by innocent erendira March 31, 2017, to be eligible. Send entries to essay person, Alzheimer’s New Jersey, NJEA, 180 West State Street, PO Box 1211, Trenton, NJ 08607-1211, Attn: Dawn Hiltner or email firstname.lastname@example.org with ALZ NJ Essay Contest in the subject line. All written submissions will become property of Alzheimer’s New Jersey to be used as desired (on the Alzheimer’s New Jersey website, social media, used for publicity, etc.). Entries are open to essay, New Jersey public middle and high school students (grades 6 through 12). Entries will be judged by person a panel comprised of Alzheimer’s New Jersey representatives. Winners will be notified by mid-April. Alzheimer's New Jersey.
When you register for our events, we ask you for revealed essay your first name, last name, e-mail address, company name and title, home address, work phone, home phone, cell phone, credit card information and essay, billing name and critique, address. How do we use the personally identifying information that we collect on the ANJ Site? We use the personally identifying information that is provided on erendira your event RSVP form as follows: We upload that information into our database, which is hosted by a third-party database service provider. Through our outside database service provider, ANJ may use your e-mail address to send you a variety of essay, e-mail communications such as (i) notices about ANJ local events and programs, (ii) newsletters from ANJ, (iii) solicitations to support an innocent ANJ position on an issue, and culture of scotland, (iv) solicitations to donate money to ANJ. ANJ may provide your name and mailing address to one of the direct mail service providers that prints and innocent essay, distributes print mailings on critique ANJ’s behalf. If you give a gift online: Your personally identifying information will be uploaded into our donor database, which we maintain at ANJ’s office and which is hosted by erendira our outside database service provider. If you provide your e-mail address in connection with your gift, your e-mail address will be added to essay, our database. Through our outside database service provider, ANJ may use your e-mail address to send you a variety of e-mail communications such as (i) notices about erendira essay, ANJ local events and programs, (ii) newsletters from ANJ, (iii) solicitations to research online, support an innocent erendira ANJ position on an issue, and (iv) solicitations to donate money to research online, ANJ. If you ask to innocent erendira, receive e-mail updates: Through our outside database service provider, ANJ may use your e-mail address to send you a variety of e-mail communications such as (i) notices about ANJ events and programs, (ii) newsletters from in 3rd person, ANJ, (iii) solicitations to support an ANJ position on innocent essay an issue, and (iv) solicitations to donate money to revealed essay, ANJ. If you register for innocent our events: Our website stores the revealed, information you provide on the registration form and makes it available to innocent erendira, us.
We use it to confirm your registration and to send you e-mails through that provider about the productivity, conference for innocent essay which you registered. Research Online? Every e-mail will offer you the erendira essay, chance to opt out from future e-mails. Buy A Paper? In addition, if you are not in innocent erendira essay our database, we will store your name, mailing address, e-mail address and construction thesis, phone number in erendira essay our database. With whom do we share the personally identifying information that we collect on the ANJ Site? We share the personally identifying information that we collect when you register as a member or give a gift online with our outside database service provider and of scotland dissertation, our outside credit-card processor. We share the personally identifying information that we collect when you register for our events with our conference registration service provider and, if you have opted in, with our database service provider. If ANJ is required to disclose your personally identifying information by any applicable law, court order, or government regulation, that company will comply with such law, court order, or regulation. What other kinds of innocent erendira essay, identifying information, such as IP addresses, is collected when you use the what, ANJ Site? The ANJ Site automatically collects aggregated information, demographic information and any other information that does not reveal your specific identity but that relates to your use of the ANJ Site. This kind of information is “passively” collected from you through browser navigational tools, such as cookies and innocent erendira essay, pixel tags. These types of erendira, technologies enable the ANJ Site to compile statistics about our daily number of site visitors or specific page requests, while not identifying you personally, other than by your IP address, which is the erendira, Internet Protocol address of the computer that you use to access the Site.
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Bibliographic Guide to Gabriel Garca Mrquez, 1986-1992
cixous essay By Verena Andermatt Conley* Hélène Cixous was born on June 5, 1937, in Oran, Algeria. In the colonial environment where she grew up, Cixous was in the minority. Her father, a doctor of French-colonial but Jewish origin, died when she was still a little girl. This event marked all of her writing. Her mother, Eve, now living in Paris, was of innocent erendira essay Austro-German origin, and German, rather than French, is Cixous's native tongue.
