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Construction productivity thesis

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bernard shaw essay The Sources Of Idealism 1. LET us imagine a community of a thousand persons, organized for the perpetuation of the thesis species on the basis of the British family as we know it at present. Seven hundred of them, we will suppose, find the British family arrangement quite good enough for homework them. Construction. Two hundred and ukraine essay, ninety-nine find it a failure, but must put up with it since they are in a minority. The remaining person occupies a position to be explained presently. The 299 failures will not have the construction thesis courage to face the fact that they are irremediable failures, since they cannot prevent the should not be banned 700 satisfied ones from coercing them into conformity with the marriage law. They will accordingly try to persuade themselves that, whatever their own particular domestic arrangements may be, the family is a beautiful and holy natural institution. For the fox not only declares that the grapes he cannot get are sour: he also insists that the sloes he can get are sweet. Now observe what has happened.

The family as it really is productivity is a conventional arrangement, legally enforced, which the majority, because it happens to homework banned suit them, think good enough for the minority, whom it happens not to suit at all. The family as a beautiful and holy natural institution is only a fancy picture of what every family would have to be if action as standard moral conduct, absolutely valid under all circumstances, contrary conduct or any advocacy of it being discountenanced and punished as immoral, may therefore be described as the policy of Idealism. Our 299 domestic failures are therefore become idealists as to construction marriage; and in proclaiming the all kind ideal in construction, fiction, poetry, pulpit and platform oratory, and essays politics, serious private conversation, they will far outdo the 700 who comfortably accept marriage as a matter of productivity course, never dreaming of calling it an 'institution,' much less a holy and beautiful one, and essays politics, being pretty plainly of opinion that Idealism is a crackbrained fuss about nothing. The idealists, hurt by this, will retort by calling them Philistines. We then have our society classified as 700 Philistines and 299 idealists, leaving one man unclassified: the man strong enough to face the construction productivity thesis truth the ukraine essay idealists are shirking. Thesis. Such a man says of essays politics marriage, 'The thing is a failure for many of construction thesis us. It is insufferable that two human beings, having entered into relations which only warm affection can render tolerable, should be forced to maintain them after such affections have ceased to exist, or in spite of the fact that they have never arisen. The alleged natural attractions and repulsions upon which the ukraine essay family ideal is based do not exist; and productivity, it is historically false that the family was founded for the purpose of satisfying them. Let us provide otherwise for the social ends which the family subserves, and then abolish its compulsory character altogether.' What will be the attitude of the rest to this outspoken man?

The Philistines will simply think him mad. But the idealists will be terrified beyond measure at the proclamation of their hidden thought -- at should the presence of the construction thesis traitor among the conspirators of silence -- at the rending the beautiful veil they and their poets have woven to hide the unbearable face of the truth. California Prison Overcrowding Essay. They will crucify him, burn him, violate their own ideals of family affection by construction productivity thesis taking his children away from him, ostracize him, brand immoral, profligate, filthy, and appeal against him to the despised Philistines, specially idealized for the occasion as Society. How far they will proceed against him depends on how far his courage exceeds theirs. At his worst, they call him cynic and paradoxer: at his best they do their utmost to ruin him, if not to take his life.

Thus, purblindly courageous moralists like Mandeville and La Rochefoucauld, who merely state unpleasant facts without denying the validity of current ideals, and who indeed depend on those ideals to make their statements piquant, get off with nothing worse than this name of cynic, the free use of which is a familiar mark of the zealous idealist. But take the all kind case of the man who has already served us as an example: Shelley. The idealists did not call Shelley a cynic: they called him a fiend until they invented a new illusion to construction productivity thesis enable them to enjoy the beauty of his lyrics, this illusion being nothing less than the pretence that since he was at bottom an idealist himself, his ideals must be identical with those of Tennyson and Longfellow, neither of whom ever wrote a line in which some highly respectable ideal was not implicit. Here the admission that Shelley, the ukraine essay realist, was an idealist, too, seems to spoil the whole argument. Construction Productivity. And it certainly spoils its verbal consistency. Descartes. For we unfortunately use this word ideal indifferently to denote both the institution which the ideal masks and the mask itself, thereby producing desperate confusion of thought, since the productivity thesis institution may be an effete and poisonous one, whilst the mask may be, and indeed generally is, an image of what we would fain have in its place. Essay. If the existing facts, with their masks on, are to thesis be called ideals, and the future possibilities which the masks depict are also to be called ideals -- if, again, the man who is defending existing institutions by maintaining their identity with their masks is to be confounded under one name with the man who is college application striving to realize the future possibilities by tearing the mask and the thing masked asunder, then the position cannot be intelligibly described by productivity thesis mortal pen: you and I, reader, will be at cross purposes at every sentence unless you allow me to distinguish pioneers like Shelley and Ibsen as realists from the idealists of my imaginary community of one thousand. If you ask why I have not allotted the of essay terms the other way, and called Shelley and construction thesis, Ibsen idealists and the conventionalists realists, I reply that Ibsen himself, though he has not formally made the of essay distinction, has so repeatedly harped on conventions and conventionalists as ideals and idealists that if I were now perversely to call them realities and realists, I should confuse readers of The Wild Duck and Rosmersholm more than I should help them. Doubtless I shall be reproached for puzzling people by thus limiting the meaning of the term ideal. But what, I ask, is that inevitable passing perplexity compared to construction thesis the inextricable tangle I must produce if I follow the custom, and use the word indiscriminately in its two violently incompatible senses?

If the term realist is objected to on account of some of its modern associations, I can only recommend you, if you must associate it with something else than my own description of its meaning (I do not deal in definitions), to associate it, not with Zola and Maupassant, but with Plato. Now let us return to essay our community of productivity 700 Philistines, 209 idealists, 1 realist. The mere verbal ambiguity against which comes of any attempt to express the relations of these three sections, simple as they are, in terms of the ordinary systems of reason and all kind of essay, duty. The idealist, higher in the ascent of evolution than the Philistine, yet hates the 'highest and strikes at him with a dread and rancor of which the easy-going Philistine is guiltless. The man who has risen above the danger and the fear that his acquisitiveness will lead him to theft, his temper to murder, and construction thesis, his affections to debauchery: this is he who is denounced as an arch-scoundrel and ukraine essay, libertine, and thus confounded with the lowest because he is the highest. And it is not the ignorant and stupid who maintain this error, but the literate and construction thesis, the cultured. When the true prophet speaks, he is proved to homework be both rascal and construction thesis, idiot, not by those who have never read of how foolishly such learned demonstrations have come off in the past, but by those who have themselves written volumes on the crucifixions, the burnings, the stonings, the headings and hangings, the Siberia transportations, the all kind of essay calumny and ostracism which have been the lot of the pioneer as well as of the camp follower.

It is from men of established literary reputation that we learn that William Blake was mad, that Shelley was spoiled by productivity living in a low set, that Robert Owen was a man who did not know the world, that Ruskin was incapable of comprehending political economy, that Zola was a mere blackguard, and that Ibsen was 'a Zola with a wooden leg.' The great musician, accepted by the unskilled listener, is ukraine essay vilified by construction productivity his fellow musicians: it was the musical culture of Europe that pronounced Wagner the inferior of Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer. The great artist finds his foes among the painters, and not among the men in the street: it was the Royal Academy which placed forgotten nobodies above Burne-Jones. It is not rational that it should be so; but it is so, for essay descartes meditations all that. Construction Productivity Thesis. The realist at last loses patience with ideals altogether, and sees in them only something to blind us, something to numb us, something to murder self in us, something whereby, instead of resisting death, we can disarm it by committing suicide. The idealist, who has taken refuge with the ideals because he hates himself and is ashamed of himself, thinks that all this is so much the better. The realist, who has come to of essay have a deep respect for thesis himself and bellevue essay, faith in the validity of his own will, thinks it so much the worse. To the one, human nature, naturally corrupt, is held back from ruinous excesses only by productivity thesis self-denying conformity to the ideals. To the other these ideals are only swaddling clothes which man has outgrown, and which insufferably impede his movements. Ukraine Essay. No wonder the two cannot agree. The idealist says, 'Realism means egotism; and productivity, egotism means depravity.' The realist declares that when a man abnegates, the will to live and be free in a world of the living, and free, seeking only to conform to ideals for the sake of being, not himself, but 'a good man,' then he is morally dead and rotten, and must be left unheeded to abide his resurrection, if that by good luck arrive before his bodily death. Unfortunately, this is the bellevue college application sort of speech that nobody but a realist understands.

It will be more amusing as well as more convincing to take an actual example of an idealist criticising a realist.

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HOW THE HELL DOES ROGER GOODELL STILL HAVE A JOB? My answers: I don’t know, I don’t know, I don’t know, I seriously don’t know, and I can’t f-?-?-?ing figure it out (I don’t know). It’s official: Roger Goodell is the worst sports commissioner of my lifetime. That’s something I nearly included in last week’s column about his embarrassingly incompetent eight-year reign, ultimately deciding that it might be too harsh. It’s not too harsh. Construction Productivity. He’s the worst. He’s worse than anyone in the original Lousy Commish Mount Rushmore: Fay Vincent, John Ziegler, Larry O’Brien and early Gary Bettman. Ukraine Essay. He’s worse than whoever ran the NASL into construction, the ground.

He’s worse than Vince McMahon during that one XFL season. Overcrowding. He’s worse than William Regal. (Inside joke for the WWE nerds.) He’s worse than the guys who ran the WFL, USFL and MISL (three leagues that no longer exist). Goodell made history this week — for me, anyway — by becoming the construction productivity thesis first major sports commissioner ever to california prison overcrowding essay, inspire me to say, “Doesn’t this feels like Nixon all over again?” How can the same scandal blow up in construction productivity thesis someone’s face THREE DIFFERENT TIMES? It’s impossible! But this is America and homework not be banned people love going against the grain. Thesis. I assumed that I would find at least a couple of reader emails that either defended Goodell or halfheartedly tried to make a case for him. I was wrong. I didn’t find one. As always, these are actual emails from actual readers. Q: Why is TMZ doing a better investigation into Ray Rice than the NFL? BS: First, they actually cared about essay finding the secret elevator tape … unlike the thesis NFL, which clearly didn’t care even though every inch of a casino is being filmed by essay a camera at all times.

Goodell maintaining that the NFL “kept asking for the tapes” is right out of the dog-ate-my-homework school of bullshit that we learned to see through about 40 years ago. Seriously, just stop. You’re insulting us. Second, TMZ probably realized that Revel Casino was going out of construction productivity thesis business over homework should not be Labor Day weekend, which meant its about-to-be-unemployed workers had nothing to productivity, lose by selling the tape. Why didn’t the all kind of essay NFL anticipate the productivity same thing? Because it’s obviously Jackass Central over of essay there.

That’s the productivity thesis only explanation. You know why I didn’t know Revel Casino was going under two weekends ago? Because I live in essays politics L.A., and because I’m not running a professional sports league that was one resurfaced mystery tape away from construction, a crippling scandal. How did the NFL not know? And if they knew, how did they NOT get the overcrowding tape? Who’s the NFL’s director of security, Brick Tamland? Which leads me to my third reason why TMZ outdid Goodell’s league: Either the NFL is run by an overmatched commish who orders around a slew of lackeys and buffoons and construction never saw that day coming; they saw the tape but never expected it to come out; they watched the tape and then buried it (the most nefarious of all the scenarios, by far); they underestimated the impact of the tape (and then some); and/or they were outwitted by the one and only Harvey Levin. Whatever the answer, the NFL failed basic IQ standards here for seven months. It waited five months to give a verdict, botched it so horrendously that it had to create a loophole-filled domestic-violence policy on the fly, then redid the Rice verdict a second time when the banned second tape came out. Last time I checked, real life doesn’t have a RESET button.

This wasn’t Goodell’s first mega-screwup; we’re on no. 8 or no. 9 at this point. But it’s his most memorable botch job, and productivity easily his most indefensible. He needs to go. Put the bellevue application league in someone else’s hands, please. Construction. We need the help. Q: So I have to ukraine essay, wait for construction, someone Goodell hired to find out if Goodell is lying? I have no reason to think the AP report isn’t true, and for owners to essays politics, stand by productivity Goodell because he’s made them enough money is terrible. —Lee Brewer, Los Angeles. BS: So you don’t have a ton of confidence in ukraine essay an “independent” investigation led by owners from construction, two of the team’s oldest-run families (the Maras and Rooneys) and of essay conducted by productivity thesis someone who works for a law firm (WilmerHale) that just helped the NFL negotiate a 10-figure deal with DirecTV?

And you think maybe it doesn’t look great that the current Ravens president (Dick Cass) spent 30 years working for that same law firm? Hold on, what’s that smell? Q: Will we end up calling the NFL’s new domestic violence policy “The Ray Rice Rule?” BS: Too soon to say. Bellevue College Application Essay. When an athlete gets a rule or innovation named after him, he’s either being immortalized (like the productivity Alcindor Rule, Gretzky Rule, Fosbury Flop, Hack-A-Shaq or even the (Larry) Bird rights) or he lucked out for being in of essay the right place at the right time (the Trent Tucker Rule).

Ray Rice made a reprehensible choice, then his league covered it up reacted to that choice in the worst possible way. Productivity Thesis. Rice may have earned a different kind of ongoing immortality: the ignominious kind. We will see. Q: Why did it take the TMZ videotape to of essay, make this incident become “intolerable” and “outrageous” to the NFL and especially the Ravens? From what I have read and heard, Ray Rice never lied about productivity what happened in essays politics the elevator. Yet, the Ravens stood by Rice, called him a good man, held a press conference in which he apologized to everybody but his wife, tweeted her apology for, I guess, allowing herself to be hit and knocked unconscious, and even implied that Ray had some justification for what happened. Construction Productivity Thesis. So if Rice told them what happened and he was still a “good guy,” somebody the bellevue essay Ravens were willing to construction productivity, stand behind, and somebody who deserved only a limited suspension from the descartes meditations NFL, why is he now not that same guy? The Ravens and NFL were willing to embrace the productivity thesis man right up until public opinion made that a bad business move. It’s jaded and it’s insulting and it needs to bellevue, be called out. Construction Productivity Thesis. The NFL and Ravens (and pretty much every media outlet) didn’t screw up by not finding the of essay videotape; they screwed up by never realizing that what happened in productivity thesis that elevator is unacceptable and intolerable regardless of whether a video exists or not. That’s where the focus should be, right?

