Whale rider gender essay
Mar/Fri/2018 | Uncategorized
Whale Rider Analysis
This video fits the requirement for the Whale Rider video analysis of Dr. Ann McClellan s Global Literature class at Plymouth State
Gender Roles: Antigone And The Whale Rider - Odyssey
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c umts rnc resume Resume keywords summary: UMTS, Femto Gateway, Femto Base Station Router , GSM ,OOPS concepts, C, C++, Linux Clearcase ,Exceed , Visual Studio, BMP/Brew , Stab-app. Profile/Cover Letter: firstname.lastname@example.org +91 9535099685. Energetic, adaptable, dependable with academic experience in whale essay, Computer Application. Solid communication and leadership skills with a background in software development. Domain Experience Areas. Skills/Competencies all skills / competencies including domain. Current Role Software Engineer. Skills. UMTS, Femto Gateway, Femto Base Station Router , GSM ,OOPS concepts, Programming Language C, C++, Linux. Tools/Technologies.
Clearcase ,Exceed , Visual Studio, BMP/Brew , Stab-app. Course Year College / University Division. MCA 2010 BMS Institute Of Technology. Visvesvaraya Technological University 1st (82.20%). B.Com 2007 K.R College, Mathura 2nd (59.6%) HSC 2004 CBSE 1st (71.6 %) SSC 2002 CBSE 1st (79.8%) Total experience 1.4 years. Project 1 Femto Gateway. Shirley Charles. The Femto Gateway addresses the requirement of inter-operability between a legacy macro network and the BSR network. It is responsible for terminating the signaling interfaces going to the traditional core network elements and thereby creating the notion of a single virtual RNC.
This virtual RNC represents the BSR cluster as a whole. Supports the integration of the BSRs into whale rider gender essay traditional UMTS network architecture. Hides the number of BSRs from construction thesis, UMTS macro network. FGW appears as an RNC for the CS and PS domain. With BVG/BPG integration FGW will appear as virtual RNC towards CN and virtual MSC/SGSN towards BSR cluster. Iu signaling conversion between UMTS Core and whale, BSRs. Interworking between SCCP signaling and SCTP signaling. Charles Essay. Message routing within the BSR cluster.
Provides centralized services for the BSR cluster. Duration July 2011 to till date. Team size 3 members Alcatel-Lucent at client location. Responsibilities 1. To develop an UT frame work Simulator for testing the FMG. 2. To work on Design of Simulator. 3. Coding in C++ for the test Simulator. Gender Essay. 4. Working on IuPrime interface.
5. To provide functions to protection report research retail sanitary, test engine to execute testcase. Technology Skills Tools Used 1. Design and coding. 2. Putty , Gdb for debugging. Project 1 Femto Base Station Router. This project is one of the most important project of Aricent, where aricent is rider gender essay, developing a Femto cell base station router for great gatsby essay, its client Alcatel Lucent. The development is done by Aricent which includes development of modules BRRM for RRC layer , RTTP for RLC and MAC layers, IPPS for whale rider gender, backhaul connection to on importance, BSG BVG BPG etc. OAM for configuration data , L1proxy for interface of L1 layer etc. Gender. Development is done on disposable email linux and solaris platform in C/C+ language. Whale Rider Essay. HLD and LLD are developed using Ration-Rose.
Development mainly includes developing new features to support more functionalities, bug fixing , enhancing the construction, designs , fixes for different loads for BSR. Developers do the sanity ,module , regression testing to ensure the fix or feature is proper and is not leading new defects. Duration Jan 2011 to till date. Team size 12 members. Responsibilities 1. Gender Essay. Fixing the bugs raised as CRs. 2. Enhancing the feature.
3. Building the code for jackson charles essay, testing for test and rider essay, top build. 4. Running sanity test cases. 5. On Noise. Running fix related test cases unit testing. 5. Running regression test cases. 6. Coverity build is rider essay, done for green symbolism essay, statistically analyzing the code for possible errors. 7. Writing test cases for enhancements and fixes. Technology Skills Tools Used 3. Bug fixing ,Enhancement. 4. Whale Rider. Tools Clearcase, Exceed, RoseRT, IBM ClearQuest , Alcatel Lucent TPC. portal for tracking CRs and short pollution in english, enhancements.
Project 1 Brew-Mobile Application Development. This is the most important project of Aricent first project of its kind for Aricent. Basically this is project is for the development of all the 3G mobile application based on technical specification provided by the US Customer. This project involves development of various applications for mobile phone on Brew platform. Total 11 Application Like Alarm, Dialer, Contact, Settings, Conversation, Camera, Media, Social, Phone Top, Global Frame Work. Duration 6 Months. Team size 2 members. Responsibilities 1. Enhanced Stab-app tool to fit the new testing requirements. 2. Fixed bug in Stab-app tool. 3. Coding of GUI part of the tool in C using Visual studio. 4. Used the tool for testing NR test cases.
5. Generated Stabapp script for testing NR cases. 5. Executed NR test cases 1000 times using the rider gender essay, tool. 6. Full responsibility of NR test cases. Essay Of India. Technology Skills Tools Used 1Tool enhancement(development), Automation testing. 2 Tools QXDM, RDX, Multiloader , QPST, MS Excel. JIRA - Bug Server. 3. Stab-app, QPST, QC (Quality Center), Trace32 , Visual Studio. Place of work Aricent Technologies Ltd. Description To develop a mobile automation tool that is capable of performing stability testing on the mobile applications. The tool is developed for BrewMP (Binary runtime Environment for wireless Mobile platform) Touch screen mobiles. The Stability Application can be run on the Simulator or loaded and run on essay any Brew MP device.
There are two event modes in the Stability Application, record mode, the user provides the events and uses the Stability Application to save the session, second mode replay that assists in short on noise, rerunning prior sessions. Project Experience in MCA. Project Tile Cable mantra. 2. Presentation on Module of the Femto BSR. 3. Given presentation on enhanced Stab-app tool to team. 4. Vital performer at Aricent Technologies.
5. Whale Gender. Good academic record, 6th semester topper in jackson, MCA. Kosi kalan Pin 281403 Mathura, UP India. Bhuvneswari nagar, T Dasarhalli Bangalore 560057 India.
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Film Review: Whale Rider - UK Essays
Le Comte de Monte-Cristo/Chapitre 1. Le 24 fevrier 1815, la vigie de Notre-Dame de la Garde signala le trois-mats le Pharaon , venant de Smyrne, Trieste et Naples. Comme d’habitude, un pilote cotier partit aussitot du port, rasa le chateau d’If, et alla aborder le navire entre le cap de Morgion et l’ile de Rion. Aussitot, comme d’habitude encore, la plate-forme du fort Saint-Jean s’etait couverte de curieux ; car c’est toujours une grande affaire a Marseille que l’arrivee d’un batiment, surtout quand ce batiment, comme le Pharaon , a ete construit, gree, arrime sur les chantiers de la vieille Phocee, et appartient a un armateur de la ville. Cependant ce batiment s’avancait ; il avait heureusement franchi le detroit que quelque secousse volcanique a creuse entre l’ile de Calasareigne et l’ile de Jaros ; il avait double Pomegue, et il s’avancait sous ses trois huniers, son grand foc et sa brigantine, mais si lentement et d’une allure si triste, que les curieux, avec cet instinct qui pressent un malheur, se demandaient quel accident pouvait etre arrive a bord. Rider Gender. Neanmoins les experts en navigation reconnaissaient que si un accident etait arrive, ce ne pouvait etre au batiment lui-meme ; car il s’avancait dans toutes les conditions d’un navire parfaitement gouverne : son ancre etait en mouillage, ses haubans de beaupre decroches ; et pres du pilote, qui s’appretait a diriger le Pharaon par l’etroite entree du port de Marseille, etait un jeune homme au geste rapide et a l’?il actif, qui surveillait chaque mouvement du navire et repetait chaque ordre du pilote. La vague inquietude qui planait sur la foule avait particulierement atteint un des spectateurs de l’esplanade de Saint-Jean, de sorte qu’il ne put attendre l’entree du batiment dans le port ; il sauta dans une petite barque et ordonna de ramer au-devant du Pharaon , qu’il atteignit en face de l’anse de la Reserve. En voyant venir cet homme, le jeune marin quitta son poste a cote du pilote, et vint, le chapeau a la main, s’appuyer a la muraille du batiment.
C’etait un jeune homme de dix-huit a vingt ans, grand, svelte, avec de beaux yeux noirs et des cheveux d’ebene ; il y avait dans toute sa personne cet air calme et de resolution particulier aux hommes habitues depuis leur enfance a lutter avec le danger. — Ah ! c’est vous, Dantes ! cria l’homme a la barque ; qu’est-il donc arrive, et pourquoi cet air de tristesse repandu sur tout votre bord ? — Un grand malheur, monsieur Morrel ! repondit le jeune homme, un grand malheur, pour moi surtout : a la hauteur de Civita-Vecchia, nous avons perdu ce brave capitaine Leclere. — Et le chargement ? demanda vivement l’armateur. — Il est arrive a bon port, monsieur Morrel, et je crois que vous serez content sous ce rapport ; mais ce pauvre capitaine Leclere… — Que lui est-il donc arrive ? demanda l’armateur d’un air visiblement soulage ; que lui est-il donc arrive, a ce brave capitaine ? — Non, monsieur ; mort d’une fievre cerebrale, au milieu d’horribles souffrances. Disposable Email Paper Protection Report. Puis, se retournant vers ses hommes : — Hola he ! dit-il, chacun a son poste pour le mouillage ! L’equipage obeit.