Cixous continues to insist that for what essay, her, German is a richer, more guttural language than the erendira essay, more abstract idiom of what the waters revealed French. Members of her family were Sephardic Jews, and she lived through the persecutions of erendira World War II. Subsequently, Cixous never lost her desire to fight the encroachment of power in all of abstract critique its forms upon the human body and the human mind. She felt the need to break out of the world in which she was born and look for other worlds or realities less marked by the horrors of the political events of her childhood. She found these worlds in innocent erendira fiction. Sensitive to power at institutional levels--familial, academic, political--she has striven to find out where, historically, such repression occurs and how exclusions are articulated. Essay In 3rd Person! In addition to reading myths and erendira the German romantics, such as Heinrich von Kleist, Cixous began to study English literature, especially Shakespeare, whose passionate and diverse writings held much attraction.
Antony and Cleopatra and The Tempest , with their scenes of transformations between man and woman, father and daughter, marked her. Cixous went to study in France and began her career as an academic. In 1959, at the age of twenty-two, she passed the productivity, prestigious agrégation in innocent essay English. She married and had two children, a daughter and a son, born in 1959 and 1962. In 1962 she became assistante at abstract the Université de Bordeaux. In 1965 she and her husband were divorced and Cixous moved from Bordeaux to Paris.
She was maître assistante at essay the Sorbonne from 1965 to 1967 and was appointed maître de conférences at Nanterre in 1967. Also in 1967 she published her first text, Le Prénom de Dieu (God's First Name). In 1968 she became docteur ès lettres . Culture Of Scotland! She was appointed chargé de mission to found the experimental Université de Paris VIII-Vincennes, now at Saint Denis, in the aftermath of the student riots of May 1968. An alternative to the traditional and, in the view of many, repressive French academic environment, Paris VIII was to erendira essay be a center of learning where power structures and hierarchies would be kept to a minimum. The new university soon distinguished itself through the exceptionally high quality of its faculty. Since 1968 Cixous has been professor of English literature at dissertation Paris VIII. Essay! There, in 1974, she founded the Centre de Recherches en Etudes Féminines, which she is still chairing. In 1969, Cixous founded with Tzvetan Todorov and Gérard Genette the experimental review Poétique , which soon became a forum for new ways of reading texts on both sides of the Atlantic.
As a university professor, Cixous published her thesis, L'Exil de James Joyce ou 1' art du remplacement (1968; translated as The Exile of James Joyce , 1972). Also in 1969, Cixous published her novel Dedans (Inside, 1986), for buy a online, which she was awarded the prestigious Prix Médicis. Since then she has published close to innocent fifty novels and construction thesis plays and some more theoretical essays like La Jeune Née (1975; translated as The Newly Born Woman , 1986), the best known of Cixous's texts to erendira essay date in persuasive essay in 3rd the United States. Cixous continues to be the champion of freedom in her writings. The causes she espouses vary. From a need for personal liberation through a reading of psychoanalysis, she moves on to more collective struggles, the woman's cause, an interest in the Third World (expressed in her interest in Clarice Lispector and Nelson Mandela and in her plays on Cambodia or India), the German and Russian death camps (through Paul Celan, Ossip Mandelstam, Marina Tsvetayeva, Anna Akhmatova). Her involvement in these causes is paralleled by essay other textual and personal encounters: the philosophical texts of Jacques Derrida help her develop her own textual readings; her encounters with Antoinette Fouque, one of the most prominent figures in paper urgent the women's movement in France, a psychoanalyst and founder of the French publishing house Des Femmes, who, for political reasons, never wrote a work of her own; Ariane Mnouchkine, the director of the experimental Théâtre du Soleil with whom Cixous has been collaborating for the past decade. Cixous conceives of her life as a constant search for innocent, new ways of emancipating the buy a research paper online urgent, self and others, along with an ongoing discovery of the mystery of life.
The themes of her work are therefore intricately linked to innocent her meditations and of scotland dissertation cannot simply be abstracted. What sets Cixous apart from many of her contemporaries is her insistence on, and celebration of, life rather than death. Cixous's work does not deal with themes in innocent any standard sense of the term. Theme, for her always between quotation marks, deals with ways of inscribing life or death and with articulating the two. Her privileging of life is accompanied by a growing insistence on the fictional and the poetic. The poetic for her, though distinct from the fictional or from theater is not limited to verse. It deals with deliverance from social stigmas through a freeing of language, through invention of new ways of speaking and writing, as well as other ways of seeing, hearing, touching, and tasting. It is always her relationship with the other, with otherness, that allows for abstract, an opening. A transformation of the dynamics of self and other constitutes the political dimension underlying all of her writing. That transformation follows a general shift, in innocent erendira her words, from the scene of the unconscious to that of history, or from the construction productivity, autobiographical write yourself! to theater dealing with history. This shift in Cixous's work is similar to that taking place on the French intellectual scene over the last twenty years or so.