BS: The second video changed the conversation by eliminating any and all ambiguities, as the impact of those visual images incensed just about everyone. And it wasn’t just the violence. Rice never reacted to the sight of all kind his unconscious fiancee as if he were thinking, Uh-oh, I just injured someone I love ; more like, I don’t know if she’s alive or dead, I just know that I need to figure out what the hell to do with this body. That video was appalling. Other than that, I agree with everything Erica wrote, especially this: “The Ravens and thesis NFL were willing to embrace the man right up until public opinion made that a bad business move.”

Perfect. That’s exactly what happened. And that’s my biggest issue with Goodell — it’s not just his tone deafness and essays politics his penchant for reacting instead of construction productivity thesis acting. He’s so freaking calculated. Application. About everything. For eight years, he’s handled his business like some father of thesis a high school kid who’s hosting a prom party, sees some unresponsive drunk kid sprawled across the bathroom floor, then thinks to himself, Crap, I might get sued, what do I do? instead of This kid might be hurt, we have to help him! He needs to go. Q: If Goodell played the President on of essay 24 , would he take Jack Bauer off the job for no good reason, let the bomb go off then deny it’s going off, or hire a second terrorist group to purposefully stop so people would forget about the first one? BS: Probably all three.

Max just came up with the perfect way to describe Goodell — he really IS like a 24 president. Construction Productivity. In other words, he’s just realistic enough that you can’t figure out if he’s making these monster mistakes intentionally or unintentionally, only bellevue college, he’s just unrealistic enough that you keep muttering to yourself, “Wait, something just doesn’t add up here.” And you could definitely see him involved in a scene like this: Jack (on his cell): “I’m in thesis Atlantic City — Roger, I JUST SAW THE TAPE!” [ Cut to Roger in his office, listening on not be banned a speaker phone, looking furtively at two henchmen. ] Goodell [ long pause ]: “What tape?” Jack: “The tape! Ray Rice! The original elevator tape!” [ We close in on Goodell as ominous music plays. ] Roger: Jack? I want you to un-see the tape. Roger: Un-see the construction productivity thesis tape. Jack: I CAN’T DO THAT. Q: Why can’t the NFL create an ESPN special to announce the all kind of essay suspensions from every offseason?

Run it during early July and the dream of owning the whole year is solved. Thesis. Get the fans involved by having Goodell let fans vote a player to overcrowding, get more or less via Twitter. The world needs this. BS: Come on, ESPN would never run that show! We have standards! Sure, those standards don’t include refraining from airing the (undeniably disturbing) elevator video on every ESPN network on construction productivity thesis and off for 72 solid hours even though we wouldn’t run the should banned Kevin Ware video, but hey, we have standards! Q: I can’t wait until next month when the league requires its players to wear pink, because Roger Goodell really cares about women’s health. BS: You just described why Goodell needs to resign before October 1. Or the NFL could keep him and change its name to construction thesis, the HFL (Hypocritical Football League). It’s a coin flip. Q: Please answer this in your column.

Do you believe Ray Rice should lose his football career? BS: I believe in second chances if the prison overcrowding essay punishment has been served, and if the productivity thesis punished person made an honest attempt to essays politics, turn his life around AND atone for his mistake. If you read my eulogy for my first dog (The Dooze) in 2009, you wouldn’t have expected me to defend Michael Vick’s right to play football 20 months later. Construction. But Vick suffered an appropriate penalty for his crimes, showed the right level of college application essay remorse, changed his life for the better and even spent real time raising awareness about animal abuse. Whether you loved dogs or not, denying Vick a chance to resume his career seemed unconstitutional. Construction Productivity. So what’s the appropriate penalty for Ray Rice? What should he do over these next 12 to 24 months to change his life? How will he demonstrate the proper level of should not be banned remorse? How can he help raise awareness for domestic violence in productivity thesis a way that doesn’t include the letters “TMZ”? That hasn’t played out yet. It’s too early to of essay, have an answer here.

Q: Does Goodell’s blown cover-up of the Rice tape finally give credence to the conspiracy theorists (like myself) that believe the Spygate tapes were so egregious, he destroyed them to save the construction productivity thesis face of the NFL brand? Remember, this is essays politics a man so drunk with power, he thought the construction productivity thesis Rice tape wouldn’t surface. BS: I have “drunk with power” as a +250 underdog to “stubborn and incompetent.” But to answer your question, this was a big week for Spygate Truthers. I can’t come up with a good comeback other than this one. Q: I’m the Commissioner for my fantasy football league. Where do I send in all kind my resume to replace Goodell? Seriously, I think I can be a better commissioner at this point. BS: I mean … you’re not going to be worse, right?

How many years have you run that fantasy league? Does everyone pay on productivity thesis time? When two owners get snippy on email, can you defuse it before someone quits the league? And are you smart enough to know that every casino elevator has cameras? You might be closer than you think. Q: Will we look back at the Ray Rice incident as the beginning of the end of the dominance of football’s reign as top sport? BS: I think we’ll look back at the entire Goodell era that way (not just Rice) … UNLESS the right commissioner takes over and starts quickly repairing the damage. And by the way? Don’t rule that out. Following Goodell is gonna be like following the worst boyfriend ever — you can’t lose no matter what you do. That’s why Steve Ballmer paid $2 billion for the Clips, right?

It wasn’t just about the L.A. market or overpaying a little to join a hot league; Ballmer knew Clippers fans would love Anyone Not Named Sterling. Same logic goes for future NFL commish candidates. Terrific job, huge financial upside, huge social upside. So let’s find someone! Maybe Adam Silver 2.0 is lurking out bellevue application essay, there. Speaking of … Q: The NBA seems to productivity thesis, be an overwhelming winner of the all kind TMZ-Rice scandal. The Levenson fiasco, which would have been the NBA’s second racist owner crisis in productivity thesis about four months, was almost completely buried, right at of essay the time when the NBA seems to thesis, be hammering out the terms for its next TV deal. Is there any chance that Adam Silver and the NBA leaked the all kind of essay Ray Rice video to TMZ? BS: I love George — he roots for an NBA team that lost the world’s best basketball player under mysterious circumstances, then miraculously won three of the next four lotteries. And now he’s wondering if Adam Silver was involved in productivity thesis a DIFFERENT conspiracy? Cleveland fans are the best. (Just kidding, Adam!

But seriously, how great does Adam Silver look right now? Is there any way in of essay a million years that he would’ve handled the Rice fiasco even 12.5 percent as badly?) Q: Why aren’t other players like Greg Hardy or Ray McDonald also being suspended? Does it need to be caught on tape so that it looks bad enough for the league to act? Greg Hardy not only committed domestic violence, but had a pile of guns big enough to throw someone on to. The message I’ve gotten from the NFL is thesis not “Don’t hit your wife,” but “Don’t be dumb enough to all kind of essay, get caught on tape.” BS: And also, “We’re not gonna react unless there’s a damaging video.” I’d throw that one in there, too. Thesis. As Grantland’s Andrew Sharp pointed out on Tuesday, Rice was initially suspended for two games, but Ray McDonald and Greg Hardy played in Week 1? Why didn’t the league revisit its domestic-violence policy in 2012 after Javon Belcher’s horrific murder-suicide? Maybe it’s unfair to college application essay, say that Goodell reacts instead of acts … sometimes he doesn’t react at productivity all. (Unless he’s trying to college application essay, butter up a media member.

I forgot.) Q: In the wake of the most recent scandal, I think this clip just about sums up the country’s feeling toward Roger Goodell: BS: The guy who spent two weeks of his life making the “Vince McMahon Says You’re Fired For 5 Minutes” clip is construction productivity devastated right now. Q: Like Tess told everyone in ukraine essay Ocean’s 11 ? “You of construction thesis all people should know Terry, in your hotel [casino], there’s always someone watching.” When did that movie come out? 2001!

Here’s another attack ad slogan for you: “ROGER GOODELL — THE GUY WHO TOOK ABSOLUTELY NOTHING AWAY FROM OCEANS 11 !” —Michael G, Richmond, VA. BS: That point can’t be banged home enough. Just last month, Dave Jacoby and I were riding an elevator at Encore Las Vegas, glanced up to the bubble camera over our heads and had the requisite, “Where the ukraine essay hell is Ray Rice’s elevator video?” conversation. Again, Goodell spent five months figuring out productivity thesis, a punishment after the initial Rice incident. None of his employees ever made the point, “It’s a freaking casino, that tape exists — you have to application essay, find it before you dole out construction, that penalty”? Not one person said that? What about the college essay AP’s report that someone in the NFL’s office confirmed receiving the casino’s tape, or OTL’s report that Ray Rice absolutely admitted to construction thesis, Goodell, way back in essays politics June, that he punched his wife in the face? And how do we reconcile the fact that, back in July, two well-connected reporters (Chris Mortensen and Peter King) reported what NFL sources had told them happened in productivity that second elevator video … and they got the details correct? Now we’re supposed to believe nobody saw the tape? I mean, did they go to a f-?-?-?ing psychic together?

This whole thing is so insulting. We have to of essay, free Jack Bauer! He knows what happened! Q: I believe the construction biggest takeaway from the Ray Rice fiasco is how easy it now is to determine which journalists are in bed with the league and which aren’t? BS: My biggest takeaway was the Peter Principle (no pun intended). Q: Would you please start calling Goodell “Eggo?” Tired of this waffler. BS: I love waffles — I can’t give Goodell a nickname that makes me hungry. If you want to give him a derisive nickname, isn’t it Roger Dodger?

Q: Add this to application, the list of productivity thesis Roger Goodell’s horseshit resume: he can’t even get the announcers of his own league to correctly name the product of their $400 Million (not an exaggeration) sponsor. How hard is it to tell make sure the producer at every network knows the essay name of their sponsors? He couldn’t even just send out a memo with the words, “MICROSOFT SURFACE” over and over again? BS: Can you imagine what this mailbag would have looked like if I tried to defend Goodell with every answer? I mean, on the bright side — he did make the productivity owners an extra $400 million, right?

Q: How is it possible that Roger Goodell cannot be fired? Would there be any better possible move than replacing him with Condoleezza Rice. How can you top replacing a privileged buffoon oligarch with a highly qualified African-American woman who has publicly stated that running the essay N.F.L would be dream job? BS: Co-sign! Isn’t this the kind of thesis stuff we should be using SportsNation for? Would Condi get 95 percent of the essay descartes vote? 96 percent? 99 percent?

Have I mentioned yet that Goodell needs to step down? Q: Cowherd was discussing Playmakers on ESPN Radio today. Productivity. I remembered the name but forgot what the all kind of essay show was about. While researching, I stumbled upon construction your 2003 review. This was an actual quote from you: “Playmakers never seems totally believable; it’s like a distorted, over-the-top version of the NFL. For instance, Episode No. 2 revolves entirely around painkillers, crack, steroids, and players beating drug tests by ukraine essay injecting clean urine into construction productivity thesis, their (expletives) with a catheter.

Apparently strippers, lap dances, date rape and abortions are scheduled for Episode No. 3.” Isn’t it unbelievable that in ukraine essay 2003 you (and society in general) thought the above episode plots were unbelievable for NFL players? Damn. BS: Ladies and gentlemen, the Roger Goodell Era! Q: Do you remember the show Playmakers , which reportedly was cancelled at the request of the NFL? In one season, the show dealt with steroid use, a gay football player, and a domestic violence incident involving a running back. In one season! Was that the thesis most realistic sports show ever (other than the pick-up game in the parking lot outside the night club)?! That has to surpass anything The White Shadow put together. BS: One more time, let’s hear it, ladies and gents … put your hands together and ukraine essay salute the construction productivity thesis Roger Goodell Era!

Q: After seeing the Ray Rice video online, then hearing the all kind of essay NFL state that they did not see the video until TMZ put in construction productivity thesis online, I got to prison essay, thinking — what are the 10 biggest lies of all time? In no particular order: 2. “There are no soldiers inside of that giant wooden horse.” 5. “At that moment I hit my face against the player leaving a small bruise on my cheek and a strong pain in construction my teeth.” 7. “I. Did. Not. Have. California Prison Overcrowding. Sexual. Construction. Relations. With.

That. Woman.” 8. “There are Weapons of Mass Distruction in Iraq.” 9. “Welcome aboard the descartes Titanic. Yes, this boat is unsinkable.” 10. “We requested from law enforcement any and all information about the incident, including the video from construction productivity thesis, inside the elevator. That video was not made available to us and no one in essays politics our office has seen it until today.” BS: You left out “I am not a crook,” “Lemme start by construction thesis telling you this: I have never used steroids, period,” “Read my lips: no new taxes,” “I did not bet on essays politics baseball,” “Don’t be ridiculous, it doesn’t bother me at all that you did porn” and construction “the over/under for not be, mailbags this summer is 3.5 — take the over.” Q: I have two daughters: a one-month old and a two-year old. In the first year of my older daughter’s life she donned a Flacco jersey, learned to productivity thesis, say ” boo” at the mention of the word “Steelers”, and watched the Ravens win the Super Bowl. The following year (before the 2013 season) she received a Ray Rice jersey which still fits her as we enter her third Ravens season.

What do I do? Can she wear it? If I’m in public or at a football party will people think I’m a horrible father — even fellow Ravens fans? Keep in of essay mind that, as with the Flacco jersey, the Rice jersey is scheduled to be a hand-me-down for the current one-month old daughter when her time comes, and that I’m kind of cheap. As you can see, the fallout from the Rice spectacle ranges far and wide. —Stephen S., Washington, DC. BS: I thought about having Roger Goodell answer this question before realizing it would take him five months.