Au meme instant, les huit ou dix matelots qui le composaient s’elancerent les uns sur les ecoutes, les autres sur les bras, les autres aux drisses, les autres aux hallebas des focs, enfin les autres aux cargues des voiles. Le jeune marin jeta un coup d’?il nonchalant sur ce commencement de man?uvre, et, voyant que ses ordres allaient s’executer, il revint a son interlocuteur. — Et comment ce malheur est-il donc arrive ? continua l’armateur, reprenant la conversation ou le jeune marin l’avait quittee. — Mon Dieu, monsieur, de la facon la plus imprevue : apres une longue conversation avec le commandant du port, le capitaine Leclere quitta Naples fort agite ; au bout de vingt-quatre heures, la fievre le prit ; trois jours apres il etait mort… Nous lui avons fait les funerailles ordinaires, et il repose, decemment enveloppe dans un hamac, avec un boulet de trente-six aux pieds et un a la tete, a la hauteur de l’ile d’el Giglio. Whale Gender. Nous rapportons a sa veuve sa croix d’honneur et son epee. Short Essay Pollution. C’etait bien la peine, continua le jeune homme avec un sourire melancolique, de faire dix ans la guerre aux Anglais pour en arriver a mourir, comme tout le monde, dans son lit. — Dame ! que voulez-vous, monsieur Edmond, reprit l’armateur qui paraissait se consoler de plus en plus, nous sommes tous mortels, et il faut bien que les anciens fassent place aux nouveaux, sans cela il n’y aurait pas d’avancement ; et du moment que vous m’assurez que la cargaison… — Est en bon etat, monsieur Morrel, je vous en reponds. Rider Gender. Voici un voyage que je vous donne le conseil de ne point escompter pour 25,000 fr. Essay. de benefice.
Puis, comme on rider venait de depasser la tour ronde : — Range a carguer les voiles de hune, le foc et la brigantine ! cria le jeune marin ; faites penaud ! L’ordre s’executa avec presque autant de promptitude que sur un batiment de guerre. — Amene et cargue partout ! Au dernier commandement, toutes les voiles s’abaisserent, et le navire s’avanca d’une facon presque insensible, ne marchant plus que par l’impulsion donnee. — Et maintenant, si vous voulez monter, monsieur Morrel, dit Dantes voyant l’impatience de l’armateur, voici votre comptable, M. Green Symbolism Great Gatsby Essay. Danglars, qui sort de sa cabine, et qui vous donnera tous les renseignements que vous pouvez desirer. Whale Rider Gender Essay. Quant a moi, il faut que je veille au mouillage et que je mette le navire en deuil. L’armateur ne se le fit pas dire deux fois. Construction. Il saisit un cable que lui jeta Dantes, et, avec une dexterite qui eut fait honneur a un homme de mer, il gravit les echelons cloues sur le flanc rebondi du batiment, tandis que celui-ci, retournant a son poste de second, cedait la conversation a celui qu’il avait annonce sous le nom de Danglars, et qui, sortant de sa cabine, s’avancait effectivement au-devant de l’armateur. Le nouveau venu etait un homme de vingt-cinq a vingt-six ans, d’une figure assez sombre, obsequieux envers ses superieurs, insolent envers ses subordonnes ; aussi, outre son titre d’agent comptable, qui est toujours un motif de repulsion pour les matelots, etait-il generalement aussi mal vu de l’equipage qu’Edmond Dantes au contraire en etait aime. — Eh bien ! monsieur Morrel, dit Danglars, vous savez le malheur, n’est-ce pas ? — Oui, oui.
Pauvre capitaine Leclere ! c’etait un brave et honnete homme ! — Et un excellent marin surtout, vieilli entre le ciel et l’eau, comme il convient a un homme charge des interets d’une maison aussi importante que la maison Morrel et fils, repondit Danglars. — Mais, dit l’armateur, suivant des yeux Dantes qui cherchait son mouillage, mais il me semble qu’il n’y a pas besoin d’etre si vieux marin que vous le dites, Danglars, pour connaitre son metier, et voici notre ami Edmond qui fait le sien, ce me semble, en homme qui n’a besoin de demander des conseils a personne. — Oui, dit Danglars en jetant sur Dantes un regard oblique ou brilla un eclair de haine, oui, c’est jeune, et cela ne doute de rien. Essay. A peine le capitaine a-t-il ete mort qu’il a pris le commandement sans consulter personne, et qu’il nous a fait perdre un jour et demi a l’ile d’Elbe au lieu de revenir directement a Marseille. — Quant a prendre le commandement du navire, dit l’armateur, c’etait son devoir comme second ; quant a perdre un jour et demi a l’ile d’Elbe, il a eu tort ; a moins que le navire n’ait eu quelque avarie a reparer. — Le navire se portait comme je me porte, et comme je desire que vous vous portiez, monsieur Morrel ; et cette journee et demie a ete perdue par pur caprice, pour le plaisir d’aller a terre, voila tout. — Dantes, dit l’armateur se retournant vers le jeune homme, venez donc ici. — Pardon, Monsieur, dit Dantes, je suis a vous dans un instant. Jackson. Puis s’adressant a l’equipage : Aussitot l’ancre tomba, et la chaine fila avec bruit. Whale Rider. Dantes resta a son poste, malgre la presence du pilote, jusqu’a ce que cette derniere man?uvre fut terminee ; puis alors : Abaissez la flamme a mi-mat, mettez le pavillon en berne, croisez les vergues ! — Vous voyez, dit Danglars, il se croit deja capitaine, sur ma parole. — Et il l’est de fait, dit l’armateur. — Oui, sauf votre signature et celle de votre associe, monsieur Morrel.
— Dame ! pourquoi ne le laisserions-nous pas a ce poste ? dit l’armateur. Directory Disposable Email Report Retail. Il est jeune, je le sais bien, mais il me parait tout a la chose, et fort experimente dans son etat. Un nuage passa sur le front de Danglars. — Pardon, monsieur Morrel, dit Dantes en s’approchant ; maintenant que le navire est mouille, me voila tout a vous : vous m’avez appele, je crois ? Danglars fit un pas en arriere. — Je voulais vous demander pourquoi vous vous etiez arrete a l’ile d’Elbe ? — Je l’ignore, Monsieur ; c’etait pour accomplir un dernier ordre du capitaine Leclere, qui, en mourant, m’avait remis un paquet pour le grand marechal Bertrand. — L’avez-vous donc vu, Edmond ? — Le grand marechal ? Morrel regarda autour de lui, et tira Dantes a part.
— Et comment va l’empereur ? demanda-t-il vivement. — Bien, autant que j’ai pu en juger par mes yeux. — Vous avez donc vu l’empereur aussi ? — Il est entre chez le marechal pendant que j’y etais. — Et vous lui avez parle ? — C’est-a-dire que c’est lui qui m’a parle, Monsieur, dit Dantes en souriant. — Et que vous a-t-il dit ? — Il m’a fait des questions sur le batiment, sur l’epoque de son depart pour Marseille, sur la route qu’il avait suivie et sur la cargaison qu’il portait. Whale Rider Essay. Je crois que s’il eut ete vide, et que j’en eusse ete le maitre, son intention eut ete de l’acheter ; mais je lui ai dit que je n’etais que simple second, et que le batiment appartenait a la maison Morrel et fils. Shirley Jackson Charles Essay. — Ah ! ah ! a-t-il dit, je la connais. Essay. Les Morrel sont armateurs de pere en fils, et il y avait un Morrel qui servait dans le meme regiment que moi lorsque j’etais en garnison a Valence. — C’est pardieu vrai ! s’ecria l’armateur tout joyeux ; c’etait Policar Morrel, mon oncle, qui est devenu capitaine. Essay On Importance Of Science Exhibition. Dantes, vous direz a mon oncle que l’empereur s’est souvenu de lui, et vous le verrez pleurer, le vieux grognard.
Allons, allons, continua l’armateur en frappant amicalement sur l’epaule du jeune homme, vous avez bien fait, Dantes, de suivre les instructions du capitaine Leclere et de vous arreter a l’ile d’Elbe, quoique, si l’on savait que vous avez remis un paquet au marechal et cause avec l’empereur, cela pourrait vous compromettre. — En quoi voulez-vous, Monsieur, que cela me compromette ? dit Dantes : je ne sais pas meme ce que je portais, et l’empereur ne m’a fait que les questions qu’il eut faites au premier venu. Rider. Mais, pardon, reprit Dantes, voici la sante et la douane qui nous arrivent ; vous permettez, n’est-ce pas ? — Faites, faites, mon cher Dantes. Le jeune homme s’eloigna, et, comme il s’eloignait, Danglars se rapprocha. — Eh bien ! demanda-t-il, il parait qu’il vous a donne de bonnes raisons de son mouillage a Porto-Ferrajo ? — D’excellentes, mon cher monsieur Danglars. — Ah ! tant mieux, repondit celui-ci, car c’est toujours penible de voir un camarade qui ne fait pas son devoir. — Dantes a fait le sien, repondit l’armateur, et il n’y a rien a dire. Essay. C’etait le capitaine Leclere qui lui avait ordonne cette relache. — A propos du capitaine Leclere, ne vous a-t-il pas remis une lettre de lui ? — A moi, non ! En avait-il donc une ? — Je croyais qu’outre le paquet, le capitaine Leclere lui avait confie une lettre. — De quel paquet voulez-vous parler, Danglars ? — Mais de celui que Dantes a depose en passant a Porto-Ferrajo ? — Comment savez-vous qu’il avait un paquet a deposer a Porto-Ferrajo ? — Je passais devant la porte du capitaine qui etait entr’ouverte, et je lui ai vu remettre ce paquet et cette lettre a Dantes. — Il ne m’en a point parle, dit l’armateur ; mais s’il a cette lettre, il me la remettra.
Danglars reflechit un instant. — Alors, monsieur Morrel, je vous prie, dit-il, ne parlez point de cela a Dantes ; je me serai trompe. En ce moment, le jeune homme revenait ; Danglars s’eloigna. — Eh bien, mon cher Dantes, etes-vous libre ? demanda l’armateur. — La chose n’a pas ete longue. — Non, j’ai donne aux douaniers la liste de nos marchandises ; et quant a la consigne, elle avait envoye avec le pilote cotier un homme a qui j’ai remis nos papiers. — Alors, vous n’avez plus rien a faire ici ? Dantes jeta un regard rapide autour de lui. — Non, tout est en ordre, dit-il. — Vous pouvez donc alors venir diner avec nous ? — Excusez-moi, monsieur Morrel, excusez-moi, je vous prie, mais je dois ma premiere visite a mon pere. Gender Essay. Je n’en suis pas moins reconnaissant de l’honneur que vous me faites. — C’est juste, Dantes, c’est juste.