Cixous's trajectory, a combination of a fight for life and a meditation on writing, leads her through various causes: the freeing of the self under the impact of psychoanalysis, the freeing of innocent women, legal injustice in France around the trial of the Jewish immigrant Pierre Goldman, the cause of the Third World, the exposure of torture in the death camps. As a young professor of English, Hélène Cixous published articles on English literature in Tel Quel and wrote her thesis on James Joyce. Cixous never hid her ambivalence toward Joyce. On the one hand, she was interested in his techniques, his belief that transformations of linguistic structures would alter mental structures, and buy a research his awareness of ideological and political manipulations through language. On the other, she always marked her distance from innocent erendira, a writing caught up in guilt and essay in 3rd person the anguish of innocent erendira essay paradox. Online Urgent! Though Joyce influenced her work through his insistence on the necessity to create new languages, on musicalizing literature and joining body and erendira spirit, she criticized him for his creative paradox: for Joyce, one must lose in order to have. In other words, one must kill in order to essay live, and the movement to life starts with a killing of the other, with death and with guilt. This concept differs significantly from Cixous's recognition that even though loss and death are inevitable and indeed necessary for life, the emphasis must be on life. Cixous's first fictional texts, Dedans (1969), and especially her trilogy, Le Troisième Corps , Les Commencements , and Neutre (The Third Body, Beginnings, and Neuter), published from 1970 to 1972, mark a period of great hope.
In the essay, aftermath of culture dissertation May 1968, everything seemed possible. Writing under the sign of Marx and Freud or of political and libidinal economies, Cixous questions power structures and advocates a freeing of self and -- or through -- writing. Innocent Erendira! Written at a time when the euphoria of new discoveries outweighed theoretical divergences, these texts combine many incompatible theories. The freeing of the subject and the undoing of repression go along with a reevaluation of what has been repressed: body, woman, writing. Dialogue among different voices, and, in the form of intertextual references, with other writings, replaces the monologue of authorial control to keep the construction, text open.
In Le Troisième Corps , for example, the innocent, voice of the lover echoes that of other fictional lovers, especially those of Kleist's Jeronimo and the count F. from Das Erdbeben in Chili (The Earthquake in Chile) and Die Marquise von O (The Marquise of O), respectively. Freud's rewriting of Wilhelm Jensen's Gradiva , a love story dealing with fetishism, entombment, entrapment, and life and death in the archeological setting of Pompeii, examining passion in its relation to life and death, also haunts Cixous's text. Cixous's political and ideological commitments made her take a stand in the 1970s on a trial that polarized the French, that of Pierre Goldman, accused, without sufficient evidence, of murder. Cixous, like Foucault and online urgent others, wrote in his defense. Un K. incompréhensible: Pierre Goldman (An Incomprehensible Kase: Pierre Goldman, 1975), the letter K playing on echoes from Kafka's Der Prozess (The Trial) and essay Vor dem Gesetz (Before the erendira, Law), is a violent outcry against prejudice in the French legal system. Her stance against repression and social injustice, which she sees as one with the death drive, led Cixous to espouse the cause of women. In her theoretical Prénoms de personne (Nobody's Name, 1974), a collection of essays on Freud, Hoffmann, Kleist, Poe, and Joyce, she deals with the association of the unified (phallic) subject, narcissism and death. She denounces in her readings of Poe and Joyce the attempt to put woman on the side of innocent death. She shows how these writers' dialectical structures enclose women in a limited economy and an exchange dominated by a desire for death. To this, she opposes a general economy, a term that Georges Bataille, the innocent essay, contemporary French writer and philosopher, popularized via his works on anthropology and psychoanalysis. Cixous proposes an economy of the gift, related to spending and loss.
Because for Cixous and other contemporary theoreticians the subject exists only in a differential relationship with other subjects, the insistence is on modes of exchange. Exchange, thought of in terms of giving and receiving, plays a crucial role in the woman question. How does one give, how does one receive? What, in erendira such an exchange, is the relationship to alterity and the other? How does exchange affect language and writing? Like many contemporary writers and essay person thinkers, Cixous believes that there is no possible social change -- one with new ways of exchanging -- without linguistic change.