So allow me to put on my serious Dad With A 9-Year-Old Daughter Who Doesn’t Think ESPN Should Show The Elevator Video And Takes This Stuff Personally hat for a second: Just get rid of the Rice jersey. Construction. Buy a different one. Q: This isn’t a question and it’s not funny or silly or ironic in ukraine essay any way, and construction productivity thesis likely doesn’t belong in the mailbag, but I’m writing in nonetheless. As a survivor of domestic violence, I’ve carefully watched the Ray Rice situation play out on should not be the national media and productivity social media stages. Domestic violence, like addiction and mental health issues, is often misunderstood by california prison the media and the general public. Productivity. It’s complex and personally challenging for most people to understand how a woman or a man can return to descartes, their abuser, often repeatedly and for years. As a result, the victim is often overlooked or the act is somehow justified (as initially was the case with Ray Rice). Clearly, a reasonable person who watched the first video, which showed Rice dragging his unconscious fiance out of an elevator, easily could have determined that this result occurred from him striking her. Instead, the NFL responded casually as did many in the media and general public.

Some even pointed the finger at construction thesis the victim with a “she antagonized him = she deserved it” kind of mentality, rather than the essays politics drawing the more obvious conclusion of Rice’s guilt. I was 26, law school educated and working in construction productivity thesis the entertainment industry when I found myself in all kind a two year relationship with an abuser. What began as simple put downs and controlling behavior escalated into productivity thesis, being choked, punched, kicked, shoved into walls, thrown out of a car naked without house keys, and ukraine essay more, as well as enduring tremendous mental abuse including being lied to and cheated on. I stayed with him because I was repeating a cycle that I had experienced as a child with a mentally checked out mother. With few other outlets, my abuser had become my entire life, however odd that may sound to those who have not endured domestic violence. I had created my own emotional, physical and psychological nightmare and I struggled to find a way out of a toxic and twisted reality. That relationship ended nearly five years ago and it took me three years to productivity, recover from being “a shell of a person,” as a former co-worker described me. With intense therapy, a good job and essays politics an honest and loving support system, I’m “recovered,” or as recovered as someone who has been abused can ever be. It changes you and it takes years to feel better. I’m still wondering if I will ever be able to trust again.

So as my friends get married and construction thesis have kids, I was pleasantly surprised a few weeks ago when I was able to descartes, successfully go on a date. I share my story because today’s reaction by the Baltimore Ravens meant something to me. Construction Productivity. I know it was very late in coming and it only resulted from the prison overcrowding essay release of construction thesis a horrific video, but societal changes in opinion and attitude, especially on topics of gender, race and discrimination take time to develop, and this week, we made progress and shined a national spotlight on all kind an issue that often is thesis hidden behind doors and sometimes only whispered about with disdain for the victim. BS: Thank you for the email. Coming Friday: my Week 2 picks.

Like anyone cares. This article has been updated to correct the banned name of Ravens president Dick Cass. Bill Simmons is the founding editor of Grantland and productivity the author of the New York Times no. 1 best seller The Book of Basketball . Ukraine Essay. For every Simmons column and podcast, click here.

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1 timothy essay The authorship of the so-called “pastoral epistles” (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus) is more questionable than any other letters in the corpus Paulinum . A brief examination of the arguments on both sides, therefore, needs to construction productivity, be given. Rather than repeat the evidence for each book—since most scholars either accept or reject all of them as a group—the data concerning authorship will be presented only for essays politics, 1 Timothy. Although sometimes disputed, 1 “the external evidence for the Pauline authorship of the thesis, PE [pastoral epistles] is as good as for any other of his letters except Romans and 1 Corinthians.” 2 Irenaeus is the essays politics, first explicitly to cite them as Pauline, though there are virtually definite quotations from them in Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Heracleon, and perhaps 1 Clement. Even though they are missing from Marcion’s Canon, “Tertullian says Marcion rejected them, which is no wonder, since the content of 1 Timothy 4:1-5 is completely antithetical to Marcionism.” 3. Interestingly, in P 46 (the oldest MS of the Pauline corpus, dated c. Productivity! 200 CE), although only the pastorals are missing, there were originally five leaves at the end of the ukraine essay, codex. It has been estimated that the pastorals would have taken ten leaves.

Since codices were bound before being written in, it is possible that the scribe simply found himself in the embarrassing situation of having run out of room for the three pastoral epistles (which the scribe, with good reason, treated as a unit, hence leaving all of them out). And even if the construction thesis, scribe were unaware of the essay meditations, pastorals’ existence, this could be accounted for on two bases: (1) these letters were the only Pauline letters sent to apostolic delegates (and would thus probably have minimal circulation); and/or (2) there is the possibility that P 46 should be dated in the 70s CE, rather than 130 years later, as one recent scholar has argued. 4 Nevertheless, “by the end of the second century they [the pastoral epistles] are firmly fixed in every Christian canon in every part of the empire and are never doubted by anyone until the nineteenth century.” 5. The internal evidence is where the real issue of authenticity lay. Basically, there are three problems for authenticity: (1) historical, (2) theological, and (3) linguistic. a. The Historical Problem . The first problem is the construction thesis, fact that the historical evidences suggested within the pastoral epistles do not seem to fit in with any of the data supplied by college essay Acts.

The pastorals indicate the following: (1) Paul had left Timothy in productivity Ephesus, while Paul moved on to Macedonia (1 Tim 1:3); (2) Paul likewise left Titus in should banned Crete, after having spent some time with Titus on the island evangelizing the natives (Titus 1:5); (3) he is once again a prisoner in Rome when he writes 2 Timothy (2 Tim 1:8, 16-17; 4:16). In response to the historical difficulty, there remain but two options for those who favor authenticity: either these letters should somehow fit into the Acts’ chronology, or else they were written after Acts. (1) J. A. T. Robinson attempted to place such events within the chronological framework of Acts, 6 though his views have gained few adherents. (2) The view that they were written by Paul after Acts was published was first mentioned by Eusebius and has had a steady stream of followers since. There is a double difficulty with this view, however. First, it presupposes a second Roman imprisonment. Of course, since we only construction thesis have Acts as a primary record of any of Paul’s imprisonments (apart from his own letters), this cannot be ruled out. Second, “it is essay descartes argued that Paul had intended to travel west from Rome, not east (Rom 15:23-29), that Luke could hardly have been silent about such an event, and construction thesis, that in any case it would have been highly unlikely for Paul to be either released from a Roman detention or, if released, re-arrested.” 7. However, there is essay good evidence that Paul was indeed released from his first Roman imprisonment, as he seems to indicate would be the case in his last canonical letter written while in construction productivity prison (cf. Phil 1:18-19, 24-26; 2:24).

And there is evidence that he changed his mind about all kind, going west (cf. the same references and Philem 22). 8 Further, as we have argued at some length, Luke ended his tome precisely at the point where he did because Paul was about to go on trial and because part of the purpose of Acts was as a trial brief for Paul. In light of such evidence, as Fee has cogently argued, “the proponents of the thesis, above difficulties simply do not take the ukraine essay, historical data seriously enough. Construction Productivity Thesis! . . . Furthermore, it seems highly unlikely that a pseudepigrapher, writing thirty to forty years later, would have tried to palm off such traditions as Paul’s evangelizing Crete, the near capitulation to heresy of the Ephesian church, or a release and second imprisonment of Paul if in bellevue college fact they had never happened.” 9. Construction! b. The Theological Problems . There are basically two theological problems in the pastorals: one related to ukraine essay, soteriology, one related to ecclesiology. Thesis! 10 There are other theological problems, to be sure (such as eschatological and ethical), but these are the most important. Overall, “The [theological] problem lies not so much with their [the pastoral epistles’] being non -Pauline in theology—indeed Pauline elements are recognized everywhere—as it does with so much in them that seems un -Pauline, that is, unlike his characteristic way of thinking and speaking as reflected in the earlier letters.” 11. (1) Soteriology . Although the author is concerned with the college essay, doctrine of salvation—indeed, this seems to be the driving force behind the writing of these letters (cf. especially 1 Tim 1:11)—the way in which the author speaks of productivity, this doctrine is decidedly un-Pauline. Essentially, there is bellevue application essay a creedalism, an productivity thesis objective air to the pastorals with regard to soteriology that is largely lacking in the homolegomena . The emphasis is more one of “belief that” than “trust in” (cf. 1 Tim 3:9; 6:20; Titus 1:13; 2:1; 2 Tim 1:14; 4:7; etc. where terms such as “the faith,” “sound teaching,” and “the deposit” are used). In response to this problem it should be noted that. The basic reason for this kind of “objective” reference to the gospel, however, lies in the nature of these letters in contrast with the others.

The other letters (excepting Philemon, of course) were written to churches, to be read aloud and apparently to function as authority as though Paul himself were there. Therefore, it was necessary for him to reiterate the truth that was to of essay, correct or stand over against construction, their waywardness. In this case, however, the letters are written to those who themselves both know fully the bellevue application essay, content of thesis, Paul’s gospel and are personally to take the essay descartes meditations, place of authority in these churches that his letter had earlier done. This latter phenomenon is totally overlooked in scholarship. It is almost as if the real objection were that Paul should write such letters at all. 12. Productivity Thesis! (2) Ecclesiology . More significant than the soteriological issue is the ecclesiological one. College! The reason that the pastorals have been questioned on such grounds is that they seem to reflect a period in productivity church history which is later than Paul’s lifetime. In particular, they seem to reflect the early second century (cf. Ignatius’ writings) in which a single bishop had elders and deacons. Furthermore, the strong emphasis in the pastorals on the leaders’ qualifications, regulations concerning church life, etc., seem decidedly un-Pauline. Ukraine Essay! Not only this, but the function of the church leadership is especially to pass on a fixed tradition of the truth, an construction thesis emphasis lacking in essay the earlier Pauline epistles.

Against this supposition is the fact that elsewhere Paul does display an interest in church order (cf. Phil 1:1; 1 Thess 5:12; Rom 12:8; cf. Acts 14:23), though he is productivity thesis evidently not concerned about it nearly as much as he is in the pastorals. But there is a twofold reason for descartes, his concern here: (1) In all three letters, Paul is writing to an apostolic delegate—in effect, an intermediary between himself and the leadership of the construction productivity, church. Thus what he normally communicated in person as to church order (as he evidently must have in essay meditations light of such casual references as Phil 1:1; 1 Thess 5:12, etc.), he now must put in construction productivity thesis writing. Essays Politics! (2) In each one of the letters there are extenuating circumstances which would bring about an emphasis on thesis church order and creedalism: (a) in 1 Timothy, the church had been infected by heretical and immoral leaders; hence, moral qualifications especially needed to all kind, be established; (b) in Titus, the productivity thesis, church was newly planted; hence, some guidelines for selecting leaders needed to be given; (c) in 2 Timothy, Paul’s death is imminent; hence, an emphasis on a fixed tradition was in order. Finally, there really is no good evidence that the pastorals reflect a single bishopric. If these letters are authentic, then Timothy and Titus are apostolic delegates , not bishops themselves. And 1 Tim 3:2 cannot be pressed into service for the mono-episcopate view, because the article (“ the bishop”) is most likely generic. 13. c. The Linguistic Problems . The last and easily most significant difficulty is linguistic in essay descartes nature: “For most scholars it is the objection based on language which has tended to tip the balance against productivity thesis, the Pauline authorship of the pastorals.” 14 This, admittedly, has caused me the most problems with accepting the pastorals as well. Ukraine Essay! In general, the basic problem is that “the homogeneity of the Pastorals with one another and their dishomogeneity with the construction thesis, other Paulines must be regarded as an established fact.” 15 This can be seen in essays politics three ways. (1) New Vocabulary . There is quite a bit of new vocabulary found in the pastorals—according to one scholar, over one hundred and seventy words (170) found in the pastorals are not found in thesis other Pauline letters—nor even in the rest of the NT 16. (2) Lack of bellevue essay, Key Theological Terms . Construction Productivity Thesis! But there is also a dearth in typical Pauline terms—terms in which his key theological ideas are normally expressed. For example, ?????????? “appears only in the sense of ‘uprightness’ and homework should banned, is a virtue to be pursued (1 Tim.

6:11; 2 Tim. 2:22), not a gift of right-standing with God.” 17. (3) Stylistic Differences . Finally, even in non-content “function” words such as conjunctions, prepositions, and pronouns, the vocabulary is radically different from Paul’s other letters. Altogether, there are one hundred and twelve (112) such function words which occur in construction productivity Paul’s earlier letters which are not found in the pastorals. This is coupled with a different use of the essay, article, infinitive, etc., than what is seen in productivity thesis Paul’s other epistles. Such a stylistic difference cannot be brushed aside on california essay the basis of a different occasion, for grammatical minutiae are intrinsic to the way an author thinks , regardless of what he is thinking about. The are part of the warp and woof of his presentation and productivity, cannot be dismissed on the basis of ukraine essay, audience or content shifts. Conservative scholarship has usually responded in one of three ways to this linguistic evidence. First, the statistics are seen as inconclusive since “the pastoral epistles do not contain enough text to furnish a satisfactory sample.” 18.

Second, “the main weakness of all attempts to calculate style statistically is that they cannot take sufficient account of differences of subject-matter, circumstances or addressees, all of which may be responsible for the introduction of new words.” 19. It will be seen that these first two points really only deal with the issue of vocabulary (both new vocabulary and lack of key theological terms), but they do not address the construction productivity thesis, issue of grammatical minutiae. 20 If this were all that conservative scholarship had in response, my own doubts about Pauline authorship would still remain. But there is another piece of the pie to consider. Third, there is the distinct possibility that Paul used an amanuensis to whom he gave great freedom in the writing of california overcrowding, these letters. 21 Longenecker (among several others) has shown that the nonliterary papyri display several different kinds of construction, amanuenses at work—sometimes they wrote by dictation, other times, with greater freedom. Ukraine Essay! His application to the Pauline epistles is productivity illuminating: Just how closely the apostle supervised his various amanuenses in each particular instance is, of course, impossible to say. The nonliterary Greek papyri suggest that the responsibilities of an ancient secretary could be quite varied, ranging all the way from taking dictation verbatim to “fleshing out” with appropriate language a general outline of thought.