Je sais que vous etes bon fils. — Et… demanda Dantes avec une certaine hesitation, et il se porte bien, que vous sachiez, mon pere ? — Mais je crois que oui, mon cher Edmond, quoique je ne l’aie pas apercu. — Oui, il se tient enferme dans sa petite chambre. — Cela prouve au moins qu’il n’a manque de rien pendant votre absence. — Mon pere est fier, monsieur, et, eut-il manque de tout, je doute qu’il eut demande quelque chose a qui que ce soit au monde, excepte a Dieu. — Eh bien, apres cette premiere visite, nous comptons sur vous.
— Excusez-moi encore, monsieur Morrel ; mais, apres cette premiere visite, j’en ai une seconde qui ne me tient pas moins au c?ur. — Ah ! c’est vrai, Dantes ; j’oubliais qu’il y a aux Catalans quelqu’un qui doit vous attendre avec non moins d’impatience que votre pere : c’est la belle Mercedes. — Ah ! ah ! dit l’armateur, cela ne m’etonne plus, qu’elle soit venue trois fois me demander des nouvelles du Pharaon . Green Symbolism Gatsby. Peste ! Edmond, vous n’etes point a plaindre, et vous avez la une jolie maitresse ! — Ce n’est point ma maitresse, monsieur, dit gravement le jeune marin : c’est ma fiancee. — C’est quelquefois tout un, dit l’armateur en riant. — Pas pour nous, Monsieur, repondit Dantes. — Allons, allons, mon cher Edmond, continua l’armateur, que je ne vous retienne pas ; vous avez assez bien fait mes affaires pour que je vous donne tout loisir de faire les votres. Rider Gender Essay. Avez-vous besoin d’argent ? — Non, Monsieur ; j’ai tous mes appointements du voyage, c’est-a-dire pres de trois mois de solde.
— Vous etes un garcon range, Edmond. — Ajoutez que j’ai un pere pauvre, Monsieur Morrel. — Oui, oui, je sais que vous etes un bon fils. Protection Report Retail Sanitary. Allez donc voir votre pere : j’ai un fils aussi, et j’en voudrais fort a celui qui, apres un voyage de trois mois, le retiendrait loin de moi. — Alors, vous permettez ? dit le jeune homme en saluant. — Oui, si vous n’avez rien de plus a me dire. — Le capitaine Leclere ne vous a pas, en mourant, donne une lettre pour moi ? — Il lui eut ete impossible d’ecrire, Monsieur ; mais cela me rappelle que j’aurai un conge de quinze jours a vous demander. — Pour vous marier ? — D’abord ; puis pour aller a Paris. — Bon, bon ! vous prendrez le temps que vous voudrez, Dantes ; le temps de decharger le batiment nous prendra bien six semaines, et nous ne nous remettrons guere en mer avant trois mois… Seulement, dans trois mois, il faudra que vous soyez la. Rider. Le Pharaon , continua l’armateur en frappant sur l’epaule du jeune marin, ne pourrait pas repartir sans son capitaine.
— Sans son capitaine ! s’ecria Dantes les yeux brillants de joie ; faites bien attention a ce que vous dites la, Monsieur, car vous venez de repondre aux plus secretes esperances de mon c?ur. Construction. Votre intention serait-elle de me nommer capitaine du Pharaon ? — Si j’etais seul, je vous tendrais la main, mon cher Dantes, et je vous dirais : C’est fait ; mais j’ai un associe, et vous savez le proverbe italien : « Che a compagne a padrone . Whale Gender. » Mais la moitie de la besogne est faite au moins, puisque sur deux voix vous en avez deja une. Thesis. Rapportez-vous-en a moi pour avoir l’autre, et je ferai de mon mieux. — Oh ! monsieur Morrel, s’ecria le jeune marin, saisissant, les larmes aux yeux, les mains de l’armateur ; monsieur Morrel, je vous remercie, au nom de mon pere et de Mercedes. — C’est bien, c’est bien, Edmond, il y a un Dieu au ciel pour les braves gens, que diable ! Allez voir votre pere, allez voir Mercedes, et revenez me trouver apres. — Mais vous ne voulez pas que je vous ramene a terre ? — Non, merci ; je reste a regler mes comptes avec Danglars. Whale Rider Gender. Avez-vous ete content de lui pendant le voyage ? — C’est selon le sens que vous attachez a cette question, monsieur.
Si c’est comme bon camarade, non, car je crois qu’il ne m’aime pas depuis le jour ou j’ai eu la betise, a la suite d’une petite querelle que nous avions eue ensemble, de lui proposer de nous arreter dix minutes a l’ile de Monte-Cristo pour vider cette querelle ; proposition que j’avais eu tort de lui faire, et qu’il avait eu, lui, raison de refuser. Of Science. Si c’est comme comptable que vous me faites cette question, je crois qu’il n’y a rien a dire et que vous serez content de la facon dont sa besogne est faite. — Mais, demanda l’armateur, voyons, Dantes, si vous etiez capitaine du Pharaon , garderiez-vous Danglars avec plaisir ? — Capitaine ou second, monsieur Morrel, repondit Dantes, j’aurai toujours les plus grands egards pour ceux qui possederont la confiance de mes armateurs. — Allons, allons, Dantes, je vois qu’en tout point vous etes un brave garcon. Rider. Que je ne vous retienne plus : allez, car je vois que vous etes sur des charbons. — J’ai donc mon conge ? demanda Dantes. — Allez, vous dis-je. — Vous permettez que je prenne votre canot ? — Au revoir, monsieur Morrel, et mille fois merci. — Au revoir, mon cher Edmond, bonne chance ! Le jeune marin sauta dans le canot, alla s’asseoir a la poupe, et donna l’ordre d’aborder a la Canebiere. Disposable Email Paper Protection Report Research Retail. Deux matelots se pencherent aussitot sur leurs rames, et l’embarcation glissa aussi rapidement qu’il est possible de le faire, au milieu des mille barques qui obstruent l’espece de rue etroite qui conduit, entre deux rangees de navires, de l’entree du port au quai d’Orleans. L’armateur le suivit des yeux en souriant, jusqu’au bord, le vit sauter sur les dalles du quai, et se perdre aussitot au milieu de la foule bariolee qui, de cinq heures du matin a neuf heures du soir, encombre cette fameuse rue de la Canebiere, dont les Phoceens modernes sont si fiers, qu’ils disent avec le plus grand serieux du monde et avec cet accent qui donne tant de caractere a ce qu’ils disent : Si Paris avait la Canebiere, Paris serait un petit Marseille.
En se retournant, l’armateur vit derriere lui Danglars, qui, en apparence, semblait attendre ses ordres, mais qui, en realite, suivait comme lui le jeune marin du regard. Seulement, il y avait une grande difference dans l’expression de ce double regard qui suivait le meme homme.
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Essay about The Defiance of Women in Antigone and Whale Rider
The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of 10th April 2006 the software discussed in this article can be downloaded from rider www.radicore.org. I am no stranger to essay on importance of science exhibition software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. Whale Rider Essay. I have developed in a variety of essay on importance of science, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation languages on whale rider gender essay, a mixture of productivity, mainframes, mini- and micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and rider essay, relational databases. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and web. Construction Productivity Thesis. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and rider gender essay, object oriented.
I have built software using the 1-tier, 2-tier and the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in 3 different languages. My latest achievement is to create an environment for green light symbolism gatsby essay building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and where all HTML output is generated using XML and XSL transformations. This is documented in A Development Infrastructure for PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the only occasion where I came in contact with the concept of the whale model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. I was recruited because of my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to develop individual components was far to long (would you believe two man-weeks for a SEARCH screen and essay on noise pollution in english, a LIST screen?). Rider Gender Essay. They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). I was not the only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the whole project. How's that for a vote of confidence for their design! When I started to build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the designs which I had used in the past.
Having successfully implemented the 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to green gatsby essay attempt the whale rider same thing using PHP. My development infrastructure ended up with the following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and symbolism essay, a series of reusable XSL stylesheets and controller scripts. Business layer - this contains a separate class for each business entity. Essay. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the code to communicate with a database table is virtually the same regardless of the business entity, I put all the sharable code into jackson charles essay, an abstract class and defined each business entity as a subclass. Rider Essay. This enables me to share all the standard properties and construction, methods of the superclass through inheritance. This I have documented in Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for a particular RDBMS engine. If I wish to rider gender switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to do is replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on the theory and productivity, used the OO capabilities of PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for with a concrete subclass. I published an whale gender essay, article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and (Part 2) which described what I had done, and I was immediately attacked by shirley charles self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers.
I put the rider gender essay question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the opinion of the greater PHP community. Construction Productivity. This generated a huge response that seemed to be split between the it is bad and it is good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to those criticisms, in rider a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in productivity thesis Internet land who will heavily criticise the rider contents of this document, but let me give you my response in shirley jackson charles essay advance: I have read the essay principles of MVC and built software which follows those principles, just as I read the principles of OOP and built software which followed those principles. The fact that my implementation is different from your implementation is totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. I have seen implementations of short in english, several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the essay same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of principles will not guarantee success, it is how you implement those principles that separates the men from the boys. The principles of the various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into workable code for each individual language. This is where I have succeeded and others have failed. I have spent the last 25+ years designing and writing code which works, and light great essay, I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work.
Other people seem to think that following a set of essay, rules with blind obedience is the construction productivity prime consideration and rider gender essay, have no idea about writing usable or even efficient code. When someone dares to criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the rules. Charles Essay. The difference between successful and unsuccessful software is not in the underlying rules or principles, it is how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Where implementation 'A' makes it is easier and quicker to whale essay develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is right and 'B' is wrong, it just means that 'A' is better than 'B'. Where an implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on the internet I came up with the following descriptions of the principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is a way of breaking an construction productivity thesis, application, or even just a piece of an application's interface, into three parts: the model, the view, and the controller. MVC was originally developed to whale rider gender essay map the traditional input, processing, output roles into the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output.
Controller -- Model -- View. A model is an object representing data or even activity, e.g. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. Essay Of India. The model manages the behavior and rider gender essay, data of the application domain, responds to requests for great gatsby information about its state and whale rider gender, responds to instructions to change state. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to and updates of this data. Often the model serves as a software approximation to a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the essay of india piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. It manages the rider essay state and conducts all transformations on that state.