Emphasis on new ways of innocent erendira essay exchanging and an affirmation of life function as the most important concerns of La Jeune Née (1975), by Cixous and Catherine Clément. The title La Jeune Née plays on Là-je-nais , there I am being born, and construction productivity thesis La Genet , a reference to the writer Jean Genet, whose poetic writings insist on the general equality of all human beings. In La Jeune Née , Cixous insists on the necessity of displacing the desire for recognition, always based on sexual war, which ends, symbolically, with the succumbing of innocent essay one of the partners. To this, she opposes a desire for alterity, by which, through a journeying toward the other, through a process of identification without fusion, the self goes as far as possible toward the other, lets herself be altered by the other, yet does not become the other. This desire keeps the other alive. To bring about change, Cixous urges women to break their silence, to write themselves. They must write their bodies, their desires, which heretofore have only been talked about by abstract critique men. Freud's Dora is a central concern in La Jeune Née . Dora's no, which terminates prematurely and on her own volition her sessions with Freud, leaves the latter despondent and defensive. Dora's no stops momentarily the familial merry-go-round of lies and adultery. It also strips Freud of his authority. Innocent Erendira Essay! Yet, and this is clear, Dora's no represents only a strategic moment in a historical configuration, a moment which must be exceeded.
Dora is a major preoccupation in Portrait du soleil (Portrait of the in 3rd person, Sun, 1974) and in a play, Portrait de Dora , performed at the Théâtre d'Orsay in 1975, published in 1976, and innocent essay translated in persuasive person 1977. It puts Freud on stage to erendira essay show the analyst's own projections in his treatment of Dora and his writings on her. Feminine pleasure, which has been denied to women and confiscated by online urgent men, is a preoccupation of such texts as La Missexualité, où jouis-je? (The Missexual, Where Am I Having Pleasure?), published in Poétique in innocent essay 1976, and La Venue à l'écriture (Her Arrival in Writing, 1977; translated 1990), written in what essay collaboration with Annie Leclerc and Madeleine Gagnon. In the latter, playing on innocent erendira, la venue , she who has come, and l'avenue , the path, Cixous traces the origin of women's writing to the mother's voice and body. In Souffles (Breath, 1975) --the title evokes breath, inspiration, rhythm--Cixous proposes to innocent erendira essay analyze the innocent erendira essay, origin of writing in terms of a mother/daughter relationship. Men have made women into hysterics; they have vitiated the relationships between women, especially between mother and daughter. Cixous insists on the origin of writing as song, as something that comes from the body. Souffles insists on innocent erendira, the necessity of innocent rewriting mythology, the Bible, and of scotland dissertation literary history from a feminine point of view.
Cixous's personal difficulties contributed to the 1977 text Angst , which deals with the innocent, breakdown of abstract a love relationship. Innocent Essay! The pain and anguish are not expressed in existential, representational terms, but in abstract critique a metaphoric exchange of letters. Innocent Essay! The text, as always one of transformation, led Cixous to another phase in her consideration of women's issues. For the next few years Cixous espoused the abstract, cause of innocent erendira essay women in a more militant language, and her work appeared almost exclusively under the imprint of the publishing house Des Femmes, where Cixous enjoyed a close association with Antoinette Fouque, founder of a controversial but influential political group within the women's movement called Politique et Psychanalyse (Psych et po). She explained her decision to of scotland espouse the woman's cause in more militant fashion in an interview (published in Verena Andermatt Conley, Hélène Cixous: Writing the Feminine , 1984 and 1990) as reflecting her having attained an intellectual limit which, she felt, had to be surpassed. Consequently she developed a more marked interest in relationships among women, because, as she says, any liberation of erendira women has to come from women, though men are never completely absent in innocent erendira her writing. Cixous's work from this period intersects with both Derrida's essay on Kant, Economimesis, in Mimesis désarticulation (1975) and Jean-François Lyotard's Economie libidinale (1974). The attributes masculine and erendira feminine will eventually be replaced by other descriptive terms which make no reference to sexual difference, she believes. In this time of transition, Cixous clearly privileges women, capable, in her terms, of giving. She redefines the maternal.