Paul’s own practice probably varied with the special circumstances of the case and essay descartes meditations, with the particular companion whom he employed at the time. More time might be left to the discretion of Silas and Timothy (cf. 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1) or to Timothy alone (cf. 2 Cor. 1:1; Col. 1:1; Philem.

1; Phil. 1:1) than to Sosthenes (cf. 1 Cor. 1:1) or Tertius (cf. Rom. 16:22)—and perhaps much more to construction thesis, Luke, who alone was with Paul during his final imprisonment (cf. 2 Tim. 4:11) . 22. There are two other factors to consider in this issue of an amanuensis: (1) the occasion for the writing of these letters (including the fact that Paul is in prison when he wrote 2 Timothy—with his freedoms apparently greatly restricted over his first Roman imprisonment 23 ), and (2) the fact that these are Paul’s last writings. On this second point it should be observed that the most disputed letters in the Pauline corpus are those which were written toward the end of his life . Apart from prison overcrowding essay, 2 Thessalonians (which is sometimes disputed), all of the disputed letters, if authentic, would be dated in the 60s. The significance of this may be that as time progressed, and as Paul dictated more and more letters (most of construction productivity thesis, them now lost), his long-time companions could be trusted more and more to work from an ukraine essay annotated outline, rather than copy down a verbally dictated letter.

If so, then any arguments from vocabulary or stylistic considerations which do not take sufficient account of an amanuensis at work are immediately suspect. 24 Still, the final product would be Paul’s responsibility, and since he customarily appended a personal note at the end of each of his letters (cf. 2 Thess 3:17), there is ample evidence that he read over the letter carefully before it was sent. 25. The case for an amanuensis with the pastorals takes an productivity interesting turn in overcrowding essay that in 2 Tim 4:11 the writer flatly states, “Luke alone is with me.” This, coupled with “the large number of correspondences in vocabulary with Luke-Acts makes the hypothesis of Luke as this amanuensis an attractive one.” 26. We have seen so far that the construction productivity thesis, three basic problems for Pauline authorship seem to be adequately answered. But the tables can be turned as well.

That is, there are major problems with the pseudepigraphical views. Our discussion here will necessarily be brief, but at least four points can be made. Essays Politics! First, the historical reconstruction behind a forgery is difficult to imagine. Normally, critical scholarship has assumed that the occasion for writing these epistles was the need for church order at the beginning of the second century. Although just such an occasion is possible for 1 Timothy and Titus, it thoroughly fails to thesis, handle 2 Timothy, as advocates of this view admit: “2 Tim poses a special problem, for a motive underlying its composition is all kind not readily apparent…” 27. Thesis! Second, if these letters are a forgery, why are there three of them ? As Fee has pointed out, “If one can make a good case for [the occasion of] 1 Timothy [outside the lifetime of Paul], it is equally difficult to understand why then the author also wrote Titus, and above all why, given the alleged reasons for 1 Timothy, [he wrote] 2 Timothy—it simply does not fit those reasons…” 28. Third, when one compares the Christology of Ignatius with the Christology of the pastoral epistles, it is evident that Ignatius’ view is more advanced.

In Titus 2:13 the author speaks of ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? (“of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ”). This construction fits what is all kind known as the Granville Sharp rule which simply indicates that both “God” and “Savior” refer to one person. Hence, Titus (and the author of the pastorals) embraces a high Christology. In making such an explicit identification of Christ with God, it certainly belongs to the later books of the construction productivity thesis, New Testament. However, none of the homework should not be banned, books of the NT are as blunt as are the early apostolic fathers . Productivity! For example, Ignatius, writing in essays politics c. 110 CE, reversed the order, tightening the productivity, apposition between “Christ” and “God”: “our Savior and God, Jesus Christ” was a not infrequent phrase in his writings. On a trajectory of christological development (if it developed linearly), one would have to place the california prison overcrowding, pastorals some time before Ignatius or even Clement (c. Construction Productivity! 96 CE). Although this does not prove Pauline authorship, it does seem to indicate a terminus ad quem for the writing of these epistles. College Essay! And if the date of the pastorals must be before, say, the construction thesis, 90s CE, then the occasion assigned to these letters by those rejecting authenticity has to be completely reworked.

Fourth, in bellevue college application 1 Tim 1:15 the author claims to be “the chief of sinners.” This is an interesting self-deprecating note which is fully consonant with Pauline authorship. In 1 Cor 15:9 (a letter written c. 54 CE), Paul states, “I am the construction thesis, least of the ukraine essay, apostles.” Then, in productivity Eph 3:8 (written c. 59-61 CE) the author says that he is “less than the least of the saints.” This makes an advance over prison essay, the apostle’s similar statement in 1 Corinthians. When one compares 1 Tim 1:15 to these other two texts, the case for authenticity of construction thesis, both Ephesians and meditations, 1 Timothy is heightened, for in 1 Timothy the author now widens the thesis, circle of which he is at essay, the bottom: “chief of all sinners.” This is a threefold cord: (1) not only is development seen in construction productivity Paul’s self-awareness as a sinner (from 1 Corinthians to Ephesians to 1 Timothy), (2) but the way in which he states his self-deprecatory remark is different each time; (3) finally, forgers always went in the opposite direction, elevating the men whose names they took. This is a subtle, yet very powerful, piece of internal evidence on behalf of authenticity, for not only does Paul not merely mimic his earlier self-assessment (as a forger might be prone to do), but he evidences development in his own Christian walk. A careful reading of the later pseudepigraphical literature never reveals any forger following the same track . In other words, if this is the bellevue application, work of a later writer, he is the only one of the construction productivity thesis, scores of apostolic would-be copyists to have done this. Almost universally, later pseudepigraphists (as well as early patristic writers) elevate the apostles, placing them on untouchable pedestals. Unless parallels to Eph 3:8 and 1 Tim 1:15 could be produced in essays politics the later writings, the most objective reading of this verse is construction productivity thesis as an authentic statement of the apostle to california overcrowding essay, the Gentiles. Productivity Thesis! 29.

In sum, although the evidence against the authenticity of the ukraine essay, pastorals is as strong as any evidence against the authenticity of any NT book (save 2 Peter), it still cannot overthrow the productivity, traditional view. Prison Overcrowding Essay! The traditional view, however, must be modified by the substantial linguistic evidence against authenticity: an productivity amanuensis (possibly Luke) had great freedom in writing these letters for the apostle Paul. The date of 1 Timothy must be sometime after Paul’s release from his first Roman imprisonment (c. 61 CE) and, in all probability, shortly before his re-arrest and final imprisonment. Further, some time must be allowed for him to return to Asia Minor, evangelize with Titus on Crete, and perhaps winter in Nicopolis (Titus 3:12).

Since, in ukraine essay our view, Paul dies in the summer of 64, 1 Timothy should probably be dated no earlier than 63 CE. 1. Timothy, one of Paul’s longtime companions, who joined the apostle on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:2), had been with Paul toward the end of the apostle’s first Roman imprisonment (cf. Phil 2:19-24). 2. When Paul was released, he took Timothy and Titus with him back to Asia Minor, after they left Titus on Crete. 3. They went by way of Ephesus en route to construction, Macedonia. There, they encountered false teachers who had virtually taken over the church—just as Paul had predicted they would (cf. Acts 20:29-30).

Two of all kind of essay, them, Hymenaeus and Alexander, were excommunicated by Paul (1 Tim 1:19-20). 4. Construction Thesis! Paul had to press on ukraine essay to Macedonia (cf. Phil 2:24), but the construction thesis, situation at Ephesus needed help. He left Timothy in charge of the church, giving him instructions to deal with the heretics who had become leaders in the church (cf. Bellevue College! 1 Tim 1:3-4). 5. Productivity Thesis! In light of essay, this, 1 Tim 1:3 seems to contain the purpose of this epistle: “As I urged you when I went into construction thesis, Macedonia, stay there in Ephesus so that you may command certain men not to teach false doctrines any longer…” As Fee has recently argued, “In contrast to that approach [which sees 1 Timothy primarily as a manual on church order], this commentary assumes that everything in the letter has to do with 1:3 . . . , and ukraine essay, that this expresses both the occasion and the purpose of 1 Timothy.” 30 At this tentative stage in our thinking about this epistle, we are prepared to accept his thesis, though there is substantial difference in how we see this worked out in construction thesis the exegesis of the epistle. 31. The theme of 1 Timothy is closely tied to its purpose (cf. 1:3, 18-19; 6:11-12, 20). In brief, it may be summed up as “godly leadership in the face of internal opposition.” Or, in Paul’s words, “pursue godliness … [and] fight the good fight of the faith” (6:11-12).

After a brief salutation to Timothy (1:1-2), Paul immediately gets into the body of his epistle (1:3–6:21). Bellevue College Application! This letter contains three major sections: negative instructions in relation to the false teachers who had infiltrated the church at Ephesus (1:3-20), positive instructions to the church at Ephesus (2:1–6:10), and personal instructions to Timothy (6:11-20). Although the last two sections have the church life and its leadership in the foreground, the problem of the false teachers is always in the background (explicitly in 4:1-5; 5:20-25; 6:3-10, 20-21; implicitly permeating the rest of the epistle). The first major section is productivity thesis a reminder of why Timothy was left behind in Ephesus, viz., to stop the false teachers (1:3-20). These men were preoccupied with the OT Law, yet they had no idea of “what they are saying or the things they insist on so confidently” (1:7, NET). Paul explains what the proper use of the Law is: it is for sinners, to lead them to repentance (1:8-11).

The implication is that these false teachers were forcing the Law on essay descartes meditations believers (1:9). Then he follows this up with a personal illustration: the Law taught him that he was a sinner, but Christ showed him grace (1:12-17). Paul then repeats his charge to Timothy (1:18-20), though this time the emphasis is on Timothy’s perseverance and godliness in the face of opposition. The charge concludes with a note about Paul excommunicating two church leaders, Hymenaeus and Alexander (1:20). On this note, Paul now addresses the productivity thesis, situation in the church directly.

The second major section (2:1–6:10) cannot be divorced from the purpose of homework should not be banned, Timothy’s stay in Ephesus. These false teachers had wreaked havoc on construction productivity thesis the church in many areas. They had destroyed the atmosphere of public worship (cf. 2:1-7) and had stolen from the coffers of the should banned, church (6:3-10). Thesis! They had especially influenced some of the women in the church—in particular the unmarried and young widows (5:11-15; cf. 2 Tim. 3:1-7). The church was in disarray and needed correction; it also needed new leadership (cf. Essay Descartes! 3:1!). Three broad areas of construction, concern must be addressed if the church at Ephesus is to be repaired.

First, the conduct of the church needed to be restored (2:1–3:16). This involved two aspects: worship and essays politics, leadership. Construction Thesis! (1) Regarding public worship (2:1-15), the homework banned, atmosphere of the church first needed changing. The doctrinal controversies promoted by construction the false teachers (cf. 1:3; 6:20-21) created a judgmental and critical spirit within the congregation. Ukraine Essay! The purpose of the construction thesis, Christian walk was lost in the shuffle. So Paul commands the church to prison overcrowding essay, refocus on prayer—and prayer for all people, especially those in construction authority (2:1-7). With this note on “authority” ringing in their ears, Paul addresses hierarchical roles within the body (2:8-15). The false teachers had especially persuaded women to follow them (cf. 5:11-15: 2 Tim 3:1-7).

What is interesting to note is that “Satan” is mentioned in this epistle only in connection with the false teachers (1:20) and young widows (5:15). Homework Should Banned! These false teachers who were involved in “godless chatter” (6:20) who did “not know what they [were] talking about” (1:7) had caused some of the thesis, women to “be lazy … talking about things they should not” (5:13, NET). Thus in 2:8-15 the apostle reminds especially the women of the homework should banned, proper hierarchical order in worship. It is no coincidence that he mentions Eve’s deception in construction productivity the garden of Eden (2:14), causing her to teach Adam, for of essay, this is exactly what had happened at Ephesus: women were following these false teachers and were becoming teachers themselves. Thus although Satan is not explicitly mentioned in this context, he is very much in the back of Paul’s mind. Construction Productivity! Paul prohibits women from teaching men (2:12) because this is college application essay a reversal of the God-ordained hierarchical order (2:13).

32. (2) Regarding church leadership (3:1-13), Paul places an emphasis on the ethical qualifications of overseers (a.k.a. bishops, elders) (3:1-7) and deacons (3:8-13), with a special appeal for some of the men to desire the office of construction productivity, overseer (3:1). Essays Politics! This must be seen against the backdrop of the excommunication of two leaders (1:18-20). Productivity Thesis! The church had been rocked and needed new guides. Against this background qualifications such as “able to ukraine essay, teach” (3:2; cf. 1:7), “not quarrelsome” (3:3; cf. 1:4; 6:20-21), “not a lover of money” (3:3; cf. 6:3-10); “good reputation with outsiders” (3:7; cf. 5:20-25); and the references to construction productivity, the snare and judgment of the devil (3:6, 7; cf. California Overcrowding! 1:20; 5:15) make perfectly good sense. Paul then summarizes this segment on the conduct of the church (3:14-15), followed by a hymn to construction thesis, Christ (3:16), reminding Timothy that proper conduct cannot be divorced from the worship of Christ. Second, Timothy is charged with guarding “the truths of the faith” in the light of apostasy (4:1-16).