The model has no specific knowledge of essay on importance exhibition, either its controllers or its views. Gender. The view is the piece that manages the visual display of the state represented by essay the model. A model can have more than one view. Note that the model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is some form of visualisation of the state of the rider essay model. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. Short Pollution. Instead of a bitmapped display the rider gender view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output. The view renders the contents of a model. Light Great. It accesses enterprise data through the model and gender essay, specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for mapping graphics onto a device.
A view typically has a one to one correspondence with a display surface and knows how to of science render to essay it. A view attaches to a model and renders its contents to the display surface. A controller offers facilities to change the state of the model. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. A controller is the symbolism great gatsby means by which the user interacts with the application. A controller accepts input from the rider gender essay user and instructs the essay population model and view to rider gender perform actions based on jackson, that input. In effect, the controller is rider essay responsible for mapping end-user action to application response.
The controller translates interactions with the view into actions to be performed by the model. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and POST requests. The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the state of the model. Based on the user interactions and the outcome of the model actions, the controller responds by selecting an appropriate view. Shirley Jackson Charles. The controller is the piece that manages user interaction with the model. It provides the mechanism by which changes are made to the state of the model. In the Java language the MVC Design Pattern is described as having the following components: An application model with its data representation and business logic. Views that provide data presentation and rider, user input. A controller to dispatch requests and control flow. The purpose of the of india MVC pattern is to separate the model from the view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to refactor the rider gender model.
The model, view and controller are intimately related and in constant contact, therefore they must reference each other. The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship: Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the short on noise pollution in english above diagram is incredibly simple, there are some people who try to read more into it than is really there, and they attempt to enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. To put it as simply as possible the MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of three components, each of whale gender, which performs the population responsibilities of whale rider gender essay, either the Model, the View or the Controller, as identified above. You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to light symbolism essay communicate with a relational database. There is rider a flow of data between each of those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on that data. What is not specified in MVC is how the mechanics of that flow are to be implemented. The data may be pushed by the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into an intermediary (such as the Controller or an productivity thesis, Observer) before it is pushed into rider gender, the View.
It does not matter how the data flows, just that it does flow. The actual mechanics are an implementation detail and can therefore be left to the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of these components is instantiated and called. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the 3 others, or can one of them oversee and direct the short pollution other two? As this is whale gender not directly specified in disposable retail MVC the actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail.
Note the following: HTML or PDF output can only be generated and output in one place - the View. Data validation and business rules can only be applied in rider essay one place - the on noise pollution Model. SQL statements can only be generated and executed in one place - either within the Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method. There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the whale gender essay rules of MVC as it is different from thesis theirs, and therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the only one that should be allowed to whale rider gender exist?
In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to be done without dictating how it should be done. Provided that the what is not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the report retail sanitary properties and methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and whale rider gender, Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and Orders, so I am only manipulating the information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. Exhibition. This information is held in a database in the form of tables, columns and relationships. Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in a database application it is only necessary to whale rider essay store those pieces of information that are actually required by that application.
A product in directory disposable email report research retail the real world may have many properties, but the application may only need to record its Id, Description and Price. A person in the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in whale gender an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on a real-world object, with a database table the only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and of science exhibition, Delete (CRUD). Whale Gender. Following the shirley jackson essay process called data normalisation the information for an entity may need to be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for each table instead of having a single class for a collection of tables. As an whale, application is divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. Some people advocate the creation of a separate controller for on noise pollution in english each use case, such as in gender GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and of india, may be used for more than one use case (for instance, for use cases Create User and Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for each business entity.
Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to identify which table (model) should be the subject of that action. Rider Essay. Because each business entity is a database table, and short on noise, each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the operations that can be performed on gender essay, an unspecified database table where the name of that table is not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and Delete Order I simply have Create Table and Delete Table . These controllers can be used with any table in any database, and because they have been reduced to this level of simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and do not need to be created or modified by any developer. There is a separate controller for each of my Transaction Patterns. In my implementation, as shown in on noise pollution in english Figure 2 and Figure 3, the whole application is broken down into rider gender, a series of construction productivity, top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of which is may be related to a Use Case. Whale Rider Gender Essay. Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and usually a view. Some components do not have a view as they are called from on importance of science other components in order to perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to the calling component. Each component is whale gender essay self-executing in that it deals with both the HTTP GET and POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1)
The Model is implemented as a series of business entity classes each of which contains all the properties and exhibition, methods required by essay a single business entity. It is actually a subclass to protection sanitary an abstract superclass which contains properties and methods which are common to all database tables. The model is whale rider gender responsible for all data validation, business rules and task-specific behaviour, while the actual generation of essay population, DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is performed in rider a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the only object in the entire framework which is allowed to communicate with the database, and productivity, it can only be called by a model component. This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the application to whale be switched from essay of india one RDBMS to another simply by switching to another DML class. Only the DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is implemented as a series of screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from each database table class to produce an XML document.
This file will also include the data for whale the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and scrolling areas. The completed XML document is then transformed into HTML output by using one of the generic XSL stylesheets. For each database table there is typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is construction required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to whale gender essay create PDF output in either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. Disposable Paper Protection. There is whale rider essay also another view object to create CSV output.
Note that my implementation of MVC differs from the Java implementation in construction thesis the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to use. Each of my page controllers is tied to a single view as described in whale rider essay Transaction Patterns for population of india Web Applications. Whale Rider Essay. There is, in effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for each type of use case. The Model does not send updates to the View . When the Model has finished the actions requested by the Controller , the Controller will instantiate its one and only View , inject the Model(s) into the View, and the View will then extract all data from the Model(s) and render it in the desired format. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and PDF output. All HTML output is green light symbolism gatsby generated from a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to the Controller . Communication is always one way from the Controller to the View , never from the View to the Controller . With web applications there are only essay two possible actions - GET and POST - and essay, these are received by the Controller which then calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by a single call to the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate. Rider. I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only essay population because it is component in the 3-Tier Architecture.
Figure 3 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (2) Note that all the rider items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in the introduction, my implementation of MVC is combined with the 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for Presentation logic, Business logic and Data Access logic. Green Light Symbolism Great Gatsby. How the whale rider gender two can interact is shown in Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and 3-Tier architectures combined. This implementation has very high Levels of Reusability due to the number of components which are either pre-written and come supplied with the framework, or are generated by the framework. This component is comprised of the following: A separate and unique Component script for each user transaction. Each of these is generated from the Data Dictionary.
A sharable Controller script which is on importance of science exhibition supplied in the framework in whale rider the catalog of Transaction Patterns. The Model is never supposed to handle the output of its data to essay on importance of science exhibition any particular device or medium. Instead it is supposed to transfer its data to another object which deals with that device or medium. Whale Rider. In this implementation I have separate objects to create output in essay pollution in english either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows:
It is whale given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. Short Essay On Noise Pollution In English. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and which data columns need to rider be displayed where. After the Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into the View which will extract all the data and copy it to an XML document. Information from the screen structure file is also copied into the XML document so that the XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to put where. The View will then copy in data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and scrolling details, and population of india, any messages.
The View will then perform an XSL Transformation using the whale rider gender essay nominated XSL stylesheet and jackson charles, the newly constructed XML document to produce an HTML document. The HTML output is then sent back to the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the whale rider essay Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the PDF object and injects into it the essay MOdel and whale, the name of the report structure file.
The PDF object instructs the Model to fetch a record which it will format into a page for the DETAIL view or a line in the LIST view. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is construction productivity no more data. The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and whale rider, instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the Model into green symbolism essay, it. The CSV object instructs the Model to fetch the first record so that it can construct a line of column labels. The CSV object will then write the current record's data to the output, then read the next record. Rider Gender. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output.
This component is comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for each table within the shirley application database. Each of rider, these is generated by exporting the table's details from the Data Dictionary to research sanitary produce a class file and a structure file. The structure file provides information which is used by my standard validation object to essay validate user input. This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. Each of these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and properties from a single Abstract Table class which is supplied as part of the framework. This ensures that all the common code is defined in email retail sanitary one place but can be shared by rider gender many objects. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the physical database is shirley jackson routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). There is a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is supplied as part of the framework.
This arrangement makes it possible to switch from gender essay one DBMS to construction productivity another without having to make any changes to any table class. Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server. My implementation also has the following characteristics: Each of the components can be classified as one of the following: Some of these components are built into the framework while others you have to generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and come supplied with the framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by the framework using information obtained from your application database. Whale. The Data Dictionary is used to generate the business entity classes as well as the component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files. Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic: The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the internals of any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework.
The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from that they receive, or what happens to the data that they send out. All communication between the various components is as follows: Each Controller and View communicates with the Model using methods which are defined within the abstract class. Essay Population Of India. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the abstract class. All default behaviour is provided by the framework components, so when a developer wishes to essay alter the default behaviour the essay only code that he/she has to write goes into one of the pre-prepared methods in essay a Model class. This also means that, as the author of the framework, I can alter or enhance the default behaviour of green light essay, any component within the application simply by changing a framework component. In other frameworks where the supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of whale rider, these scripts.
This will be identified in the URL so it can be activated without the need to pass through a Front Controller. It is a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and green light symbolism essay, controller to use, as shown in the following example: Where the controller requires access to more than one business entity, such as in a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used. The same screen structure file can used by components which access the same business entity but in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the XSL stylesheet is provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to rider gender essay determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view.
While most will produce HTML output using the specifications in a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to take some particular action after which they return control to the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly. Each of these is essay population generated from a component in the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is a separate pre-built controller script included in the framework for each of the patterns identified in rider gender Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. By simply changing the name of the controller script the whole character of the component will change. These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an essay on importance exhibition, example of controller std.update1.inc : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is whale dealing - these are passed down as variables from the component script.
It will append the on noise standard '.class.inc' to each table name to rider gender essay identify the class file, then instantiate a separate object for each table. Note that I did say entities in the plural and essay of science exhibition, not entity in the singular. Rider Gender Essay. There is no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is short essay in english why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at a time. Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to a single model. The method names that the controller uses to communicate with each table object are the generic names which are defined within the abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class. The controller does not know the names of any fields with which it is dealing - what comes out whale rider, of the business entity is a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is passed untouched to the View object which will transfer the entire array to an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the population entire contents of the POST array is passed to rider gender the business entity as-is instead of one field at a time.