The daughter is always in tune with the mother. The woman gives because she nourishes the child. Buy A Paper Online! Because she is innocent erendira, able to contain the child, the mother is both container and of scotland dissertation contained; her relationship to otherness is different from that of men, to whom things happen from the outside. In her works from the late l970s and innocent early 1980s, influenced by her reading of Heidegger on poetry and language, Cixous asks and works through questions of abstract critique knowledge, innocence, the law, life, and death in Préparatifs de noces au-dela de l'abîme (Wedding Preparations Beyond the Abyss, 1978), Anankè (1979), Illa (1980), With ou l'art de l'innocence (With or the Art of innocent erendira Innocence, 1981), and Limonade tout était si infini (Lemonade All Was So Infinite, 1982). Abstract Critique! Her militancy has taken a different turn. Less concerned with flight, flow, and abundance, she now meditates on the sublime and develops the notion of the infinitely small. In the 1970s Cixous also discovered the Brazilian author Clarice Lispector. Innocent Erendira Essay! Meditating on the relationship between life and writing, Lispector put emphasis on the flowing quality of the essay, word and on the origin of--or, as Cixous says, the arrival in--language and writing. In a sense, she had already put into practice what Cixous had been seeking. Cixous's article in Poétique , L'Approche de Clarice Lispector, appeared in 1979, the same year as the bilingual text Vivre l'orange/To Live the Orange , which insists on erendira essay, sweet nourishing juices and on the necessity of keeping the other alive.
In this work, the orange is closely related to the child and birth, to abstract life, as well as to that other paradisiacal fruit, the apple, read simultaneously in English and French as fruit and essay calling, as apple and appel . Orange, as noun and what revealed adjective, as fruit and color, functions as a locus of correspondences of erendira essay sight, touch, smell, taste, affecting reading and writing. A break with Antoinette Fouque in the early 1980s prompted Cixous to leave Des Femmes temporarily. Thesis! Her relationship with the publishing house had been increasingly strained. Cixous claims that she resented the erendira, limits a certain militancy imposed on her freedom. Another text, Le Livre de Promethea ( The Book of Promethea or Promethea's Book , 1983; translated 1990), written after her encounter with Ariane Mnouchkine, the director of the experimental Théâtre du Soleil, marks a turn. The book is a celebration of their encounter and a feminine rewriting of the Promethean myth, which, along with the productivity, myths of Orpheus and Ulysses, has figured prominently in literature. Le Livre de Promethea marks the culmination of a search for innocent essay, a positive passion, for a positive love and a language that touches lightly, intermittently, without seizing or appropriating, but infusing with life. The Promethean myth, from its epic dimensions of freeing the world and mankind, is transposed to quotidian passion, to detail, to a market scene, to fruits and flowers. Cixous's encounter with Mnouchkine proved decisive. Mnouchkine was known for her innovative productions of innocent erendira Shakespeare, linking the Elizabethan stage with Far Eastern techniques.
The collaboration also marks in innocent erendira essay Cixous's production a shift toward what she calls the scene of history. With Mnouchkine, Cixous traveled to person Cambodia to study a group of people that had been disinherited by their neighbors. Cixous's and Mnouchkine's play L'histoire terrible mais inachevée de Norodom Sihanouk roi du Cambodge (The Terrible but Unfinished Story of Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia), performed in 1984, is the story of a people that had lived in happiness and erendira who paid for their innocence with their lives. Always haunted by the notion of paradise, Cixous found in Cambodia the remnants of a people who had lived according to these ethics. Such an overtly political play is a continuation of innocent erendira Cixous's fight against all forms of innocent essay bodily and spiritual repression. Abstract! The play is essay, infused with a contemporary reading of the concept of freedom which, for culture of scotland, Cixous, is linked to poetry and writing. L'Indiade ou l'lnde de leurs rêves (The Indiad or India of Their Dreams), a play produced in 1986, deals with problems of erendira essay colonialism, the culture, liberation of India, and nonviolence.
Today, Cixous's major impact may be said to be on the stage, and a new play, Akhmatova (1990), about the Russian poetess Anna Akhmatova, who was caught in the Revolution, develops further in the direction of theater. A script written for a televised film directed by Mnouchkine, La Nuit miraculeuse (The Miraculous Night, 1989), about the heritage of 1789, adds a new twist, that is, an opening to the world of cinema and television. Cixous's historical and political contributions, possibly under the influence of Ariane Mnouchkine, are now her most compelling. Innocent Erendira Essay! Yet, she herself is more at ease in, and derives more pleasure from, the writing of fiction. La Bataille d'Arcachon (The Battle of Arcachon, 1987) extends her experiments with new ways of writing about love, of linking absence and presence, self and erendira essay other. She also produced Entre l'écriture (Between Writing, or Enter Writing, 1986), a collection of innocent new and previously published meditations on construction thesis, writing and painting. She has also focused on the relationship between writing and history in her lyrical account Manne (Manna, 1988), a tribute to Ossip Mandelstam, the innocent, Jewish Russian poet who died under the Stalinist regime, and the poet and fighter against what the waters, apartheid, Nelson Mandela. A recently published work, Jours de l'an (Days of the Year, 1990), returns to a meditation on authorship, on the relation between author and writing, something dear to Cixous but that seems less pressing today than other more political issues raised in her plays. SURVEY OF CRITICISM. In French, Claudine Fisher's La Cosmogonie d'Hélène Cixous is a painstaking and possibly the most complete explication to erendira essay date of many of Cixous's writings. Another volume entirely devoted to Cixous consists of the proceedings of a conference organized in her name at innocent erendira essay the Utrecht Summer School of Critical Theory, entitled Hélène Cixous, chemins d'une écriture . Articles have appeared in many reviews, such as Critique and Poétique . Among the best is Lucette Finas's Le Pourpre du neutre, reprinted in her Le Bruit d'Iris . Christiane Makward, in Structures du silence ou délire: Marguerite Duras, Hélène Cixous, performs a Lacanian reading in an analysis of the innocent erendira, two women writers.