The apostates had crept into the church, just as the Spirit had predicted they would (4:1; cf. Acts 20:29-30). Such apostates embraced an amalgamation of prison overcrowding, Jewish legalism and Greek asceticism, forbidding both marriage and restricting diets (4:2-5). Because of such men, Timothy is charged to warn the church to stay away from them (4:6-7). Thesis! Further, to prove that legalism-asceticism is not the route to godliness, Paul urges Timothy to bellevue college, “train yourself to be godly” (4:7) and to set forth the true gospel of Jesus Christ (4:13) before the congregation. He summarizes the twin theme of 4:6-16 (and, indeed, of the whole book) by concluding: “Watch your life and doctrine closely. Persevere in them…” (4:16). Third, Timothy needed to learn pastoral skills in addressing certain groups (5:1–6:10). The instructions given here are related especially both to Timothy’s youthfulness and to his inexperience in pastoral duties and construction productivity thesis, priorities.

As a young man, he needed guidance in how to address the various age and all kind of essay, gender groups of the church (5:1-2). Because of the greed of the false teachers (cf. 6:3-10 and passim ) the church coffers were probably quite low. Thus Paul gives various instructions which focus on financial distribution to various groups on the church. Timothy needed to place a priority on the widows (5:3-16), especially regarding the church’s provisions for them (5:5, 9), though certain qualifications had to be met: in particular, young, able-bodied women and those whose children could take care of them should not be helped out by construction thesis the church (5:4, 7, 11-16). Next in ukraine essay line should be the elders (5:17-25). Those who have remained faithful to the gospel should receive a “double honor” (5:17-18).

That such honor should include financial remuneration is seen in productivity two biblical illustrations (5:18). But those who have sinned (provided it is proved by at least two witnesses) earn a rebuke instead of “honor” (5:19-20). Prospective elders need to be screened quite carefully (5:21-25) because, most likely, many of them would be motivated by greed (cf. 6:3-10). Slaves are mentioned last (6:1-2). But rather than the church supplying their needs, they are to serve their masters well (since, by bellevue college implication, their needs would be met by productivity their masters). Paul then turns to the root of the problem of the financial distress in the church (6:3-10), viz., some of the elders “think that godliness is a means to financial gain” (6:5).

Greed was what motivated the false teachers and had caused not only banned them but others to wander from the faith (6:10). The epistle concludes with more personal instructions to Timothy (6:11-21). Construction! He is to california prison, “pursue godliness … [and] fight the good fight of the faith” (6:11-12), a theme repeated throughout this epistle. But before Paul can finish the construction productivity thesis, letter he turns to essays politics, those who are wealthy and godly in thesis the church (6:17-19). His warnings about the greed of the false teachers (6:3-10) might be taken incorrectly by some of the rich who had been quite faithful to the gospel (cf. 6:10). Ukraine Essay! Paul corrects this impression by pointing out that wealth in construction thesis itself is prison not evil (it is the love of money that is evil [6:10]), though those who are wealthy ought to be rich in good deeds, too (6:18), and thus lay up treasures for themselves in heaven (6:19). The epistle closes with a reminder to Timothy to guard the construction productivity thesis, gospel in the lives of the Ephesians, for homework should, this has been entrusted to him (6:20-21). Construction Thesis! I. Salutation (1:1-2) II. Negative Instructions: Stop the all kind of essay, False Teachers (1:3-20) A. Warning against False Teachers (1:3-11) 1. Construction Thesis! The Charge to Timothy Stated (1:3) 2. Their Wrong Use of the Law (1:4-7) 3. The Right Use of the Law (1:8-11) B. Paul’s Experience of Grace (1:12-17) C. The Charge to essay, Timothy Repeated (1:18-20) III.

Positive Instructions: Repair the Church (2:1–6:10) A. Restoring the Conduct of the Church (2:1–3:16) 1. Instructions on Public Worship (2:1-15) a. Concerning Prayer (2:1-7) b. Construction Productivity Thesis! Concerning the Role of Men and Women (2:8-15) 1) Men: Pray in a Holy Manner (2:8) 2) Women: Quiet Conduct (2:9-15) 2. California Overcrowding! Instructions on Church Leadership (3:1-13) a. Qualifications of Overseers (3:1-7) b. Qualifications of Deacons (3:8-13) 3. Summary (3:14-16) a. Productivity Thesis! Conduct of the essay, Church (3:14-15) b. Hymn to Christ (3:16) B. Guarding the Truth in construction productivity the Church (4:1-16) 1. Homework Should Banned! In the Face of thesis, Apostasy (4:1-5) 2. Timothy’s Personal Responsibilities (4:6-16) C. Essay! Dealing with Groups in the Church (5:1–6:10) 1. Men and Women, Young and Old (5:1-2) a. Older Widows (5:3-10) b. Younger Widows (5:11-16) a. The Reward of Elders (5:17-18) b. The Reputation of Elders (5:19-20) 1) The Reputation of Elders Protected (5:19) 2) The Sins of Elders Publicly Rebuked (5:20) c. The Recognition of Prospective Elders (5:21-25) 5. False Teachers (6:3-10) IV. Personal Instructions: Pursue Godliness (6:11-21) A. Productivity! Fight the Good Fight (6:11-16) B. A Final Word to the Wealthy (6:17-19) C. Guard What has been Entrusted (6:20-21) 1 Cf. M. Overcrowding! Dibelius and M. Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles (Hermeneia), who argue that “the testimony of the early Church . . . is not very strong” (1). 2 G. Productivity Thesis! D. Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus (in New International Biblical Commentary), 23. 4 See discussion of Young Kyu Kim’s article in ukraine essay Biblica in thesis our introduction to 2 Peter.

This has now been refuted however by Bruce Griffin. 6 Redating the New Testament , 79-85. 7 Fee, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus , 4. 8 It should be noted that Paul was prone to change his mind about his travel plans (cf. 2 Cor 1:12–2:4). 10 Technically, the california prison essay, ecclesiological problem is also a historical one, for it entails seeing the productivity, ecclesiological situation of the pastorals as occurring at a date later than Paul’s lifetime. But as the ukraine essay, essential problem of ecclesiology is related to construction productivity, the author’s directives (thus propositional in nature), we felt it better to include it under our discussion of theological problems. 13 See D. B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the new Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996) 229. Cf. also idem , “Who Should Run the ukraine essay, Church? A Case for the Plurality of Elders,” available at construction, www.bible.org in the Pro f’s Soapbox. 15 Fee, ibid., 24, citing J. N. D. Kelly.

16 Julius Holtzmann, cited by application essay Dibelius and Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles , 3. 18 Guthrie, 633. Cf. also B. M. Metzger’s excellent (and brief) critique of using word-statistics to solve problems of authorship (“A Reconsideration of Certain Arguments Against the Pauline Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles,” ExpT 70 (1958) 91-94. 20 Guthrie initially admits this difficulty (“many writers who are prepared to concede the possibility of changes in Paul’s vocabulary are reluctant to do so for Paul’s style” [635]), but he immediately downplays its thrust, not fully grasping its weight. 21 The following material is taken in toto from our introduction to Ephesians, but is duplicated here for construction, the benefit of the homework not be, reader. 22 “Amanuenses,” 294. Productivity Thesis! Earlier in the essay Longenecker established the probability (via parallels with the papyri) of Paul using an amanuensis for virtually every letter except perhaps Philemon. 23 Cf. 2 Tim. 1:16; 2:9; 4:13 (where the request for essay, the cloak is due, most likely, to his being in a cold dungeon).

24 By way of analogy, when I joined the faculty of Dallas Seminary in 1988, the NT secretary (Pamela Bingham) would need me to write out every word for letters that she would later type up. Now, after several years, I can use abbreviations, summaries, even verbal directions at times. The difference is due to productivity thesis, the fact that the same secretary has been in the department the entire time and is now more used to my style. Ukraine Essay! There are times when she writes words and phrases which I would never write myself, but which communicate what I wish to say. When I sign my name, I take responsibility for what was written, but this does not imply that everything must have been stated exactly in the way I would normally state things, just that the content is what I intend to communicate. It seems that this kind of thing must surely have happened with Paul over the years; hence, it is no mere coincidence that his later writings have a different style without differences in substance. 25 An interesting sidelight to this is seen in textual criticism. Bruce Metzger is representative of some scholars, for example, when he suggests that Tertius heard Paul incorrectly when the apostle dictated Rom 5:1: Tertius wrote down the subjunctive ?????? when Paul meant the indicative ?????? . Productivity! Metzger’s reasons for this view are related to the textual history of california prison overcrowding essay, this verse.

But such a postulation does not go far enough: I would agree with him that Tertius may have heard Paul wrong and may have written the subjunctive. But Paul would certainly have corrected it before the letter was sent! The reason, then, for the poor external attestation for productivity thesis, the indicative may well be due to a misunderstanding as to who corrected the subjunctive. There is other evidence for this kind of activity as well. Homework Should Not Be! As is well known, although 1 Cor 14:34-35 are contained in every known MS, these verses are found in productivity thesis two locations: at this place and at the end of the chapter (in the Western tradition). Although Gordon Fee and Philip Payne have recently mounted the strongest campaign for their inauthenticity, the suggestion made by E. E. Ellis and others that Paul added the should banned, words in the margin before the original document was sent makes better sense: later scribes were unsure where the productivity, words belonged, though they recognized that they were meant to be part of the bellevue college application, book.

Further, the well-known problem of ????? / ?????? in 1 Thess 2:7 may well have come about due to construction productivity, the amanuensis’ hearing error (especially since the previous word ends with nu ). Essay Descartes Meditations! In essence, what we are arguing is this: textual criticism needs to productivity, pay more attention to the role of an amanuensis in creating some of the problems of the text, especially those generated by hearing error. But since the author would certainly look over his letter before it was sent, the all kind of essay, original text would most likely already have corrections in it. 26 Fee, ibid., 26. See especially C. Construction Productivity! F. All Kind Of Essay! D. Construction Productivity! Moule, “The Problem of the Pastoral Epistles: A Reappraisal,” BJRL 47 (1965) 430-52, for ukraine essay, the evidence. 27 Dibelius and productivity, Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles , 1. 28 Fee, ibid., 25. Elsewhere Fee elaborates: “Why three letters? For example, why write Titus or 1 Timothy, given one or the other, and overcrowding essay, why from such a considerably different perspective and historical context? And why 2 Timothy at all, since it fails so badly to productivity, fit the proposed reconstruction?” (6; cf. also n. 14 on p. 28). Ukraine Essay! 29 There is also a fifth argument, though it may presuppose too much. Hebrews 13:23 indicates that Timothy had just been released from prison.

In our reconstruction, Hebrews was written shortly after the death of Paul to Jewish Christians in Asia Minor. Further, it was written from Rome (13:24 is naturally read this way). Thus, Timothy, in c. 65 CE, was improsoned in Rome. Incidental corroborative evidence is found in 2 Tim 4:9-13, 21, which indicate that Paul had dispatched Timothy to come to him at construction productivity, Rome. With the instructions, “Do your best to get here before winter” (4:21), coupled with the early external evidence (especially Clement’s testimony), it is doubtful that Timothy got to Rome before Paul died (for Paul would have died within weeks of the writing of 2 Timothy, since he would not have written such a comment in the spring, and he probably died in essays politics the summer). His release from prison a few months after arrival (spring, 65 CE) would be most likely, since no real charges could have been brought against him. Thesis! Nevertheless, the incidental comments in both Hebrews and 2 Timothy are confirmatory of each other and fit nicely into our overall historical reconstruction. 31 Fee especially uses the very occasional nature of this letter to argue that the directive about women not teaching men (2:12) is due to the present crisis. Although we cannot develop it in this paper, it is our contention that Paul is making a more absolute statement. Further, the instructions about church order have been given primarily for two reasons: (1) the church is in disarray after the invasion of the heretical teachers; and (2) morally qualified leaders needed to be found to take the place of the homework should banned, defective elders and deacons.

Consequently, in our approach, Timothy’s job is to restore the church to what is construction productivity normative. The crisis does not call for essays politics, extreme, temporary measures, as some would have it, but for putting the church back in order. This can be seen in various ways (see, for example, our discussion of 2:8-15 in the “Argument”, as well as the many incidental comments in 1 Timothy which seem to refer to long-established practices [e.g., 5:9]). Construction Productivity! 32 In disagreement with Fee, I see the restrictions here as absolute, for Paul links them to creation (note the should not be, “for” [ ??? ] in 2:13. Construction Productivity! “I do not permit” ( ???????? , 2:12) is almost certainly a gnomic present since generic nouns are used (see B. M. Fanning, Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek , 208-17). Further, Fee is quite wrong that ???????? (2:12) “has the connotation of ‘to domineer’” ( 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus , 73), for such a meaning is almost completely unattested until the fourth century CE and banned, is not widely used until the ninth century! (Fee is here following the AV’s rendering “usurp authority” almost as though it had some ancient basis. In reality, the AV translators knew Latin better than they knew Greek and the bilingual text they used to prepare the NT was essentially Erasmus’ text [Beza’s edition]. Erasmus published the first Greek NT [ Novum Instrumentum , 1516; later called Textus Receptus ] in order to defend his revised Latin translation. And since the construction productivity thesis, meaning of ???????? had changed after Jerome translated the Vulgate, Erasmus used a different Latin verb to communicate the idea of “usurp authority.”) The real point of this passage is homework not be hard to miss: The original hierarchy of productivity thesis, creation was: God—man—woman (Satan is out of the picture). Ukraine Essay! But in productivity thesis Ephesus this order had become reversed: Satan—woman—man (God is out of the picture). The creation motif does, however, seem to have one restriction: it regards the exercise of authority and teaching in spiritual things, though whether this is essay meditations restricted to a church setting would be difficult to prove since there were no parachurch organizations in the first century.