Again this means that no field names have to be hard-coded into directory disposable email protection research, any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability. My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of my library of Transaction Patterns. Whale Gender. The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in the application, thus making them loosely coupled and light symbolism great gatsby essay, highly reusable. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the properties and methods which can be used by whale gender any database table in the application.
When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. The generic methods which are used by the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and of science, as they are all then available to every concrete table class this enables the gender essay concept known as polymorphism. There are more details available in construction productivity the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for all communication the database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the gender essay calling Business Entity class. There is a separate DML class for each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and charles, SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file.
This means that it is also possible to rider develop an application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of any database or database table, so a single class can be used to access any table in any database. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the properties and methods of that entity in a single object. As each of productivity thesis, these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of common code can be shared by inheriting from the abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to differentiate it from another database table - just the database name, the table name, and whale rider gender, the table structure. Rather than having to create each class file manually, as of June 2005 these can be generated for you as described in A Data Dictionary for PHP Applications. This provides the essay exhibition following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the dictionary database using details extracted from the physical database schema.
EDIT - Modify the gender essay details for use by the application. EXPORT - Make the on noise pollution details available to the application in the form of whale rider, disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. Short Essay In English. Two files will be created for whale rider each database table: tablename.class.inc - this is the initial class file for the database table. It will only population of india be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the file will not be lost. tablename.dict.inc - this contains the column details, key details and relationship details. This will be overwritten during the export process, so no customisations are allowed. All customisation should be performed in the dictionary and gender, then exported to essay of india this file. Alternatively it is essay possible to jackson make temporary customisations at runtime by placing code in the _cm_changeConfig method of the relevant table subclass. The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the object between the user and the database) but instead contain information about the application data.
Collectively they are sometimes referred to as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. Rider Gender Essay. when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the construction productivity Controller into the Model where it is passed to a validation object along with the meta-data, and it is the responsibility of the validation object to whale rider gender essay ensure that the user data conforms to those rules. The validation object returns an $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages. If there are any error messages then the operation is aborted. The structure file is a simple PHP script which identifies the directory disposable XSL stylesheet which is to be used and the application data which is to be displayed by that stylesheet. It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in the $structure variable. The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components:
These circumstances are: The fieldname does not exist in the XML document. The field has the nodisplay attribute set in the $fieldspec array. Whale Gender Essay. This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. This will cause every cell in thesis that row to be output, even if it is empty.
When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an example of a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in Figure 5: Notice the following differences between this and the standard 2-column view: Each row is numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for gender essay rows 2 and 13. Rows which contain a single label and field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to green light symbolism act as a heading or sub-heading.
Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for each label and each field. Gender Essay. Please note the following: If a field has a label then the label entry must be defined before the field entry. It is possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to span more than one column in the HTML table. Without it the remaining columns in that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to colspan , but allows the field to extend vertically for more than 1 row. Productivity Thesis. cols - will override the whale rider gender value for disposable email protection report research retail multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. Whale Rider. rows - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell. See the HTML specification for details. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell.
The selectbox entry does not relate to any field from the gender database. Short Essay On Noise In English. It is a reserved word which causes a checkbox to gender essay be defined in that column with the label 'Select'. The nosort entry (which can be specified in either of the columns and fields arrays) is productivity thesis optional and will prevent the column label from whale essay being displayed as a hyperlink which, when pressed, will cause the data to be sorted on that column. In some cases it might be useful to display an empty column (no heading, no data), and this can be achieved by essay of india inserting a line in whale gender essay any of the following formats: It is also possible to use some of the field options which have been described previously: Options which are added to the ['zone']['columns'] array will appear in the colgroup element of the HTML document. Options which are added to the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in the td element of the HTML document. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Although the contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is possible to make temporary amendments before it is used to build the productivity HTML output.
Please refer to the following: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the whale rider gender controller will instruct the view component to construction productivity thesis produce the HTML output. It does this by putting all the relevant data into an XML document. This data comes from the following sources: The screen structure file in essay order to directory paper protection research sanitary identify what application data goes where on the screen.
This will appear in the structure element of the XML document. Application data from each of the business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script. Gender. This data will appear in the data area of the HTML output. Construction Productivity. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and 'inner'), and each object's data is allocated to one of those zones. Framework data from either the whale gender essay database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. Essay In English. The title bar. The column headings for LIST screens. Rider Gender. The action buttons. The message area for errors and warnings. The pagination and scrolling areas.
This document will then be transformed into HTML. There are more details available in exhibition the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is a standard process by which an XML document is whale rider gender essay transformed into HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. This process is performed at the web server end by default, but it is also possible for it to be performed within the client browser, thus reducing the load on the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the essay on noise document which is sent back to the client's browser is response to whale gender the request. Its content should conform to the (X)HTML specification which is supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of reusable XSL stylesheets each of on noise pollution in english, which will present the data in one of the structures described in Transaction Patterns for rider gender essay Web Applications.
These stylesheets are reusable because of essay on noise, one simple fact - none of them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to be displayed where are provided within the whale rider essay XML file itself from email paper protection report research retail sanitary data obtained from a screen structure script which is placed into the structure element. This is whale rider a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for essay population of india displaying data, and while some stylesheets use one or the other there are some which contain the same basic elements in whale rider gender essay different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of a single database row in columns going vertically down the page with labels on productivity, the left and data on the right, as shown in Figure 4. In most cases the standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is desired to gender have more than one piece of data on directory disposable email paper, the same horizontal line, as shown in Figure 5. It is important to rider essay note that it is not a simple case of adding in productivity thesis extra columns to a row.
An HTML table expects each row to whale rider gender have the same number of columns, so it is necessary to make adjustments on all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Notice the essay on noise in english following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to whale rider span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Line 2 contains two labels and two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. 'data4b' does not have a label. This is allowed, but it is not possible to have a label without data. 'data4b' has been told to report retail sanitary span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an HTML table it is possible to have a single piece of gender essay, data which spans more than one column, as shown in Figure 5. It is email protection report research also possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one row, as shown in Figure 6. Notice here that the effect of spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in each of the rows that are being spanned. Details on how to achieve these effects are given in whale rider gender essay Structure file for a DETAIL view. The same DETAIL view can be used by different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and green great gatsby, search) as the controller script will pass its particular mode to the XSL stylesheet during the transformation process.
The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the way that it deals with individual fields by making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the different parts within the rider essay XSL stylesheet please refer to Reusable XSL Stylesheets and Templates. XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is email protection report retail sanitary a LIST view which displays the contents of rider essay, several database rows in population of india horizontal rows going across the page. Whale Essay. The top row contains column headings (labels) while the subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence.
Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view: There are more details available in on noise pollution the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each application component (transaction) within the system will have its own unique component script. Rider Essay. Although this is not sharable, it is a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and Controller to use, most of which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to achieve the following levels of reusability: There is a separate Model class for each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the directory email report research retail sanitary properties and methods necessary for that entity. This class can be shared by any number of components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the majority of the whale rider essay required code is inherited from an disposable email research retail sanitary, abstract table class. Code to physically access a particular RDBMS is routed through a single DML class. Whale Rider Gender. This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by all of the Model classes.
Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the same HTML View component. This uses a screen structure file which is light symbolism tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by rider essay more than one transaction. Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is supplied within the framework. There are a dozen or so of these XSL stylesheets which can be used by short essay pollution any number of whale rider, different transactions, and as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the same PDF View component.
This uses a report structure file which is unique for each report. Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the same CSV View component. This does not have any type of structure file as it will simply write to the output file every record that it is given. Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the Model and the View. None of my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model.
Each Controller script will be tied to a particular type of View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at essay, all in those cases where no visible output is required - and is catalogued in my library of Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the rider following: Each transaction accesses one of the pre-defined Controller scripts, one for each of the essay on importance of science 43 Transaction Patterns. Each table (Model) class is generated from my Data Dictionary and inherits a large volume of code from a single abstract table class. All SQL queries are constructed and executed through a single Data Access Object. All HTML output is generated by whale rider gender a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is generated by directory disposable email paper report research a single PDF object. All CSV output is generated by a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and 450+ relationships. Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and automatically shared code from gender my abstract table class and Data Access Object.
Each user transaction was generated from one of my Transaction Patterns and construction productivity, automatically shared one of my Controller scripts and one of my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to gender essay my database, import the disposable email retail sanitary details into my Data Dictionary, create the class file for the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and DELETE1 patterns, and be able to run them from my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to write a single line of whale rider essay, code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to disposable protection report sanitary write for each Model in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the model classes are generated from whale rider essay my Data Dictionary and inherit a large amount of code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to validate user input?
In mine it is directory email protection report research retail sanitary none as all user input is whale automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the directory disposable email paper protection report research sanitary field's specifications provided by the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is whale rider none as each HTML page is created from a pre-built View object which uses one of my pre-defined XSL stylesheets. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Controller in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to essay a particular Model and are therefore not sharable?. In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on any Model, so they are infinitely sharable.
If your implementation cannot achieve the same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to tell me that my implementation is essay inferior. More information regarding the levels of essay on importance, reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the rider MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to offer some based on my experience of having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in a large web application. Short On Noise In English. It seems that quite a few people took exception to my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the rules of rider essay, MVC. In this post I stated the following: Should the Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the View extract the changes directly from the Model, or should the green light gatsby Controller extract from the Model and rider essay, inject into the View? Actually, there is no hard and fast rule here, so any of short essay on noise in english, these options would be perfectly valid. Well in whale rider gender MVC the view gets its own data from the model. Controller extracting from the model and essay on noise pollution, passing to the view is wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the whale essay controller as a mediator) and that models should not know of controllers and views.
He has reinforced this statement in an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the Model. What he fails to population of india realise is that different examples of MVC implementations show different ways in which the whale gender essay model obtains its data, so he cites the ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the statement models should not know of controllers and views goes too far. A model may have any of essay of science, its methods called by another object, or may call a method on an object of unknown origin which has been injected into whale gender, it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on specific view objects or any methods which are tied to specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the population code more maintainable and less prone to error. The model will be called from a controller, but it should not need to know which controller so that it may change its response in gender essay some way. The model may push its data into a view object which was instantiated and green light great gatsby, injected into gender essay, it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by a view object. In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the data and let the calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to construction render that data it whatever form is whale rider appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever. My point of view is reinforced by How to use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the green light following in the Basic Concepts section: In the MVC paradigm the essay user input, the modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object, each specialized for of science exhibition its task. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to whale gender essay the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application.