It appears that it is in Great Britain and in the United States that Cixous's work has attracted the most critical attention, especially around issues of feminism. In Great Britain, the chapter in Toril Moi's Sexual/Textual Politics entitled Cixous: An Imaginary Utopia tries to what the waters take Cixous to task for being essentialist and for not tying her writing to a precise political and social context. A recent article by Morag Sihach, Their 'Symbolic' exists, it holds power--we, the sowers of disorder, know it only too well, in Between Feminism and Psychoanalysis , rehabilitates Cixous. Innocent! Though Sihach mainly concentrates on La Jeune Née , she extends her article to Cixous's more recent plays. Writing Differences , edited by Susan Sellers, consists of articles by Cixous and culture her students. It illustrates how students can read in Cixous's way.
The proceedings of a British conference organized around Hélène Cixous in Liverpool in erendira essay 1989 have been published under the title The Body and the Text: Hélène Cixous Reading and Teaching (1990). The volume includes many sympathetic articles on and around Cixous. In the United States, chapters have appeared in works such as Jane Gallop's The Daughter's Seduction ; Dina Sherzer's Postmodernist Feminist Fiction, in her Representation in Contemporary French Fiction ; and Domna C. Stanton's, Language and Revolution: The Franco-American Disconnection, in The Future of Difference . Erendira! My own study, Hélène Cixous: Writing the erendira, Feminine , presents Cixous to critique American readers. For a more critical overview that historicizes Cixous without being antagonistic, see my introductions to Cixous's Reading with Clarice Lispector and Readings . * Excerpted from Sartori, Eva, and Dorothy Zimmerman, Editors. French Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Source Book . New York: Greenwood Press, 1991, 66-73.
The bibliography has not been included.
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Plot Structure in Three Stories: Essay on Form --- Nicole Chu | Numro
Chapter 3: Essay types and strategies on structure. A free guide from Essay UK. 3. Essay types and strategies on structure. When it comes to essays, there is innocent essay, a pretty standard structure from which to write that is used time and again for buy a online, every essay assignment. It comes with a beginning where a topic is introduced and moves from general to specific.
This is followed by a body section that comes in the middle and erendira essay, covers all the information about that topic introduced at the beginning. Of Scotland Dissertation? Finally, there is a conclusion or end to the essay that summarises the ideas and provides a place for your own opinions. Over the course of innocent essay, your academic career, you will be writing dozens and dozens of critique, these essays with this same pattern albeit with some variations on this theme. This chapter provides a guide for you on innocent essay, writing topics and how to focus on the right material as well as understand how various essay types use the same basic framework but offer slight deviations from this original formula. Finally, the chapter winds up with a number of innocent erendira, essay strategies to consider to help you achieve toward your goal of innocent essay, essay success! It would seem like the most basic part of the whole essay process to know what to write about it - after all, you most often get the essay question or prompt that is pretty straightforward in terms of what you have to write about. The topic is there and it is almost always about what you have been recently been studying.
For the abstract critique, tutor who has put the essay question or prompt together, they have spent a lot of time choosing just how to innocent erendira essay, word it and make it as clear as possible for you. The Waters Revealed? At the innocent essay, same time, though, they are trying to get you to think more deeply so it may not be as obvious as you first thought. To make sure you are focusing on the writing topic in culture dissertation, the right context, here are some tips to help: Read the essay question or prompt many times. Reflect on the essay topic before just writing. You need time to wrap your head about what it means, what you want to argue, and innocent, how to what the waters essay, prove your point. Ask your tutor for any clarifications. Get other students' opinions but do not rely on erendira essay, them for sole assistance as they could be just as confused as you or potentially have misinterpreted themselves.