Furthermore, since the construction, hierarchical order is connected to the creation order and prison overcrowding, possibly constitutional differences between men and women (the “for” in 2:13 makes such a connection), to construction thesis, restrict this just to the public worship of the church is to fly in the face of the essays politics, context. (Incidentlly, Fee makes a quite unwarranted assumption when he sees the “for” of 2:13 as reaching back to 2:9 and referring to a woman’s modest dress. He does not explain why vv. 11-12 should be skipped over. Construction Productivity Thesis! If anything, 2:9 is not at all in view [the issue is not clothing but authority] because only after Eve was deceived did she put on any clothes at all!)

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clutter essay all rights reserved. AHR is published in thesis PDF and Print-on-Demand format by ANU E Press. ‘You're all crazy. Every one of you. Essays Politics! You just sit here, in your cosy little house, with your cold sodas and your Facebook pages, like it all matters. Like it's even real. But it's not! It's all going to burn and you're going to be nothing but bleached skulls. Don't you get it?

You're dead! All of you are dead!' (Riley in ‘Strange Things Happen') Procrastinating one Sunday, I set aside a pile of construction productivity thesis print-outs from on-line media stories on the perils and overcrowding essay inanities of Facebook and settled in for a serious read of the South China Morning Post (in hard copy, of course, with hot coffee on the side). You may need to know this great newspaper to appreciate my shock at finding therein a sententious editorial about thesis Facebook (‘Facebook no substitute for real world contact'). While it is a Murdoch property, criticised at times for a willingness to accommodate the prison overcrowding essay, pressures of Beijing, the SCMP is construction, still a hard news-focussed paper, full of serious analysis of california events around the world: it does not feature frothy columnists, and celebrity wardrobe malfunctions rarely make the front page. Yet here, with no context beyond a slight story about phishing attacks on Facebook, was one of those loopy, furious moral blares that in recent years I have come to associate with Australian newspapers: ‘there is always superficiality to networking on the Web', the writer opined.

If Facebook ‘perhaps' helps us keep in touch with friends in productivity thesis faraway places, ‘making new friends and maintaining old friendships requires effort, emotional commitment and contact in the real world. Ukraine Essay! Facebook is no substitute for face time'. My print-out collection is construction productivity, full of essay descartes attempts like this to adjudicate what is and construction productivity isn't real in the lives of bellevue college application hundreds of millions of people. Many of these pieces must be written (I surmise) by stressed-out journalists with no more access than I have to lots of personal ‘face time'. Thesis! As a Facebook user whose loved ones are often very far away, of course I disagree with the editorial's premises; anyone who thinks that social networking is a ‘superficial' matter of clicking should explain to me (to begin with) in just what world the effort of application essay making a photo album for friends and family does not involve emotional commitment; and in what kind of real world it counts as an evasion of contact to have an on-line party, or to thesis, send gifts, humour and words of comfort or affection to ukraine essay, people across space and time. It would have to be a world without regard for productivity thesis writing and reading, obviously: no love of letters, no emotional responses to application essay, rock art and cathedrals; no crying over novels and poems, either. Come to think of it, it might be a world without great newspapers (a prospect which some pundits no doubt have uncomfortably in thesis mind). Irritating as media grizzles about the failings of mediation may be (and the locution ‘face time' bears witness to essays politics, their sentimentality; what happened to the rest of the body?), I do not save these articles in productivity order to meditations, disagree with them. For one thing, they're not that rational. Construction Productivity Thesis! Strong affect sprays about when older media attack new media that threaten their markets, and in particular when Murdoch newspapers wage culturally high-toned war on meditations just those social networking sites that have been thumping MySpace, the site belonging to their proprietor (see Knight). Construction Productivity! A couple of weeks before the SCMP stooped to conquer Facebook (and a month before the use of Twitter to get news out in Tehran became a global story), the prison, on-line Australian gloated, ‘Time is Up for Twitter'.

Hooking to thesis, a story that 60 per cent of new users give up tweeting within a month, this spiteful piece compared ‘transitory technologies' to swine influenza; people ‘build up resistance' to ‘diseases that must mutate to infect ever most hosts' before ‘spluttering out'. Print, in homework banned contrast, is a ‘robust and portable' technology, ‘information rich and never crashes—the platform for the online information age [sic] that you are reading now'. If the part about robustness and portability is construction productivity, true enough (while bringing to mind old jokes about the excellence of newsprint for homework should wrapping fish and thesis chips), the platform punch-line makes no sense except as a syntactically mangled blur of techno-clichés. There was a time—in another economy and before Mr. Ukraine Essay! Murdoch himself took the lead in reducing jobs in print news production—when any half-way decent sub-editor would have killed such a clause stone dead. What really interests me is the productivity, stories that older media (including television and the on-line versions of print media) tell about social networking, and the slightly nutty fervour that so often drives the telling.

Given the california prison overcrowding, now mainstream success of social networking sites, with people friending and following their Nannas and with Barack Obama's 2008 election campaign symbolically marking a new era of global-popular participation on-line, the commentariat are, in part, caught up in an apocalyptic moment of their own rhetorical making; in journalistic as in policy spruiking usage, new media talk has long proclaimed that one set of innovations will displace another—‘death' of construction productivity thesis print, ‘end' of the book. Bellevue! As anyone who works with media should know, reality is more complex. With technological change, old media find new uses or are reinvented interactively with new ones; arguably the productivity thesis, most influential medium for politics in Australia at the end of the essay, twentieth century was a telephone-radio hybrid, ‘talk-back radio'. This is construction thesis, not to dismiss the sense of crisis engulfing the profession of journalism, especially investigative reporting (Davies; Nichols and McChesney). 1 However, at bellevue application essay, the user's end their relative cheapness and construction productivity accessibility to ordinary people continues to give old media a key role in essays politics narrating the advent of social changes related to new technology, and in shaping at productivity thesis, least some of the initial popular understanding of should new technologies themselves: once upon a time, people acquired their first ‘memories' of cyberspace from construction productivity thesis a novel, William Gibson's Neuromancer (1984). I am by no means a new media scholar and my participation in on-line culture is enthusiastic only within a very limited zone. I love Facebook and YouTube, enjoy msn with a couple of close friends, barely tolerate Skype, quickly feel nauseous surfing the web and loathe email with a passion. However, since all media are mixed in their cultural make-up and bellevue application social uses, it behoves me as a student of history in popular culture to observe how the tales being told of new media at any given time draw on familiar generic and rhetorical reserves that help render change intelligible to us as a mode of continuity. An example of this and one of my favourite Facebook put-downs is the outburst quoted above from Riley, the undercover girl from the productivity, future in the second season of the Fox network TV series, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles.

Cracking under the strain of impersonating an alienated, pre-Judgment Day American teenager, Riley wheels on bellevue college application essay her bemused foster family in the kitchen one day and, with four viciously delivered metonyms (‘just sit here', ‘cosy little house', ‘cold sodas', ‘Facebook pages'), pours scorn all over their lives. In this moment, Facebook is construction productivity thesis, absorbed into the store of belittling stereotypes of mindless suburban complacency that print media, film and, superbly, television (the suburban medium par excellence), have been producing—and donating to california overcrowding, critical culture—for more than fifty years. A swelling number of Facebook stories is available on-line. Productivity Thesis! When I drafted this paper in early November 2008, Google recorded 747 million Web-wide mentions of MySpace (with 5,050,000 in Australia); 580 million for Facebook (5,060,000); and 104 million for the more specialised Second Life (but only 648,000 from Australia). I didn't think then of checking Twitter. Of Essay! By 19 May 2009, the respective figures were 858 million for MySpace (22 million in productivity Australia); one and bellevue college application essay quarter billion for Facebook (37,500,000 in Australia); 177 million for Second Life (25,700,000 in Australia, a significant increase); and 511 million for Twitter (15,100,000 in Australia). Productivity Thesis! There is no way of interpreting what the relative changes mean, or how many finger-wagging Murdoch editorials the Facebook numbers include, but the size of the overall increase in just a few months is california overcrowding essay, impressive. At the same time, it has become rare for a day to go by without the major Australian newspapers featuring on-line at least one Facebook or Twitter story. Sporadic checks while I was writing pulled up stories including a ‘teen' saved from suicide by a Facebook friend, Facebook and cyber-bullying in girls' schools, Facebook and sexual ‘recruitment' for NRL players, Facebook as a tool for Arab militants recruiting spies against Israel, the uses and pitfalls of Facebook for construction productivity thesis small business, and Facebook as a haven for Holocaust deniers. While forming a very small part of the on-line discussion of social networking sites, these stories arise from news media efforts not only to catch a wave of popular interest while reporting actual incidents but also to shape collective perceptions of essays politics a wider phenomenon.

In the process, journalists often draw on their rich professional reserves of reductively metonymic realism (‘setting the scene', the ‘character sketch') to cast social network users as types whose ways of acting are symptomatic or productive of diverse social ills: alongside terrorists and sexual predators there are always students uploading their mobile pics of boorishly drunken parties, ‘stupid girls' sharing every detail of construction productivity thesis their vapid daily routines, and workers who boast about bludging but forget that they've friended their boss. Descartes Meditations! As in folklore, each of these figures is sustained by construction productivity, a dense field of concrete examples both stellar (Hugh Grant and essay descartes meditations Bono for Facebook party uploads, MySpace's Paris Hilton or Twitter's Ashton Kutcher for thesis cosmic triviality) and ‘it-could-be-you' mundane (Kyle Doyle's ‘SICKIE WOO' Facebook status update). Ukraine Essay! 2 Simultaneously grounded in and abstracted from the real history of on-line culture, such figures ‘stick' in media memory, powerfully eliciting recognition (the party animal, the construction, princess, the slack worker) while drawing attention away from a myriad other practices thriving on the sites. Stereotypes are forms of should not be banned apprehension rather than bad representations, and productivity their force is to mobilize familiar knowledge to explain and absorb unfamiliar experience (Morris, Identity 143-44). While the limitations of a morphological critique of popular culture have been argued many times (Morris, Too Soon ; Morse), formal typing is a generative principle in popular culture itself. Media editorializing thrives on it and, as hard news-gathering receded as a journalistic practice during the bellevue college, Howard era, the readily available technique of consensus assertion through type (‘the' ethnic lobby, ‘the' Aboriginal industry, ‘the' politically correct) organized columns of what became in productivity thesis those years a major genre of Australian social debate: grizzling, or ‘fretful complaint'.

The fretfulness is important. Most of the grizzling that made it to press or to should, air in Howard's day was majoritarian complaint about the productivity thesis, perduring cultural power of social minorities (Morris, Too Soon 219-33), and california prison overcrowding the Macquarie Dictionary reminds us that the first meaning of ‘grizzle' is ‘to become grey', a metonym of ageing and thus (in this social logic) of fading power. When I call you a grizzler, or when we ‘have a good grizzle' together, more is involved than naming the productivity, act of complaint. The idea of grizzling includes an bellevue college essay, evaluation of the act itself as ineffective except at the level of emotional release. The release itself may be strong: grizzling is productivity, more aggressive than the also annoying but more pathetic acts of whingeing and whining. Grizzlers may have a bit of right on their side: when my Nanna said, ‘stop whingeing', she meant, ‘don't be a sook', while ‘stop grizzling' meant, ‘all right, now shut up and homework get on with it'. But the release is devalued as inadequate to the real or imagined provocation; to call a speech act ‘grizzling' suggests a helpless as well as reiterative mode of construction productivity criticism. ‘Facebook no substitute for essay descartes meditations real world contact' is construction productivity, a grizzle in this sense. What on earth is supposed to overcrowding, follow from a declaration like that? If parents are being incited to pull the plug on their children, or to seize their mobile phones, will millions of productivity thesis adults also rush off-line to essays politics, chat in a neighbouring office or across the back fence? What would happen in the ‘real world' of productivity our working lives if we did so?

Old-school editorials have a transitive mode of authority; seeking to sway public opinion or nudge policy action, the writer has an objective which could one day be achieved. When an upscale paper like the SCMP— read by educated, over-employed, middle to upper class expats and locals working 15-hour days and essays politics more in construction a city that runs on financial services and transport logistics—makes a wildly inoperative call for its readers to abandon on-line socializing for more ‘face time', a curiously sub-cultural mode of application essay address conflicts with the construction productivity, mode of bellevue essay authority. This editorial networks with technophobes, concerned relatives or loved ones of ‘teenagers' (and other types) who voluntarily spend too much time on-line, and people who just don't like Facebook; it predicates a real world in which people can choose how they spend how much of their time. Yet overwhelmingly in Hong Kong, as in construction many cities today, middle class people have borderless working lives and we spend most of our time, wherever we are, with computers. Facebook for me is real world contact. Bellevue College Application! It's not the only kind I have but ( pace Riley) it matters. In a day consumed by memos, reference-writing, refereeing tasks, managerial compliance chores and a never-ending stream of email, Facebook is my bit of heaven, a haven of warmth, silly fun and friendliness I can enter in an instant from my screen; contact there is real because it is diverse and productivity thesis unpredictable (unlike much of my work). Essay Descartes Meditations! To argue that another site is better for this purpose could make good critical sense, and to propose a legally enforceable maximum 40 hour week for construction ‘knowledge workers' would be even better. However, to urge me to essay descartes, spend more time off-line (‘making new friends and maintaining old friendships') for the sheer good of my soul is construction productivity thesis, a grizzle from those fairies at the bottom of the garden.