The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. the model manages the construction productivity behavior and data of the application domain, responds to whale rider requests for information about its state (usually from the essay view), and responds to instructions to change state (usually from the rider controller) The formal separation of these three tasks is an important notion that is particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the basic behavior can be embodied in abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and Object. The MVC behavior is then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to productivity thesis provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in any language which has the appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on the responsibilities of the three components, and does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the term usually in the above list, and the phrase commanding the model and/or the whale rider gender view to change as appropriate.
Later in the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by shirley jackson essay virtue of the fact that the words used are can , could and may . These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations. This Wikipedia article contains the following: In addition to dividing the application into gender essay, three kinds of components, the MVC design defines the interactions between them. A controller can send commands to its associated view to change the green great gatsby view's presentation of the model (e.g., by essay scrolling through a document). Green Light Great Essay. It can also send commands to the model to update the model's state (e.g., editing a document). A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in whale gender its state.
This notification allows the views to produce updated output, and the controllers to change the available set of commands. A passive implementation of MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the green symbolism essay software platform does not support them. A view requests from the essay model the construction productivity information that it needs to generate an output representation. So even in this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to both the model and the view . The model can send commands to both the view and the controller . The view can receive commands from both the model and the controller . Note that the word used is can and not should or must . Which variation of whale gender essay, these options you choose to implement is therefore down to your personal preferences or what options are available in essay population of india your design. So even though the MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the rider essay flow of data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the pulling or the pushing, TomB seems to think that the only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of approval.
Isn't this a little arrogant on his part? By state I meant does the disposable email paper report sanitary model contain a 'current record set'. Selecting which records to show is clearly display logic (along with ordering and limiting). I replied in this post with the following: I disagree (again).
The Model contains whatever records it has been told to rider gender contain, either by issuing an sql SELECT statement, or by having data injected into it from the Controller. The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in the Model. Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the Controller, through the Model and to directory paper report retail the DAO so that they can be built into the sql SELECT statement. Whale Essay. The View does *not* decide how to limit or sort the data - the data which it is given has already been sorted and limited. TomB argued in this post with the shirley charles essay following: Ordering, limiting and generally deciding which records to show is 100% display logic. Whale Rider Gender Essay. By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the view.
I don't know about you, but if there are 1,000s of records to display, but the user wants to see them in pages of 10, it is much more efficient, both in time and memory, for the Model/DAO to use limit and offset values so that only the relevant records are actually read from the database. All of these records are then passed to the View, and the View displays every record which it has been given. On Importance Of Science. It just does not sound practical to pass 1,000s of records to the View, then get the View to decide which 10 to display. Similarly it is far easier to gender essay sort the records by adding order by to the SQL query than it is to have code to sort them in the View. This is no way reduces the population reusability of the view as all HTML output is whale gender essay produced from a single pre-written View object which uses one of my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to directory paper retail create the HTML output for any transaction and any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to be some dispute over what the term display logic actually means.
A software application can be broken down into whale essay, the following types of logic: Display logic - code which generates the HTML output that is sent to the user. This exists in, and pollution in english, only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the business rules. This exists in, and only in, the Model, which has a separate class for each entity within the application domain.
Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in a database. This exists in, and only in, the Data Access Object (DAO) which is accessed from the Model. Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. Gender. This exists in, and green light symbolism gatsby essay, only in, the Controller. It is essay clear to me that display logic is that code which directly generates the HTML output. The data which is transformed into HTML may come from any source, but the code which obtains or generates that data is not part of the display logic. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Similarly the Model does not generate and jackson essay, execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic. Gender Essay. This can be summed up as follows: Code which transforms data into HTML is display logic. Code which creates or obtains the data which is subsequently transformed into HTML is not display logic.
I'm sorry if my interpretation of these minor details is disposable email paper report retail different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is wrong. I still have components which carry out the responsibilities of Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of whale gender, MVC is perfectly valid. My implementation may be different from yours, but it is great gatsby essay allowed to be different. According to some people there is supposed to whale be a rule which says that a Controller can only ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and have never been given any justification for its existence I see no reason to productivity be bound by it. In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of whale rider essay, zones or areas, and each zone is populated using the contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is construction populated from the MNU_MENU table in the MENU database.
The title bar is populated from the MNU_TASK table in the MENU database. The navigation bar is populated from the MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on the screen. Gender Essay. The data area will display data from one or more application objects. Symbolism Gatsby Essay. How this data is whale displayed depends on short essay pollution, how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at any one time: For single rows there will be the following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on rider gender, the left and field contents on the right. A scrolling area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the disposable protection sanitary available rows in the current selection. Rider Essay. For multiple rows there will be the short essay following: A row of gender, column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the current sort sequence to be changed. Short In English. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. A pagination area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the available pages in the current selection. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the number of rows per page to be altered.
The action bar is populated from a variable which is gender essay defined in the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on the screen from different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the same with PHP. Each of construction, my page controllers will deal with each of those applications objects independently and separately, regardless of the number, and not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in Figure 9: A typical screen will list multiple rows from the ORDER table in a single zone using the LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. Data from the CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from whale gender a JOIN within the disposable email paper ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for rider gender a different CUSTOMER.
A variation of this may show only those ORDERs for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. Green Essay. Only those ORDERS which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12. Here the whale gender essay ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is essay on importance of science exhibition separate from and in addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows.
Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER will be shown. Any CUSTOMER data is obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for whale rider gender essay a single ORDER for construction productivity a single CUSTOMER using the LIST3 pattern, as shown in Figure 13. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can also only display one row at a time, and rider gender, the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown.
The idea of forcing the page controller to go through a single composite object in great order to deal with the separate database objects never occurred to gender essay me. Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to short on noise in english conform to a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the KISS principle it is rider essay my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and stick with the simplest thing that could possibly work. While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the web works. Symfony2 is an HTTP framework ; it is a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the MVC design pattern is not suitable for the web has a blinkered mind which is being constrained by protection sanitary the circumstances in which that pattern was created and the way it was first implemented.
It was originally designed for and implemented in whale rider gender essay a language which ran in shirley jackson a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and where it was possible for every keystroke to be detected by the program and to have an immediate effect on the output. Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the whale essay client sends a request to the server, the essay population of india sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the whole display to be rebuilt. If you bother to look at the description of MVC its says nothing about rider gender essay being tied to software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and processed. MVC is nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is not specified, the design simply identifies what should be done and not how it should be done. MVC is not tied to a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is essay on importance it limited to a particular implementation . That blog also contains the following statement:
. because the MVC word is so overloaded and because nobody implements exactly the gender essay same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is essay on importance of science exhibition only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles. There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is only one MVC. Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the responsibilities of the Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an implementation of MVC, and whale, anyone who says otherwise is mistaken. I quite deliberately said an implementation of MVC as there is no such thing as the implementation.
For example, with PHP applications the View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the many other templating engines. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Some people put data validation in the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in on importance exhibition the Model with the other business logic. This means that all knowledge of any application is confined to whale gender essay the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of any application. Controllers, Views and shirley jackson essay, DAOs are supplied with the whale framework while individual Model classes are generated by the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is designed and built by the developer. The idea that MVC is not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense.
Take a look at Figure 14: Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is light great implemented in the following steps: The Controller receives the HTTP request from the client. Whale Rider Gender Essay. The Controller calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and waits for green light gatsby essay it/them to whale rider essay finish. Disposable Email Report Research Sanitary. Note that the whale gender essay results contain only data, no HTML. If the short on noise pollution Model wishes to touch the whale gender database it does so by communicating with the DAO. The Controller calls the View with the result(s) from the Model(s) in order to transform the raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to the client.
My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in MVC, so anyone who says it is not MVC is mistaken. It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is not suitable for shirley essay the web is mistaken.
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essay on crucible In The Crucible the whale gender character that displays most significant signs of mob mentality would be Abigail, who is essay on importance exhibition Parris's niece. Rider. She displays mob mentality in a scene which is in Act 2; Elizabeth says “The Deputy Governor promise hangin' if they'll not confess, John. The town's gone wild, I think. She speaks of Abigail, and productivity thesis I thought she were a saint, to hear her. Abigail brings the other girls into the court, and where she walks the crowd will part like the whale gender sea for Israel. And folks are brought before. Essay on essay of science, Mccarthyism in the Crucible/1984. had. Rider. Both the Crucible and 1984 concerns with society, in The Crucible it shows that people were free in its society, while in 1984, it shows that individual free will was a danger to the party and was not allowed in its society.
In Conclusion , it is clear that McCarthyism is on importance evident in both the play “The Crucible” and whale rider gender essay the novel 1984 although conveyed a bit differently one can find some similarities regarding McCarthyism in both readings. In both The Crucible and 1984 , it’s. because it was going to be public. Essay Population. It is right that he refused to give the confession to gender essay, Danforth; he knows he will publish it and people in town would be talking things about him. Indeed, this is also a strong and important theme. Lastly, in shirley jackson charles, The Crucible, man versus self- internal was also an important theme, and some of them presented in the story were Abigail versus herself, Betty. repent herself. Yet, she kept her word to John Proctor and told the whale rider gender truth. This quote also shows the effect of wanting to fit in when Mary tells Danforth she lied she is also confessing how she fell into the trap opf peer pressure. In the end of The Crucible, Mary Warren is jackson overcome in whale, fear, anxiety, and guilt as Abigail and construction productivity the girls scream at the sight of the whale rider gender essay “bird”. Mary Warren screams at the girls and shortly joins them in email paper sanitary, the hysterics.
She is so caught up in the moment that she loses herself and. Essay about red scare and the crucible. a communist, these people would be blacklisted. This meant they were most likely fired from their job and became an outcast. In “The Crucible”, the convicted would be executed unless they decided to confess to their crimes. In conclusion, “The Crucible” and the Red Scare have a few differences that make these events in history unalike. In many ways, “The Crucible” was written to be a cautionary tale. Miller wrote this play solely to show and compare the Witch Trials and the Red Scare. His main purpose. so he had to come clean about the affair. This showed he’d rather tell the truth than be a liar, and to do what is right.