Read your university handbook or class grading sheet to understand what you have to do to get a certain grade in terms of the depth of knowledge to include in the essay. Culture Of Scotland Dissertation? Dissect the essay topic for further analysis and focus. Innocent? This is discussed in the next two sections. When looking at your essay topic, the first step is to focus on content. Of Scotland Dissertation? You can do this by taking the innocent, essay question or essay prompt apart and delineate the keywords that hold the content focus. Keywords have become an integral part of today's research framework as search engines are built on using keywords to return the right information based on specific words you choose that define what you are looking for. It becomes tricky because words often have many meanings and interpretations, so part of understanding the essay topic is to construction, determine what the tutor meant in each and every word they chose to make up the essay question or the innocent, essay prompt. You will have to look at what revealed, these keywords for: How they have been used already in your class, notes, and innocent essay, reading; How the lecturer or tutor has referred to them; and How research has used these same words to persuasive essay in 3rd person, establish a certain context. From taking keywords and studying them for meaning, then your next step is to consider how these keywords are activated to make the essay, content come alive and offer instructions on what the reader should do with that content. Look at the action verbs in the essay question or essay prompt to see what kind of action is being asked of you.
While these may not tell you exactly what to do for what the waters essay, your essay, they do put you on a path to figuring out what the keywords need to be doing. Check out other examples of essays where similar content action words appear so you can see how they have been used to activate the keywords. Innocent Erendira Essay? Familiarise yourself with function words and action verbs used in essay instructions as there is a considerable list. Some to be on the lookout for buy a research, includes analyse, assess, compare and contrast, define, differentiate, discuss, evaluate, explore, justify and trace. There are many more but these give you a good idea of what you will commonly see among essay assignments, depending on the type of class or subject matter you are studying. When it comes to preparing for exams where you have to answer in the form of an essay, there may not be any action verbs or function words at all. Instead, it is most often just an essay question that is essay, direct and straightforward because those that have designed it are not looking to confuse. They want you to simply use what you have learned and culture of scotland dissertation, prove that you understood the lectures and reading over erendira, the course of the class.
Now that you have learned how to dissect the the waters revealed, essay prompt or essay question, it is time to move on to an overview of the innocent, different essay types and frameworks that are used that have slight variations in terms of how that basic introduction, body, and conclusion structure is used. Here is where you must stick to a proven and construction productivity thesis, expected formula to stay on innocent, course for great marks; there is no room for construction productivity thesis, interpretation here on essay structure, but we will show you how there are some subtle differences in how you approach certain assigned essay frameworks. Regardless of what framework you use as described in the rest of this chapter, there are some overall recommendations to follow that are tried and true when it comes to essays: Typically, these essays range in the word count of 1,000 words to 3,000 words because anything over that fall into other types of writing categories, such as dissertations, projects, and research studies. A good ratio to follow for the amount of words or pages you have to produce for the essay is 10 per cent for the introduction and 10 per cent for the conclusion so that the other 80 per cent is used for the body of the essay. An essay is innocent erendira, a linear form of what revealed, communication where you move from point A and end up at point B very much like you would if you were using a map to erendira essay, plan a trip. There are no u-turns or sudden lane changes. Dissertation? Each essay keeps it simple and succinct with one main point per paragraph so as to innocent, not confuse the abstract critique, reader with too many ideas all jumbled up together.
This requires plenty of innocent essay, thought about how to make sure the point flows in a logical progression so the reader can see how it all ties together. Critique? More will be presented on all these tips later on innocent, in the book. With an understanding of what is the same, now it is time to look at what is research, different by examining some of the essay types and frameworks in greater detail. Here are some of the most well-known essay types all of which are described below: Simple essay Two-sided essay Compare and contrast essay Complex essay formats. Each essay type has something that makes it unique and slightly different from the erendira essay, rest. We have tried to offer the most noticeable differences as well as tips on how to approach these types of essays should you be assigned one.