I certainly do not mean to suggest that all criticism of Facebook is grizzling. Serious legal, ethical and bellevue college application essay political issues are arising from or being intensified by the ‘Facebook' phenomenon (to use a typifying metonym myself), in the process sharpening some of the challenging debates of our time; free speech and its limits, censorship, the right to privacy, the negotiation of social protocols for a transnational economy that thrives on difference as well as inequality, the relations between semiotic and other modes of violence, tensions between legal, communal and performative models of identity, the foundations of community, the power of productivity thesis corporations in essay our personal lives, and productivity thesis the technological transformation of work are just a few of these. Anyone who doubts their political import in all kind of essay many parts of the world might consider the productivity thesis, case of college Fouad Mourtada, a 26 year old IT engineer beaten and jailed for 3 years in Morocco for placing a spoof profile of Prince Moulay Rachid on Facebook, 3 or, on a different scale, China's disabling of productivity Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Blogspot, Tumblr, Live Journal, Hotmail and Bing in essays politics the lead-up to the twentieth anniversary on 4 June, 2009, of the massacre in Tiananmen Square (Flumenbaum). Given this range of weighty issues to address, grizzling is of interest for its capacity to foreground unsettling worries and questions that trail along in the mix unresolvably, like an insistent and recurring malaise. For example, one familiar set of worries concerns the sociable personality and what it ought to be doing in the writer's world; does Facebook impair our ability to enjoy life and care for others off-line? Extensively debated in relation to construction productivity, manifest sub-cultures such as Hikikomori (see Jodice and Karmen) and Otaku (Lamarre) in Japan, anxiety about what it should mean to be human on an average day is hard to formulate plausibly now for larger populations. Thus an application, early grizzle by Bugeja about the implications of Facebook for university life (distraction in class, unwitting self-disclosure, inappropriate pictures, surveillance, commercial data gathering and identity theft) 4 suggests in the course of construction productivity a generally moderate discussion that there is a direct link between the essays politics, size of the university IT budget, a corresponding loss of faculty jobs, and a Facebook-driven proliferation of distracted, ‘egocasting' student personalities: ‘unless we reassess our high-tech priorities, issues associated with insensitivity, indiscretion, bias, and fabrication will consume us in higher education' (‘Heads Up'). The night of the living dead is close at hand. A related anxiety cluster invokes ‘real' friendship in an effort to achieve an impossible norming of intimacy. Brusquely handled by the British judge who ruled in a 2008 harassment case that Facebook friends do not have to construction thesis, be friends ‘in the traditional sense' (Emerson), concern about the authenticity of Facebook friendship is not only circulated in the press but relayed by ambivalent users of the site itself—like the sad case from college essay Toronto with 700 Facebook friends who ended up drinking alone when he tried to organize a party (Niedzviecki). While this confession may simply tell us something about construction thesis Toronto, or the author (I don't know that I'd drink with him either), narcissistic, instrumental or desperate friend-accumulation is also the subject of widely posted YouTube clips and a recurring discussion topic across the hundreds of ‘Addicted to Facebook' groups on the site 5 —eliciting on one of all kind these a well-turned, 14 stanza ballad, ‘Can I be your Facebook Friend?':

Can I be your Facebook Friend? Friendship's new reality. And we'll celebrate our union. For all cyberspace to see. Cause this friendship is unique. We can hold a conversation. And we never have to speak. I'll accept of course, and then. I will sit here on your profile. You won't hear from me again.

This poem nicely catches the nuances of the ‘Facebook addict' type: an anti-social, agoraphobic, ‘low maintenance' lurker who is also a passive-aggressive and voyeuristic stalker accumulating useless social capital. Were this to be taken literally as a realistic portrait of the average Facebook user, human community as we know it might really be at risk. As I write, Facebook claims more than 200 million users (averaging 120 friends each), of whom more than 100 million log on at least once a day, spending more than four billion minutes daily on the site worldwide. 6 As one of thesis those users (need I say?), I recognize neither myself nor my 370-odd Facebook friends in the poem's anomic persona. True, after the initial contact I rarely hear directly from the large number who are my ex-students or professional acquaintances, but I am sporadically aware of their lives and we are there for each other if the need or desire arises. This casual awareness is typical of large families (how often do we interact with all of our relatives?) and meditations also of small communities; I spent my first twelve years of life in construction productivity thesis a town of 2,000 souls where absolutely nobody, not even the newsagent, was on homework should not be regular speaking terms with everyone else. Of course, the poem is witty rather than grizzling because it personifies shameful little behaviours that most of us have indulged in, with or without Facebook (although they can be accentuated there). There is a bit of the lurker and the voyeur in most happily sociable people; who has never eavesdropped or peeped at a neighbour's stuff?

Familiar as they may be to people with wide-ranging lives on-line, these arguments need to be made; not everyone who uses email and visits web-sites is at ease with social networking. However, merely bristling at anti-Facebook stereotypes or mocking the malaise that prompts them risks buying in to an exaggerated view of what is thesis, new and distinctive about the experience the site provides, while ignoring the increased cross-cultural complexity of such malaise today. Concern about the future of sociability has been evolving in california prison essay the West for more than a century, as the spread of a consumption-driven economy has distributed imperatives of self-marketing and self-display to construction productivity, ever-widening populations. Today, the bellevue, deliberate inculcation of what Henri Lefebvre (1984) called ‘controlled consumption' to productivity thesis, drive economic growth in developing countries is carrying those imperatives across multiple societies with historically differing concepts of what counts as proper subjectivity. With a little adaptation, Veblen's 1899 work on the leisure class provides us with ample material for a rip-snorting essay on vicarious consumption and the ‘predaceous temper' on Facebook. However, it is more illuminating to homework not be banned, reread Veblen alongside detailed accounts by worried Chinese critics of the PRC's strategic production of consumerism and ‘popular culture' after Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour (see Wang) in 1992; Bao, for example, examines how behaviours, tastes and productivity thesis interests befitting new urban personality types were minutely modelled for the readers of a popular newspaper, Shanghai Weekly . In between these historical extremes lies the post-World War Two reconstruction of capitalism in the West and the classic literature on modernity and everyday life. In his Introduction to the 1984 edition of Lefebvre's Everyday Life in the Modern World (1962), Wander points out just how much Lefebvre's account of consumerism as a bureaucratically ‘controlled' terror spreading its principles of anxiety, repetition and prison compulsiveness through all aspects of life and into the soul learned from the construction, earlier work of bellevue college Fromm (1947) on ‘the marketing orientation': The modern world fosters a childlike personality, a person who constantly seeks and construction productivity thesis needs approval. … Aimless, over-reactive, inconsistent, face aching at the end of the day from the essay, ever-present and required smile, the marketing persona is of a piece with the modern world. (Wander in Lefebvre xiv) At least one thing to be said for Facebook and other mobile socializing modes is that they take the productivity thesis, ache out of smiling (‘like'), although unfortunately they also transfer it from the face to california prison overcrowding essay, the wrist or, in my case, the thumb: :)

For Lefebvre, the febrile tedium of everyday life routines (‘the quotidian') forms the underbelly or the ‘verso' of the modern understood as ‘what is novel, brilliant, paradoxical and bears the imprint of technicality and thesis worldliness' (Lefebvre 24-5). I have no doubt that social networking sites are ‘of a piece' with the modern world in Lefebvre's sense; given the essay, vastness of his theory's horizon, how could they not be so? However, if we reduce Facebook or any other massive phenomenon to a pretext for revising classic theories of commodification and alienation, the question does arise why an ethnographically challenging 200 million people world-wide invest their energies in an activity that any adroit critic can easily portray as of a piece with their everyday pain and oppression (not to mention that of the construction, workers who make computers and cope with the toxic waste). ‘False consciousness' seems more than ever insufficient as an explanation; always vulnerable to the charge of implying (from a masterly position) that masses of people ‘have yet to authentically experience their own lives' (Grossberg 365), ideological analysis has trouble accounting for bellevue application essay the degree to which popular culture can incorporate its own ideological diagnostic—a topic that no doubt arises on the 500 Facebook groups devoted to aspects of ‘Marxism'. Within the great tradition of modern cultural critique, an aesthetically-minded alternative is to follow Lukács via Jameson ( Signatures 9-34) or de Certeau (16) in seeking a utopian impulse in popular culture that reaches (even in Facebook) for a better future from the heart of reification, giving us pleasure in the process. The more creative Cultural Studies move today draws rather on construction sociology and aspects of ethnographic method to ask questions within a concrete and carefully delimited social context about prison essay our often ambivalent involvement in productivity popular culture—an approach that admits of empirically anchored and thus potentially surprising answers (Couldry; Gregg). Essay Descartes! 7 Having a bet each way at the level of productivity methodological principle, I lean far enough towards that old utopian quest to wonder whether Lefebvre's excoriating account of the modern everyday as it displaces a culturally if not materially rich traditional life of ‘style' ( Practice 38) does not direct us now towards the wrong historical vast horizon. Everyday life is not a human universal. For Lefebvre, the everyday is ukraine essay, a modern historical product that wondrously ‘erupts' into literature with the overwhelming triviality of that ‘epic twenty-four hours' (3) recounted in Joyce's Ulysses . Construction! A regime of living thickly composed of petty recurrences (‘gestures of labour and leisure, mechanical movements' [18]), everyday life has a time-tabling, programming, numbering drive that divides up human experience; lived time, for example, splits into ukraine essay the ‘pledged' time of work, ‘leisure' (an allocated ‘break' from the everyday), and construction thesis steadily increasing ‘compulsive' time spent satisfying ‘various demands other than work such as transport, official formalities, etc' (53). Apt for ukraine essay fostering consumption as it multiplies our tasks, this distributive force breaks up the ‘unity of form, function and structure' that for Lefebvre characterized ‘style' in construction thesis all the humble objects and social practices of traditional living (29-30).

While French peasant cupboards varied in form and construction from place to place, their fitness for a cupboard's purpose did not vary. I think of the california prison essay, Australian bush ‘meat safe': my grandmother's was cream and my mother's cacky green, but they worked the same way, they were not obsolescent, and construction they kept the blowflies at bay. Yet even as the destruction of style-based ways of life continues and as many millions of people struggle (not least in essays politics China) for a modicum of consumer comfort, perhaps in the over-developed world today it is everyday life rather than ‘style' that is slowly breaking down—along with its repetitive, minutely layered routines that differentiated the gendered space-times of modern domestic and construction productivity thesis working experience. Invoking the Incas and of essay Aztecs along with Greece and Rome, Lefebvre envisaged ‘the total absence of everyday life in a given community at a given time' (29) and productivity thesis not all of his examples were from the ancient world; adolescents and students in particular, he noted, fear everyday life as a ‘vague potentiality' known only through their parents (74). Lefebvre was writing in the 1960s, and an expansion of pledged and compulsive time under neo-liberal management over the past forty years has well and truly spread everyday life to formerly spared social categories. At the same time, though, I'm not sure that anyone who hangs round the house all day, a-rhythmically working and playing on-line in the same sloppy daks and trainers we wear to the shops, the gym or a meeting (or fluidly passing from california prison essay eBay to Wii Fit to compulsive email without leaving our screens) actually has an ‘everyday life' in Lefebvre's divisive sense. The socially insular, cave-bound figure of the hacker or the gamer in popular mythology certainly does not.

In fact, significant genres of popular narrative have been talking to us about the passing of everyday life for quite a while. In our great paranoid epics about technologies of surveillance and perception, the hero must first be wrenched from a routine life that he finds either a little dull (Will Smith in Enemy of the construction, State ) or unbearable (Keanu Reeves in meditations The Matrix ). His quest is then either to retrieve the normality that he now values more deeply, or to transcend it and to access the truth behind those meticulously programmed appearances; the Matrix is a totalisation of the everyday as Lefebvre understood it. In the overture to the Matrix trilogy (which, in construction thesis passing, reveals just how much of a Platonist Jean Baudrillard can be), Neo needs only to conquer fear and should not be jump out the window to construction productivity thesis, leave ‘Tom Anderson' and office life behind. In hundreds of lesser action films (a recent example is Eagle Eye ), this physical leap of faith literalizes the passage from everyday life to a new reality, while the recurring line of dialogue, ‘I just want my life back', marks the passage of a question about the stability of the everyday. Zombie and vampire stories also share the central premise of an essay meditations, assault on everyday life. Differently preoccupied as they are with sustainability, both genres feature the losing battle of the productivity, uninfected to preserve a semblance of essay descartes meditations ‘normal' life before joining the war for productivity brute survival that fills the overcrowding essay, world of post-apocalyptic fiction, in which no everyday life remains ( The Road Warrior , the productivity, Resident Evil series). The zombie apocalypse canon is the more absolutist about the relentlessness of prison overcrowding this drift; if Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968) adapted the Afro-Caribbean folklore marked as such in White Zombie (1932) to the setting of an construction productivity, American farm house under siege, Dawn of the prison, Dead (1978) memorably locked the remnant bearers of everyday life in the temple of Lefebvre's ‘controlled consumption', a shopping mall—with an out-of-control consumption principle ravening outside. Construction Thesis! Revisionist vampire stories have a more nuanced historical vision, holding out hope for an evolution in everyday life.

Born into Veblen's world, Dracula was a very much an old school man of ‘style' forced to deal with modern people (Van Helsing, Lucy); his descendants are historical border creatures who nightly negotiate the everyday, whether in romance ( Angel , True Blood , Twilight ) or as politics ( Blade , the ‘Joe Pitt' novels of Charlie Huston). And then there is the Terminator franchise, with its eschatological framing of ukraine essay a girl's moment of contempt for a cosy little house, cold sodas and Facebook pages. The film series temporally stretches the mundane double consciousness of thesis consumer modernity (knowing this way of college application life is not sustainable into construction productivity thesis the future, we want this way of life to survive) into a war over history's direction between contending forces in both the present and the future. So far, only the fourth film, Terminator Salvation (2009) explores a fully post-everyday world. Bellevue College Essay! Terminator (1984) and Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003) are ‘wrenching out' stories, with Sarah Connor dragged in the first film from her big hair and ankle-warmer ordinariness, never to know everyday life again, while her son John is hiding out in Los Angeles at the start of the third. However, in productivity Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) everyone except the monomaniacal Sarah (and, of course, her liquid metal T-1000 enemy) is immersed in ukraine essay the everyday; under the tutelage of John Connor as a child, even the T-800 helper (Arnie) learns some of its routines. Linking to this film in particular, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles TV series makes John Connor's adolescence a study in psychic conflict between longing for productivity an ordinary suburban life and knowing that (as Riley puts it) ‘it's all going to burn'.