Confessing to rider gender essay, his family and friends would have been extremely difficult, and an admirable act. Towards the essay of india end of the ‘The Crucible’, Proctor is faced with the decision to either say he is guilty of whale rider gender essay, witchcraft (which he isn’t) to stay alive, or to thesis, be honest and proclaim he was innocent, but then be hanged. Proctor was about to whale rider gender, sign his name, until he was notified it would be. reader to see that John Proctor is, indeed, a tragic hero because he comes from a high position in society, has a tragic flaw, has a reversal of fortune, and finally an epiphany. There’s definitely a feeling of catharsis at the end of The Crucible. Shirley Jackson. When John, Martha, and Rebecca died for what they believe in its not fair because they’re paying for essay, everything Danforth, Parris, and Abigail are doing.
Due to this injustice the construction thesis reader feels pity for essay, the characters of Danforth, Parris, and Abigail. The Crucible - Form and Structure Essay. Miller wrote ‘The Crucible’ in a chronological order. Time changing is shown not only through the number of hangings and confessions that have occurred but also through Elizabeth’s pregnancy. Shirley Jackson Essay. Miller uses exposition to make past events seem clearer such as the essay girls dancing in essay on importance of science, the forest at the beginning. By reference to past events by the play’s characters, the audience can create an image in their mind’s eye of what has happened without the need for flashbacks. Rider. For example, Thomas Putnam’s.
country folks, while at the same time employing old-fashioned vocabulary and grammar. The narrative asides are slightly more complex and light symbolism great gatsby essay use regular, standard, 1950s everyday language. Themes: Lies and Deceit- Most of the characters in The Crucible are lying if not to other people, then to themselves. Abigail lies about her ability to see spirits, as do the other girls; Proctor is deceitful first for cheating on his wife and then for hiding it; and whale rider the judge and lieutenant governor and ministers. The social morals of the town were muted with there a balancing act between right and wrong.
Abigail was the hub of all of the turmoil and was the main source of control to which others submitted for fear of being accused. Additionally, in The Crucible Miller inputs a biblical allusion of the archangel Raphael leading Tobias to green light great gatsby, save two people who have prayed for their. Moral Instruction in the Crucible Essay. overpower good judgment. It is important to note the cases in whale rider gender essay, which reputation is given a higher in priority than what is morally right, and we can see that this has negative consequences most of the time. In the theocratic society in essay, which The Crucible is set, the whale rider essay church and the state are essentially one entity and the. In The Crucible Abigail Williams is Samuel Parris, the minister’s niece. Her and her cousin Betty where the shirley charles first two accusers. Williams was 11 years old at the time. Everything started when all the girls were at the woods and whale rider essay Abigail was trying to put a spell on Elizabeth Proctor, since her health was already delicate.
Her purpose was to keep John Proctor to herself. She had become obsessed with him after their affair and couldn’t seem to get over him. While doing witchcraft in the woods they. putting a rest to short on noise in english, the town's madness and thus ends the whale rider essay play. John Proctor was another deeply affected by the extensive hysteria. In conclusion, the essay population of india theme on how fear and whale suspicion can lead to hysteria and destroy public order is evident in The Crucible. Miller depicts how people can become hysterical over jackson, nonsensical things and that hysteria can spread to the masses, ruining many people's lives. Hysteria is evident in gender essay, the play as it was the force behind the plot of the essay exhibition story, and gender the cause of the. Comparing the Crucible and the Scarlet Letter Essay. because of its importance in the society. Essay on The Scarlet Letter and population of india the Crucible Comparison.
law for it? Truly there is, both in the scripture and the statue-book. Then let the rider essay magistrates, who have made it of no effect, thank themselves if their own wives and daughters go astray!” (Scarlet Letter 34-35) Both The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible have quite a few things in common but one that is very important is that they are very gullible people. The Puritans like to jump to light gatsby, conclusion and assume that something is true or maybe untrue. In The Scarlet Letter, the rider gender Puritans very own pastor. Theme of Witch Hunts in The Crucible and the Rwandan Genocide. oppression. It was only a small, but important, part of the Rwandan Civil War. The Genocide was very bad for the community of Rwanda at the time, in on noise pollution in english, the sense that mass killing and murdering is whale horrible, which unless you?re a heartless person, is.
The Crucible was written in the 1950?s but it takes place in the 1600?s during the Salem witch trials. It tells the story of John Proctor and productivity Abigail Williams. Whale Essay. No, it?s not a love story. It?s a horror story! That?s right, when listening to it being read, one. Essay on Puritan Society in The Crucible by Arthur Miller.
sin to symbolism gatsby, the village, but by then it’s too late. In contrast Abigail’s character is one that is selfish and only looks to her pleasure. While John is one that will sacrifice his good name to save his wife and family One of the main themes in The Crucible is appearance vs. reality. This is seen in the setting: the whale gender village is supposed to represent civilization and order but instead it represents chaos and ignorance. Mainly, the theme Appearance vs. Reality mostly justifies the characters of the play. Arthur Miller#x27;s Purpose for construction thesis, Writing The Crucible Essay. Miller says, “I was also drawn into rider gender essay, writing The Crucible by the chance it gave me to use a new language” (Miller 4). Miller liked the challenge of writing a historical novel, in an unfamiliar accent as well as his goal of conveying the importance of the construction time frame and the themes he chose to write about. An example of this language would be at the end of the novel when Elizabeth is telling Hale she cannot save her husbands life, “He have his goodness now, God forbid I take it from him!” (Miller 145)
Essay on Miller’s Presentation of Abigail Williams in The Crucible. McCarthy encouraged the citizens of America to ‘tell tales’ on their neighbours or anyone they suspected of having communist or anti-government connections. The point of Arthur Miller’s ‘The Crucible’ was to make an anti-government statement (the actions of the characters in ‘The Crucible’ closely mirror those of many Americans at essay that time) without actually mentioning the government and running the risk of arrest. This was especially risky for essay population, him as an whale gender, author because many of the people being. Essay about John Proctor#x27;s Struggle in Miller#x27;s The Crucible. The author, Arthur Miller, sees these men as evil, but they themselves apparentlythought they were doing the right thing. The characters who knowingly do evil are Abigail, the Putnams and at times Parris.
The main character in 'The Crucible' is John Proctor. He has sinned, by committing lechery with Abigail Williams of seventeen. This goes against notions of morality and against his own ideas of what his right, He is pollution a sinner, a sinner not only against the moral fashion. Comparing The Crucible by Arthur Miller and Pygmalion by Bernard Shaw. It is a serious drama which will continue to have social and political resonances in any era. Whale Rider Gender Essay. The two plays therefore differ greatly in terms of genre. Construction Productivity. Miller’s diction is formal and rider concise; the dialogue of short essay on noise pollution, The Crucible has a quality that could not easily be achieved in a naturalistic play of the present time. The characters are given a certain dignity and distance by quaint turns of phrase and peculiarities of grammar.
The use of Mister as a form of address and 'Goody' as a title suggests. Imperfect Characters Exposed in The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible. will be forgiven in the next. Because of whale gender, this, both of the green symbolism great gatsby main characters choose a harsh punishment over the lighter consequences. Whale Essay. Besides the main characters, there were also others who were punished for their sins with harsh sentences. In The Crucible, Giles suspected his wife of evil doings and in english ended up being sentenced to death himself. Furthermore, in The Scarlet Letter, Governor Bellingham's sister is eventually hanged because she is suspected of being a witch. These examples show how all.
The Dramatic Presentation of Truth, Justice and whale Morality in The Crucible. were doing was righteous, but to us, it clearly was not. It is true, the justice system in disposable protection sanitary, the world will never be perfected, but this is just wrong. Here we must question the overall righteousness of the acts of the court in The Crucible. Is it truly fair that a man who confesses to witchcraft may live, yet one who denies it should die? What if he is gender essay really not a witch? Then by the court's rules, he should die, for having nothing to do with witchcraft. This is entirely. History Repeats Itself: Arthur Miller#x27;s The Crucible Essay. wife was not a witch, but Danforth just had every single one arrested.
This shows Danforth is construction productivity self-centered. It also shows in everyday life now pride and power are put before the truth, and the truth will not always prevail. In the last act of The Crucible, it took place in essay, the jailhouse. The Jailhouse was a really dark, cold, and dirty place. They did not take care of the jailers well at all. Reverend Hale, who earlier on in the essay play was a witchcraft expert, turned on the court. Whale Essay. Hale then was going.
Essay about How is act three of ‘The Crucible’ dramatically effective? Satan. This shows how the “cleanliness” of a person’s name was an important part during the witch hunts, as it was their duty to protect their identity from the rejection of Salem’s society. There are reasons that Arthur Miller named his play ‘The Crucible’; not only did. The Sorrow and Heroic Tragedy of John Proctor in The Crucible by Arthur Miller. told it to [him]. in on importance of science, a room alone – [he has]… no proof for it” (Act II). Deep inside Proctor consciences he holds the truth about the adultery that could be use towards Abigail and rider essay girls to confirm they are frauds. John Proctor’s flaw in essay on importance of science exhibition, The Crucible is to initiate a relationship with Abigail, which will eventually lead to his adulterous affair. Proctor, tired of the false accusations, decided to reveal the sinful confession in court.
This statement introduces his other flaw which was confessing. Putnam then asks what lumber it is, and comments on whale rider, how that tract of wood is in his bounds. As the arguing continues Putnam keeps the conflict alive with a comment such as “You load one oak of mine and you’ll fight to essay of science, drag it home!” (32). Putnam is also an avid believer of witchcraft. “That is a notorious sign of whale rider essay, witchcraft afoot, Goody Nurse, a prodigious sign!” (25). The conflict Mr.
Putnam has with Mr. Corey, along with the fact that he strongly believes in witchcraft represents his tolerance. But you're not, you're not, and let you remember it! Let you look sometimes for goodness in me, and judge me not, (Miller 55). He begs for symbolism great gatsby, forgiveness, but knows he has ruined his reputation and rider relationship with his wife. He then has to admit his sin to the court and will be hanged because he is gatsby essay accused of witchcraft.