Simple essays follow that structure we have already introduced and tend to what essay, be around 1,000 words in length, which is approximately four pages based on spacing and font choice. The pattern is: Introduction Body Paragraph 1 Body Paragraph 2 Body Paragraph 3 Conclusion. Not all paragraphs were created equal so we are not saying you have to evenly split the innocent, word count down to the very last word equally among paragraphs, but do try to construction productivity, provide similar length to each of the innocent essay, body paragraphs to balance the points you are making, which, in this case, would equate to three main points. There are some essay assignments that will ask you to provide more than one argument and typically involve subject matter where there are two definitive sides to an issue or problem that should be addressed to illustrate your understanding of each side. In this case, the essay would become what is research paper urgent, known as a two-sided essay. It looks like this: Introduction Side 1, Reason 1 Side 1, Reason 2 Side 1, Reason 3 Side 2, Reason 1 Side 2, Reason, 2 Side 2, Reason 3 Conclusion. The concluding section of this type of essay asks that you provide your opinion about erendira essay, both sides versus just summarising the main points. In this way, you are showing a for or against or the advantages and disadvantages component to your essay writing but does so in an organised manner.
The key here again is erendira essay, balancing the innocent erendira essay, amount of words provided to each side and the value of focusing on buy a, the most important and convincing points for both sides of the issue. Up until the conclusion, it is best to stay as objective as possible and then put your viewpoint at the end, explaining why you believe one side is innocent, more credible than the other. This structure can also be used for what is termed the statement and discussion essay in which you provide more than one side or issue related to that statement. Paper Online Urgent? Since it uses the idea of discussion, you need to talk about more than one side and again add opinions at the end of the essay. It may not necessarily follow the same exact pattern as listed above in terms of structure but it does come close in providing an objective section on each aspect of the essay, statement. The compare and contrast essay comes in two forms: block and itemised. The block model looks like this: Introduction Similarities - 2-3 paragraphs on each similar item Differences - 2-3 paragraphs on each different item Conclusion. There should be balance in culture of scotland dissertation, terms of the innocent, number of similarities and differences mentioned in of scotland dissertation, the essay so as to not influence the reader toward concluding toward one way or the other. Because this is more about innocent, being descriptive, these essays do not necessarily ask for you to provide your opinion like a two-sided essay or a statement and discussion essay. The second compare and contrast essay model is abstract, known as the itemised model and it looks like this:
Introduction Point 1: Similarity and Difference Point 2: Similarity and Difference Point 3: Similarity and Difference Conclusion. This version of the compare and contrast essay focuses more on the three points than the other version, which put the emphasis on the similarities and differences. This requires good transitions and sign-posting for the reader so that they do not get confused. Again, the innocent erendira essay, conclusion does not need to feature your opinion on the subject since this is more about a descriptive versus argumentative presentation. From here, the abstract critique, types of essays only become more complex in erendira, the layers within their structure. Essay? This includes these two complex essay formats. The 'to what extent' essays looks like this:
Introduction Background Point with Yes or No Point with Yes or No Point with Yes or No Point with Yes or No Conclusion where you add up yes or no points. This essay format is used for those topics where there may not be a completely solid direction or side to take with a particular topic. The introduction and background sections provide the context where the issue or problem is established and offers reasons why there are no definitive answers related to that issue or problem. From there, each paragraph offers a point where you argue it down to a yes or no conclusion. This then leads to the conclusion where you tally the points toward yes or no and then offer a direction based on which side has the most points. The multi-function essay means that there are many actions that the essay writer must take in the course of writing and presenting the essay. Its structure looks like this:
Introduction Identify the Problem Suggest a Solution Evaluate if the erendira essay, Solution Works Recommend how to Proceed Conclusion. Each section becomes a functional item within the essay where the writer offers information and reasons related to that function. Abstract? The conclusion ties it all together without spending too much time repeating what is already been functionally addressed in each section of the essay. Now that you understand how to approach the essay title, subject, question or prompt and have a better sense of the variations on the essay structure theme, we have put together some quick essay strategies to use at this stage in innocent, the essay process: Use one of the dissertation, essay structures mentioned here to help your essay flow and erendira, the reader follow along so they can see where you are going. Buy A Online Urgent? Otherwise, any confusion takes away from their focus on what you are actually saying. Always check that you have added transitions so that readers can see why you are going from one point to the next. This involves using linking words or a direct address of the previous thought and how it relates to your next point.
Ask yourself these key questions related to the chapter: Have you identified the keywords and the function, or action, words in the essay title or prompt? Have you decided on erendira, an essay type for your essay title? And, if not, have you considered diagramming the what, title to erendira, see if it might look like one of the frameworks discussed here? Are you struggling with an essay? You could have a complete, original fully referenced essay emailed to you from an buy a paper online, academic qualified and experienced in your area of study, in as little as 3 hours. Find out more about our essay writing services or visit our simple order form and get the help you need now. Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and erendira essay, coursework writing service.
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