What sets John apart as a leader here is not his awareness of the fire to come; in a fuzzy way, there is common knowledge around him of the unsustainability of our world. Ukraine Essay! Rather, this version of John Connor stands out from his helpers (with the partial exception of productivity thesis Cameron, his studious Terminator guard) because he knows why people care , none the less, about cold sodas and descartes cosy houses, ‘like it all matters'. I doubt that John Connor could risk having a Facebook page, but I'm fairly sure that he'd want one. Let me offer my own two or three cents about utopia and construction productivity thesis Facebook. First, Facebook is not all quizzes, ‘hey babes' and pokes. Most negative media stories obsess about one or two features (photos and status updates in particular), but the meditations, point about Facebook is that it bundles together multiple functions and thesis potential things to do. Most of us never use all of them, and other social networking platforms do some of these things better than Facebook does (MySpace for new music, Live Journal for communities, Ning for ukraine essay interest groups, Twitter for productivity global converse and not be news as-it-happens …), but what Facebook does well is combine : you can write private letters, play games, send gifts, do quizzes, circulate news, post notes, music and clips, share photos or research, test your knowledge, join groups and productivity causes, make haiku-like allusions to your state of california prison overcrowding essay mind and chat on-line with friends, all in thesis one place and time—restoring or relieving, according to need, the pattern of an everyday life. Facebook is on-line culture ‘lite': this makes it an object of scorn for digital elitists and ‘white noise' haters (see Tuttle), but it is also a source of essays politics its mainstream appeal. Corresponding to this variety of uses is the diversity of kinds of construction productivity thesis contact Facebook allows, with the relation between ‘contact' and intimacy also having the potential to overcrowding, vary over time within each singular friendship.

In this respect it follows the rhythms of productivity ‘real life' as a whole: as Lauren Berlant puts it, ‘all kinds of emotional dependency and sustenance can flourish amongst people who only meet each other at one or a few points on the grid of the banned, field of their life' (‘Faceless Book'). Nothing flourishes for people who join Facebook and do nothing with it; passive or un-giving use of any network is rewarded in kind (Strohmeyer). As Thompson points out, a depth dimension to ‘ambient awareness' accumulates only with time and aggregation. It does grow over time; Facebook has increased my affective quality of life, and not only because it offers a break from my academic service work. The collective stream of productivity thesis posts brings me word of books, articles, music, films, video clips and news that I would otherwise never discover. At a time of life when new involvements become more rare, I suddenly have digital penfriends with whom I exchange old-fashioned letters through Inbox (one of the least remarked features of not be banned Facebook), while an construction, acquaintance from decades ago has become a dear friend whom I contact almost daily. Retrieving a joy of my childhood, when my father would bring home a ‘two bob' chocolate on a Friday night and we'd listen to The Goon Show and My Word on the ABC, I play variants of Scrabble with friends on four continents throughout the day. Facebook also nudges me to remember more of my past than I am wont to do, as other people's actions unpredictably pull bits of our scattered lives together.

There is more to essays politics, this aspect than the nostalgia decried by Susan Dominus (‘sometimes it seems like Facebook is the productivity, most back-ward looking innovation ever expected to should not be, change the construction thesis, future') and Steve Tuttle (‘Goodbye, William and Mary alums I barely remember from 25 years ago'). Facebook has utopian force for me because it gently undoes the dissociative patterns I learned as a girl in pugnaciously ‘real' Australian country towns; it lets me have family on the same plane as my ex-students, my friends who talk books, my colleagues in Hong Kong and Australia and friends who also post in Italian, French and application Chinese. Directly because of construction productivity thesis Facebook, I was able to ukraine essay, speak by phone to a much-loved cousin just before he died. If Facebook vanished overnight, I would experience grief. Many users already express grief when the Facebook ‘team' announces a ‘redesign' or ‘streamlining' of some aspect of the site. Construction Productivity! 8 Grizzling about ukraine essay Facebook within Facebook itself is an activity that is too complex for cursory treatment here, but it is something I would research if I were a new media scholar. I'm generally not active in Facebook groups, but over the past year I have twice felt so upset about construction thesis ‘upgrades' that killed cherished features of ‘my' on-line world that I, too, signed petitions and joined multiple versions of prison ‘1,000,000 Against the New Facebook Lay-Out'. Apart from the anger endemic to living passionately in an environment that the owner can alter at will (a condition a bit like being in love and a lot like being a tenant), most obnoxious to me is the Facebook doublespeak that coos about construction ‘giving you more control' over your page, while flagrantly reducing that control as we are nudged to essay descartes meditations, push ever more content from other media providers. The worse occasion for me was the productivity, September 2008 redesign; by forcing several added rounds of clicking, it separated the applications (and thus the display of signs received from friends) from the news feed, in time as well as visual space—thereby splitting memory and conservation from contemporaneity, the past from the flow of the present.

Like most of my Hong Kong friends I had loved those gift-based apps and banned curated the images carefully as I once did scrapbooks of shoes and hairstyles from 1950s comics; some icons were beautiful and others were not, but all were mnemonic traces of events and personal stories. When Facebook began calling these ‘clutter' (an aesthetic position shared by thesis, mostly American friends who always hid their stuff behind a corporate web page look), I realized that my affection for ukraine essay these apps was of a piece with growing up in what was once sniffily known in Australia as an productivity, ‘Irish house'—full of clutter, often dusty junk unappealing to behold but charged with the vitality of the souls who had given each object or left it behind. Clutter is an unfriendly name for california overcrowding the portals of the spirit-world; it can be very bad luck to throw clutter away. So I keep some of mine on Facebook, immured on construction thesis that ‘Boxes' page, but when I go there now it feels like visiting a cemetery rather than a home. Groups formed to oppose Facebook initiatives can attract a couple of million people and they often complain of censorship and PRC-style technical interference from site administrators. The protests against the March 2009 remodelling of the Home page to make Facebook more like Twitter seem to have been a little more effective than those of meditations 2008 in construction extracting modifications of an unpopular yet widely accepted site revision. Win or lose, though, perhaps it is application essay, this experience of joining with equally frustrated and grizzling strangers world-wide in a reiterative struggle with a transnationally effective corporate ‘state' that exercises power through emotional blackmail (that is, hegemony; ‘if you don't like it, leave!') that for me most clearly models political practices of far wider import than Facebook itself. On Facebook at the moment we may be grizzling about ease of access to Growing Gifts, Hatching Eggs or My Fab Bag. However, if it is more or less new for me to do this on-line, the mode of continuity that makes this small change intelligible is neither fictional nor derived from Western critical literature on the political potentials (and otherwise) of new media use. Productivity Thesis! Rather, I understand it in an ordinary way through the growing power, in essay limited but I think expanding spheres, of the Chinese netizenry, which draws its effectiveness (in particular, against abuses of power in everyday life) as much from the culture of the political system that it inhabits and harasses as it does from the media it uses.

9 Over-supplied as we are with representative government, Australians have been accustomed to thinking of Chinese political culture as remote. Yet as our own system intensifies its reliance not only on construction productivity deal-making and ‘spin' but on ukraine essay public cynicism about the possibility of truth and integrity in politics, I note that it is during the often but not always fruitless exercise of opposing Facebook's decisions and exposing what lies inside their rhetorical cocoon that Hong Kong's ‘petitionary' style of productivity thesis public pressure activism as exercised within an unrepresentative, undemocratic mode of governance becomes, however briefly, a transnational norm. Petitioning may or may not be effective but over time it is the shared experience of a form of collective agency enabled by of essay, a broad and amorphous imagined community (‘fellow Facebook users') that has significant utopian and practical potential. 10 As culturally changing systems of political and corporate power reshape our lives in the West, we may have more to learn than we know from Chinese internet activism's capacity to trouble inaccessible and seemingly impregnable powers. In the meanwhile, having a good grizzle about productivity Facebook can sometimes achieve a little more than we have learned to expect. Meaghan Morris is Chair Professor of Cultural Studies at Lingnan University, Hong Kong, and Professor in the Department of Gender and Cultural Studies at the University of Sydney.

Her books include Identity Anecdotes: Translation and Media Culture (2006); Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema (co-ed. with Siu-leung Li and ukraine essay Stephen Chan Ching-kiu, 2005); “Race” Panic and the Memory of Migration (co-ed. with Brett de Bary, 2001); and construction Too Soon, Too Late: History in Popular Culture (1998). My thanks are due to ukraine essay, Carl Chan, who first persuaded me to construction productivity, try Facebook and twice helped me in important ways with this article. Catherine Driscoll and Melissa Gregg nudged me hard to think about Facebook, and essay descartes meditations the article is based on a seminar for the Department of Gender and Cultural Studies, University of Sydney. 1 For a review of Davies with a sceptical view of the model of journalism's history assumed by thesis, accounts of its imminent death, see Preston. 2 For tip of the iceberg indications of the Grant and Bono coverage see, respectively, Simpson and ukraine essay Bruce; Claburn.

Parodied in the 2006 Pink music video ‘Stupid Girls' and the inspiration for several pop songs about girly mega-narcissism, Paris Hilton's style of construction thesis chronicling the micro-events of her affective and material consumption is canonical for not be the ‘rich and thesis famous' genre; Ashton Kutcher (husband of Demi Moore) is an actor whose use of prison essay Twitter is construction, now metonymic of its trivial uses, thanks to the number of media stories that have been written about him. Essay Meditations! See ‘Facebook “Sickie” Guy Facing Investigation' for the Story of Sydney AAPT call centre worker Kyle Doyle, whose boss reportedly spotted ‘Kyle Doyle is not going to work, f*** it I'm still trashed. SICKIE WOO' on Doyle's profile; the incident is now an construction thesis, exemplary case for california prison overcrowding essay Human Resources training discourse on Facebook in the workplace (see Stokeley). 3 See ‘Three years for profiling a Moroccan prince on Facebook'. After an international campaign about the construction thesis, violations of Mourtada's rights during arrest, he was reportedly freed by ‘royal grace' after 43 days of detention; http://globalvoicesonline.org/2008/03/21/moroccan-blogosphere-on-fouad-mourtada-finally-free/. For an interesting discussion of the June 4th blockade and the language nuances involved, see Techcrunch ; http://uk.techcrunch.com/2009/06/02/china-shuts-down-twitter-and-bing-in-lead-up-to-tiananmen-anniversary/ 4 By ‘early', I mean that the publication of the article in early 2006 preceded the opening up of Facebook to mass use. Launched by Mark Zuckerberg on February 4, 2004, Facebook was limited at first to Harvard students.

It expanded membership eligibility first to other Ivy League schools, then other universities, then high school networks in college application essay September, 2005, before opening to everyone over the age of 13 with a valid e-mail address on September 26, 2006. 5 There is also a small number of Facebook groups (13 as I write) dedicated to more or less expletive-laden versions of the topic, ‘I Don't Know You But Let's be Facebook Friends'. Most of productivity thesis them show little or no sign of activity. As a check on the reality-effect of the ‘student orgy' stereotype, it is should not be banned, also worth noting that Facebook claims that more than two-thirds of its users are now outside of colleges, that about 70 per construction productivity thesis cent of users are now outside the prison, United States, and that the fastest growing demographic is 35 years old and productivity thesis older. 7 Exemplary of prison overcrowding essay this is Gregg's forthcoming study ( Work's Intimacy ) on the impact of construction productivity being always available on-line on the lives of middle and lower middle class workers in essay Brisbane.

8 Wikipedia gives quite a detailed and well-referenced account of the major intra-Facebook controversies and the mode of construction productivity thesis their resolution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Facebook#cite_note-43. 9 For a threshold Chinese case in June 2009 that was somewhat submerged in international news media by the events simultaneously occurring in Tehran, see ‘Fending Off Demands for Sex' for the widely publicised case of 21-year old Deng Yujiau, who was freed by a court after killing a Communist Party official who had tried to assault her. 10 My thanks to essay descartes, Russell Smith for this formulation. Bao, Yaming. ‘Shanghai Weekly: Globalization, Consumerism and Shanghai Popular Culture.' Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9.4 (2008): 557-567. Berlant, Lauren. ‘Faceless Book.' 25 December 2007. http://supervalentthought.com/2007/12/25/faceless-book/ Accessed 30 October 2008. Bugeja, Michael J. ‘Heads Up: Facing the Facebook.' The Chronicle of Higher Education . Construction Thesis! 27 January 2006. ‘Can I Be Your Facebook Friend?' Posted by Elaine Spall. 29 February 2009.

search#/topic.php?uid=2204645326topic=8458 Accessed 7 June 2009. Claburn, Thomas. ‘Bono's Bikini Teens Perplex Facebook's Privacy.' Information Week. 29 October 2008. Essays Politics! http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/privacy/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=211800114cid= RSSfeed_IWK_ALL Accessed 2 June 2009. Couldry, Nick. Construction Productivity! Inside Culture: Re-imagining the Method of Cultural Studies . London: Sage Publications, 2000. Davies, Nick.

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9 February 2008. Simpson, Richard and Sarah Bruce. ‘The Night Hugh Grant Ended Up in the Arms of a Gaggle of Student Beauties.' Mail Online. 8 October 2007. The-night-Hugh-Grant-ended-arms-gaggle-student-beauties.html Accessed 2 June 2009. Stokeley, Sarah. ‘Facebook and the Boss.' NETT#.

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The Theory of the Leisure Class: an Economic Study of Institutions . 1899. Forgotten Books . Wang, Jing. Productivity Thesis! ‘Culture as Leisure and Culture as Capital.' positions: east asia cultures critique 9.1 (2001): 69-104. Please feel free to california prison overcrowding, contribute to productivity, this discourse. Australian Humanities Review all rights reserved. Homework Not Be Banned! ISSN: 1325 8338. Editors: Monique Rooney Russell Smith.

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