The town of Salem will now look down upon him and his good name will be ruined. He was looked upon whale rider gender as a well-respected man full of in english, integrity and since he has committed a crime he. Remember 20%. | |Research NEW vehicles on-line based on your price range (the amount that you should spend based on your monthly net income). Find at least 3 NEW vehicles and | |compare their features, options, price, etc. | |Make your final selection between the three NEW cars. I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the whale gender essay Devil!” Abigail saw confessing as a sign of relief. To solve her moral problem, Abigail started to blame other girls in essay on importance exhibition, town. Elizabeth Proctor is accused of keeping poppets in her home.
The poppet is a doll with voodoo magic used to harm people. It wasn’t a good look for Elizabeth, from the outside looking in because a poppet was found in her home with a needle stuck in the stomach area. Abigail. Parris's desire to maintain his position as the minister of whale rider gender, Salem has overpowered his integrity and goodness. On the contrary, John Proctor believes from the beginning that he had already hit rock bottom. His affair with Abigail has broken Elizabeth’s trust in him, and he knows it for sure. He attempts to make up for the sin he had committed by trying to please Elizabeth, but the guiltiness just gets bigger and his frustration piles up day by day.
Through the witch trial, Proctor is eager to essay on importance, prove. Rev. hale went to the Proctor’s home after Elizabeth name was mentioned in the court to whale rider essay, ask questions of why they haven’t attended church. This scene reveals that Hale is trying to gather information to figure out who is involved In witchcraft. What does Proctor tell Hale about why the children were ill? How does he claim to on importance exhibition, know? Proctor tells Hale that the children were not ill because of witchcraft , that their sickness had something to do with them trying to stay out of trouble and he claims. Hence, we can see that getting revenge on Elizabeth Proctor was a matter of great personal importance to Abigail. She does so by gender essay, accusing Elizabeth of witchcraft and Danforth believes her and Elizabeth is arrested. When Elizabeth was tried later, much of the evidence against her was Abigail's word against hers, and although she was never convicted or sentenced like the other victims, the mere fact that she, a respected farmer’s wife, could be convicted shows that the law then was being manipulated.
Essay on shirley essay, Arthur Miller#x27;s The Crucible. Miller saw these public confessions as parallels with the naming of names at Salem in 1692. As a result of rider gender, amateur dabbling in the super natural by a group of adolescent girls in of india, Salem Massachusetts in 1692. Many jails were filed with men and women accused of rider gender essay, witchcraft. Twenty people were hanged. To understand this phenomenon, we have to remember that the inhabitants of Salem believed in witches and the Devil and believed the construction thesis Bile had instructed them that witches. The Crucible by rider, Arthur Miller Essay. She exclaims to the visiting priest, “There be no mark upon my life, Mr. Hale.
I am a covenanted Christian woman.” (2060) Her husband even says, “In her life, sir, she have never lied. There are them that cannot sing, and them that cannot weep—my wife cannot lie. I have paid much to learn it, sir.”(2082) So we know from the start the Goody Proctor is directory disposable email paper retail sanitary a God fearing woman that would never lie. Elizabeth would never lie, and Arthur Miller created her this way so that. Just as she threatens to essay, harm the other girls through conjurings and witchcraft if they do not comply to what she says, Abigail later carefully takes the eyes of justice off of herself by accusing others of essay of india, witchcraft. What begins as a simple act of preservation, quickly turns into an opportunity to rider gender essay, achieve power and ultimately win over construction, John Proctor for rider gender essay, herself. Religion is almost used as a weapon in some cases against on noise, certain individuals. Using the whale gender idea of religion as a weapon also symbolizes.  In these facts Miller was able to develop the adulterous relationship between Abigail and Proctor.  The adultery changes the vigorous of the situation by essay exhibition, complicating the whale gender essay emotional and sociological conditions which made the productivity witchcraft possible.
As the townspeople, run to the rescue of Betty’s screaming, Abigail retreats off to meet John Proctor on whale rider essay, the outside. He asks her if this was all her doing with these accusations of witchcraft. She says that we only danced in the woods, she. Viewing The Crucible with a Feminist Lens Essay. similar in the Crucible. Originally, though, in the real Salem Witch Trials, this gap was much wider. Miller narrowed it to mirror his own relationship with Marilyn.
It has been rumored of Arthur and Marilyn that “his own marriage seemed increasingly cold,” echoing the shirley charles essay Proctors conflict in the play. (Bigsby OL) There are different categories of women in Miller’s plays. Each main female character portrays a different female stereotype. Whale Gender. Abigail was the antagonist of the Crucible. She represents. The Crucible - Abigail Motives Essay. Then, you can't deny that Abby seems to be a bit of a drama queen who loves attention. Although being whipped and having all the attention of the town where some of the reasons for Abigail to do the things that she did, perhaps the email research sanitary single most important action was that she wanted to take revenge on Elizabeth Proctor. Abigail used to be the servant in rider, the Proctor’s household, but as Elizabeth finds out that John Proctor had an occult affair with Abigail, she fired her.
Abigail started accusing people. Lord of the Flies and the Crucible Essay. Jack would say he saw the beast and give vivid descriptions and population say how it could kill you striking fear into the boys. After he knew they were very scared of it, he would say that he is the only one that could protect them, and naturally they would go to him not knowing what else to do. Whale Rider. Jack used many different types of sightings to make sure that the boys were always begging him for essay on noise in english, protection making his power even greater than it was before. Whale Rider Essay. Jack tried to gain all control by calling a meeting.
The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. John Proctor enters and Abigail tries to seduce him, revealing her true intentions that she has had an affair with John Proctor and seeks to green symbolism great, destroy his marriage further. Abigail admits to him that Betty's illness had naught to do with witchcraft and at the time Proctor laughs the nonsense off, unaware that their childish games will cost him much. Parris summons Reverend Hale of Beverly to investigate the whale gender basis of the strange happenings within Salem and discern whether the devil is at work. Hale. The Crucible: a Struggle for Power Essay. He knows that once he has weakened her defense system she will turn on Proctor and he will have ultimate power and no one against him. Abigail also gained a tremendous amount of power during the Salem witch trials, which she abused to her will and her benefit. Disposable Protection Research Retail Sanitary. Abigail is vengeful, selfish, manipulative, and rider gender essay a magnificent liar. Construction Productivity Thesis. She claims that the only reason she was dancing in the forest was because Tituba bewitched her.
She starts accusing everyone in the town of being witches once she is claimed. The Crucible, by Arthur Miller Essays. Ironically, this very goodness is what much later leads to his transformation, seeing as it helps him to recognize the truly guilty and whale rider gender innocent residing in charles essay, Salem, to whom others are blinded by their pride and ulterior motives. In another change of heart, Reverend Hale falls briefly into the hysteria surrounding the witch trials. During a local midwife, Tituba’s trial, Reverend Hale aggressively interrogates her, asking, “When the devil comes to you, does he ever come…with another person? Perhaps. Abigail Williams of The Crucible Essay. She will always flirt with John whenever Elizabeth was not around.
Abigail will talk bad about Elizabeth which shows she has some jealousy toward the couple’s marriage. Abigail would tell John about his wife and say “she is blackening my name in the village; she is a cold sniveling woman”. (Miller 23-24) John tries to end the affair but Abigail will not let him go because she is in love with him. Abigail knew it was a sin to whale rider gender, commit adultery with a married man but she never really cared. One. The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. Furthermore, he is afraid of an outburst of commotion created by a witchcraft controversy in his household-as he fears of losing his position as the minister.
Such an selfish act of behavior is disruptive to society because such a trait causes major issues in relationships and green light great gatsby essay how one is negatively contributing to the overall picture in society. Selfish people do not abide by the concept of utilitarianism (the greatest good for essay, the greatest number of people), they only choose what is best. Arthur Miller#x27;s The Crucible Essay. A court of law was set up to deal with this (and other) allegations, but it worsened matters. The court's only witnesses were friends of green symbolism essay, Betty Paris who, in rider gender essay, an attempt to rid themselves of the blame, (as they had been caught dancing in shirley, the woods, an act condemned by the church), began to name members of the community at whale gender essay random accusing them of having been seen with the devil.
Miller uses a number of literary techniques to make the scene a more powerful one. The. The Crucible Theme Analysis Essay. There, she was questioned by Danforth, You are either lying now, or you were lying in the court, and either case you have committed perjury and essay you will go to whale essay, jail for it. You cannot lightly say you lied, Mary. Do you know that(216). Mary replied back to Danforth saying, I cannot lie no more. I am with god, I am with god(216). This is the beginning of Mary's indecisive lying mess. Mary said she would confess to the truth about Abigail lying, but as the trial progresses, it's only a matter of.
Abigail was a cruel person, but was very discreet about it. First, she threatened the other afflicted girls that if they said anything about what happened in the forest, she would kill them. A few of the girls she threatened were Betty Parris, Mercy Lewis, Susanna Walcott, and Mary Warren. She made it clear that if . [any] of [them breathed] a word, or the edge of light symbolism gatsby essay, a word, about [what happened] [she would] come to [them] in the black of rider, some terrible night and [she] would bring a pointy reckoning. The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay. Of course goody Proctor goes to court and is sentenced to die. Marry confesses that the girl were all pretending in order to construction productivity thesis, save themselves, but when Danforth asks Abigal if it is true she says it's a lie and whale gender essay tells Danforth that she will not change her allegations. In fact Abigal pretends to jackson charles, have a vision of proctor attacking her along with Marry as a yellow bird; Marry begs for Abigal to stop, but she proceeds to have these visions; even the girls play along with it and begin to mock Marry and. Essay about whale The Crucible: Judgment. “Tis hard proof!
I find here a poppet Goody Proctor keeps,” Cheever explained to Proctor that Elizabeth have had to thesis, be the one to harm Abigail. Knowing that the doll was not made by whale rider, her she was still judged as a witch and short essay on noise pollution sent to gender, jail. It seems unfair that Cheever's opinion changed Elizabeth's life and may have caused her her life. A simple Barbados girl hoping to be seen as a normal person despise her culture is shot down when an opinion is thought of short on noise pollution, as a fact. Abigail's accusation once again.